Portable charging is an everyday term, implying a device capable of renewing battery stocks of small household devices: cell phones, iPads, laptops. The key parameter is not even the capacitance, but the supply current. If it fits in with customer requests, co-operation with portable charging is possible.
Varieties of portable devices for the accumulation of electrical energy
Today, the development of technology allows you to stock a significant amount of electrical energy. These devices are called portable charging as opposed to adapters, which are supposed to be connected to an industrial network of 220 V, 50 Hz for energy conversion. Plus portable batteries in versatility. Let's say we take an iPad and a simple cell phone. Take expensive voluminous battery for devices costly.
The volume of a lithium-ion battery for a cell phone is 520 mAh, the Acer laptop is 5200. It seems the numbers differ by an order of magnitude, but portable charging for $ 10 can accumulate 8800 or more. This means that the device is suitable. Moreover, an ordinary cell phone can work from a portable power source. .. a whole month. This is just an amazing opportunity for tourists along with Chinese radios with a built-in dynamo. For convenience, portable charging comes with a number of identification icons and control buttons:
- USB ports are used as universal power distribution devices. Any mobile gadget adapter carries a standard output on the case. This allows you to change mobile phones, but not the charger: you only need to purchase a new cord( included) and use the equipment as before.
- Devices often differ in current consumption, because portable charging is equipped with a number of outputs. Each is designed for a particular gadget, and parallel use is not excluded. Suppose people use a cellular phone, they take a smartphone or an iPad on the road for convenient work with the Internet. Convenient to buy a single portable charging for all occasions.
- The power button allows you to block an accidental shorting of the outputs, reducing the risk of emergency situations. Portable charging produces voltage only when the user presses. LED indication helps orient in the dark. A portable power source is often required where there is no other lighting: at night in a tent, in public transport.
- Input( in) and outputs( out) are necessarily signed. Along the way, the values of the currents are returned. Manufacturers proceed from standards, providing 1 and 2 A, by default. The first is suitable for cell phones, the second for the iPad.
- The charge indication system serves to visually display the process of filling the battery with energies. This is a series of flashing arrows, the longer the process, the greater the number of segments involved in the illumination. At the end of charging, the lights go out or remain lit.
To solve with a certain degree of confidence the question of the suitability of a power source, it is necessary to find out the technical characteristics of the equipment. Speech on the maximum current consumption. If the value is not satisfied, a hardware failure will follow. The maximum current consumption is far from always indicated in the product passport, it is permissible to calculate the average. We will purchase a 520 mAh battery, and a cell phone works from it for 2 days. Missing parameter in the passport is possible to calculate.
The above figure says that the battery gives a current of 520 mA for an hour. The default voltage is around 5 V, this is the standard for the new generation of mobile devices. If the cell phone worked for two days, it means it consumes 48 times( number of hours): 11.8( 3) mA.It is clear that the device will work from any nest. Now look at the laptop.
With a battery capacity of 5200 mAh, the device works 3 - 3.5 hours. This is not enough - the greater the desire to purchase portable charging. When in doubt, on which output to connect, look at the larger - where is 2 A. And now specific numbers. When working for 3.5 hours, the laptop shows an average consumption of 5200 / 3.5 = 1.455 A. At the same time, it is taken into account that the peak performance of the processor or video card is also capable of being characterized by large numbers. By the way, the box often shows schematically the ratio of the amount of battery charging to a similar parameter of cell phones. To the owner understood about the duration of his device.
If the current is not enough, the laptop will turn off, the operating system will crash, the image will be broken. The laptop is connected to the output 2 A, given the technical capabilities. This means that any gadget is charged from the built-in USB-port, but the laptop battery is filled through the built-in power supply. Therefore, it is necessary to modify the design.
portable charging is arranged The heart of the power source is a lithium-ion, lithium-polymer, or other type of battery. Inside there is only a display system and a sensor( for example, Hall) to control the process of displaying the level of charge. Depending on the intelligence of the algorithm, the methods differ. Possible generation of current pulses of small amplitude, the integration of information. Built-in chip on the board is able to control:
- Overload on input or output, including voltage. In the latter case, the charging process will be immediately terminated. The chip in some cases controls the polarity, although there is little likelihood that the USB plug will be inserted in the wrong direction.
- The occurrence of a short circuit in the consumer. In the event of a contingency, work is immediately terminated.
- The charge level control is able to reach amazing heights. The chip does not allow to leave free space: the battery is filled to the top.
- Element Overheat Warning. The topic about the bulbs says that it is more profitable to use high voltage. However, it is necessary to use these power sources. Most chipsets( chipsets) work with low voltages. For example, for KMPO it is 5 V. Although early versions of microcircuits sometimes demanded otherwise. Any electronics is based on a specific kind of logic. Schottky transistor barrier, emitter-connected and so on.
battery We add that the thermal effect in the conductors depends on the current, but not on the voltage. Therefore, modern processors are very hot. With a small supply voltage, they consume amazing current. But they cannot go to a higher threshold, they are implemented circuitry on the above-mentioned types of logic. This point must be clearly understood. But low voltage is harmless to humans, epilators, razors show electrical safety class III.
The devices allow you to safely use them in the shower, ideally using portable charging. In most cases, household appliances use 9 or 12 V. This is a purely technical matter that is easy to get around.
The history of the creation of portable charging
The story should start with Alessandro Volta, who divided the plates of zinc and copper soaked in cardboard with rapids( fabric can be used).It turned out to be a steep salt solution, not an acid — as indicated in separate sources. As mentioned in the topic about Direct Current - Galvani discovered electricity of chemical origin, revealing a frog. The hooks were made of different metals, and the muscles of the dead amphibian for some unknown reason twitched.
Galvani explained this by the presence of "animal" electricity and remained far from the truth. Volta repeated experiments and substantiated the essence of the phenomenon by the presence of a current, which is closed between metals through an electrolyte. As such, chose one of the physiological fluids - salt water. Later on, the acid became electrolyte. Volta 9 years went to the invention of the first battery. And on March 20, 1800, he sent manuscripts to the president of the Royal Society of London.
Leiden banks are considered the first batteries. Invented in 1745, they became the object of scrutiny by scientists. After the abolition of persecution for witchcraft, people became interested in mysterious phenomena. The term "battery" was introduced by Benjamin Franklin, due to the similarity of a number of cans with the position of artillery.
The zinc in the voltaic column was severely corroded, which the inventor considered a defect to be eliminated with time. Volta adhered to outdated contact theory today, and did not suspect that chemical reactions were at the core. Over time, it was found that corrosion increases with the consumption of more current. What directly pointed to the electrochemical origin of the phenomenon. The voltaic pillar opened up the green light to further investigation of electricity, revealing a number of flaws:
- The plates were initially stacked, the electrolyte ran down the sides, causing short circuits. Difficulty quickly eliminated by placing the items vertically in a box.
- The chemical reaction took place with the formation of hydrogen, and zinc was quickly covered with a layer of products. William Sturgeon( inventor of an electromagnet) in 1835 proposed to cover the plate with a thin layer of amalgam, which blocked the negative effects. Difficulties with hydrogen were solved by John Frederick Daniel, having introduced two electrolytes, one of which absorbed ions. The solutions are separated from each other by a ceramic barrier.
Until the 1870s, batteries were used as part of industrial equipment and telegraphs. Then there were prerequisites for introducing them into everyday life in its original form - only for wealthy people. Others themselves acted as inventors( especially household appliances), which required the availability of energy reserves for experiments. Especially in the invention was interested Edison, who could not transmit a direct current over long distances. Alternators were not originally used in tandem with batteries.
In portable charging, technology is used that originated at the dawn of the 20th century and allowed electrochemically to introduce the atoms of a substance into the crystal lattice of another. In lithium-ion batteries, the ion travels from the positive electrode to the negative one when charging and back in the process of switching on the load. Initially, these devices appeared through the fault of Sony in the 90s of the XX century and were called a rocking chair. This was a prerequisite for the creation of mobile devices.
In polymer batteries, a specific solid( or condensed) electrolyte is used, which gave the name to the device. It is clear that in the event of a breakdown such a technical solution eliminates a number of troubles. In lithium-ion batteries, the electrolyte is liquid.