- №1.Thermal insulation of an apartment building: outside or inside?
- №2.Is permission required for insulation?
- # 3.Who pays for the insulation of an apartment building?
- №4.What is wrong with the point insulation of an apartment building?
- №5.Technologies of facade insulation of apartment building
- №6.The choice of material for warming apartment building
- №7.What needs to be considered before carrying out
facade thermal insulation Modern apartment buildings are being built in accordance with thermal requirements. Residents of houses built in the Soviet Union were less fortunate - their walls are not insulated. Tens of years ago, when resources seemed limitless, and their price for the population was a penny, no one thought about saving and everyone heated the street together. In conditions when about 50% of heat losses occur on walls, and heat is not so cheap, the insulation of an apartment building is not a whim, but a necessity. Thermal insulation is especially necessary in panel houses, where in winter the temperature can drop to 14-150С and lower. Insulation will help to significantly save on heating, if an autonomous system is used, or to raise winter temperatures in an apartment by 2-40С, if the heating is centralized. Now it is important to find out what technologies are used in the insulation of facades of apartment buildings, and what materials are best to use.
№1.Thermal insulation of an apartment building: outside or inside?
The walls of the house can be insulated with from the inside and outside of the .We all know that outdoor insulation is used more often, because it is considered more efficient. However, in some cases only internal insulation is applicable, and, by the way, it also has its advantages.
interior insulation can solve the problem of energy saving, but the process must be approached very carefully. Error in the calculations or installation - and the dew point is shifted into the house, which will provoke wetting of the facade wall and insulation. The consequences of this process are dampness and mold in the apartment, a reduction in the durability of the exterior walls of the house and, naturally, a decrease in the insulating qualities of the insulation. Among other minuses of internal warming are:
- reduction of the useful area of the room;
- the need to build a powerful ventilation system;
- the complexity of the work to avoid moisture condensation;
- will not be able to live in the room during the insulation work;
- , even with the correct behavior of all the works, it will not be possible to avoid freezing of the wall of the house, because it will not warm up from internal heat;
- faster wall cooling.
The internal insulation of an apartment in an apartment building has its advantages: :
- - faster wall heating;
- the ability to perform all the work yourself, as it does not require the involvement of teams with industrial climbers. On the other hand, in order to competently perform all the work, a high level of qualification is required;
- internal insulation can be performed along with repair work;
- interior insulation is the only way to make an apartment warmer if it is located in a house that has historical value and it is forbidden for residents to change the appearance of the facade.
The external insulation of the facade of an apartment building has many more advantages:
- lasts longer inside the house, relatively stable temperature is maintained indoors in summer and in winter;
- apartment area does not decrease;
- during the work on insulation can not leave the apartment;
- layer of insulation and decorative finishes protect the walls of the house, extending their service life.
Among minuses :
- the inability to conduct external insulation on their own. True, some tenants of the first floors undertake such work, but at the same time one must be well confident in their own qualifications;
- point external insulation is more harm than good, which we will discuss below.
External insulation can change the appearance of the facade of the house, and this can be both a plus and a minus. If the whole house is immediately insulated, then from a typical gray Soviet high-rise building at the exit you can get a pretty modern house with a stylish facade. This is a significant plus. But if the tenants have not reached a common opinion on the issues of warming, then warming is carried out fragmentary, with rags, and then the appearance of such a house leaves much to be desired.
№2.Is permission required for insulation?
In Russia there is no unified document on the conduct of insulation of facades of apartment buildings, in different cities and regions there are slightly different rules. In some parts of the country there are government programs for weatherization of high-rise buildings, and all work is carried out at the expense of budget funds. If your home is not among the lucky ones, then before performing the insulation will have to contact the utilities.
The external walls of the house are common property of the , even if the apartment is in private ownership. Since the facade insulation will change the appearance of the house, coordination with utilities and local architects will be required. As a rule, no problems. It is enough to just go to the appropriate management authority and write a petition, and the chances of getting a positive answer increase if the petition is written at the same time by several residents who want to insulate their apartments. In addition, the joint integral insulation of the facade is many times more efficient and better than the “patchwork” technology of thermal insulation.
You can refuse to ask you if the house has historical value. In Moscow, it is almost impossible to obtain permission for the insulation of only one apartment - work can be carried out only if the whole house is warming at once. In some regions, the insulation will be possible if all the tenants do not mind.
In Ukraine, the exterior walls of the house are also jointly owned by the residents, and, in theory, all decisions regarding changes in their appearance should be made at appropriate meetings. In practice, no one does this; everyone is insulated without asking permission from neighbors. Such initiative can end with a court or a meeting of owners who collectively decide to dismantle insulation, and this decision will be completely legitimate. In fact, there are practically no precedents.
№3.Who pays for the insulation of an apartment building?
If you decided to carry out warming only the outer walls of your apartment and did not ask anyone, then you will pay for everything yourself. There is a more attractive option, but it requires the active participation of all residents of the house. If you prove that the house needs warming, and without it is not suitable for normal living, you can get funds for warming from the budget of the government or the management company. In addition, in some regions there are programs of the program for the gradual comprehensive weatherization of apartment buildings.
Residents of Ukraine can also significantly save on the insulation of the house. There are government programs aimed at improving the thermal efficiency of residential buildings. They apply only to homes that are insulated completely, and not stained. Of course, the coordination of all the necessary details will take time and patience, but comprehensive insulation will give much better results, and all the work will be much cheaper than with the individual “patchwork” insulation. State programs provide for reimbursement of up to 50% of the cost of work on weatherization. The banks have preferential loans for apartment insulation: the state repays from 30-40 to 70% of the loan.
№4.What is wrong with the point insulation of an apartment building?
A drive to a number of post-Soviet cities, as we will see the same picture that is not pleasing to the eye - the walls of high-rise buildings are completely covered with spots of different colors. This tenants are trying to make their apartment more comfortable. Of course, this sight doesn’t cause disgust, irritation, or any other negative reactions, but the main problem is not even the appearance, but the quality of such insulation, its durability and the preservation of the walls of the house.
The boundaries of the insulation of a separate apartment are just on the floor slabs. In these places, , the dew point drastically shifts from the insulation inside the wall, which leads to condensation and the risk of mold, and the fungus can appear in the insulated apartment( at the junction of the wall with the ceiling and floor) and in neighboring apartments. The temperature difference of the front wall in the neighboring areas also does not benefit the house. As a result, we can talk not only about the problem of high humidity, but also the gradual destruction of the main wall.
Another problem is the permanent wetting of the upper end of the thermal insulation .Although they try to close it in every possible way from precipitation, the constant impact of moisture and the accumulation of snow gradually destroys the heat insulation glue and opens access to water. It is difficult to create a continuous contour of thermal insulation, therefore, the complete tightness of the insulation section is practically impossible. On the aesthetic problem of point warming will not mention more.
Ideally, it is necessary to negotiate and insulate the facade of the house completely, from the basement to the attic, the more it will be cheaper than individual insulation, even if you do not use any programs and benefits.
№5.Technologies for thermal insulation of the facade of an apartment building
There are two fundamentally different ways of insulating the facade of a high-rise building:
- wet facade involves attaching insulation material directly to the outer walls of the house. An insulation grid is installed on the insulation, then a layer of plaster and paint is applied. Works are performed only in warm, dry weather, it will take at least a week to insulate the whole house, its service life is 20-30 years, but small repairs may be needed every 5-7 years;
- ventilated facade is more expensive, but also more reliable and durable technology. The principle is the installation of a metal frame on the wall, a heater is laid in it, and then the exterior is fixed, but there is a gap between it and the heat-insulating layer. This avoids the accumulation of moisture and the formation of mold, while the insulation is protected from the negative effects of the external environment. The exterior design can be quite diverse in contrast to the wet facade, where only plaster and its subsequent painting are used. The facade can be made of vinyl siding, aluminum panels and other materials. Warming is mounted on this technology faster, serves up to 50 years.
№6.The choice of material for warming an
apartment building Today, foam plastic and mineral wool are often used to insulate apartment buildings, but there are many more options and each of them will be most preferable in specific cases. So, can be selected from the following options:
- foam plastic is the most popular option for outdoor insulation. Among the main advantages, is low price, good thermal insulation qualities, low weight, moisture resistance, the ability to use inside and outside. Cons : instability to fire and rodents. The cheapness of insulation has led to the fact that it is used today everywhere, even when its insulating qualities will not be enough. On the other hand, if the walls have acceptable thermal insulation, then foam will work. For brick houses in regions with a temperate climate, a layer of insulation of 10 cm will be sufficient( it is better, of course, to carry out the calculation taking into account the required resistance to heat transfer).Unscrupulous performers often mount the foam with a layer of 5 cm, assuring that this will be enough, but in most cases the effectiveness of such insulation will not meet expectations;
- foam polystyrene can be called an improved analogue of conventional foam. It is also inexpensive, but its thermal insulation qualities are much better. It is not afraid of moisture, it weighs little, but it burns, therefore, during its installation, it is necessary to arrange fire bridges of mineral wool. Better to take a plate with a stepped edge - when docking it will be possible to avoid cracks. Material is suitable for external and internal warming, for the wet and ventilated facades;
- mineral wool has excellent heat and sound insulation qualities, does not burn, rodents do not live in it, the material breathes, but is afraid of moisture and has a higher weight than foamed polystyrene, therefore there should be more fastenings. Suitable only for outdoor insulation, but is used infrequently because of the price;
- foam glass is one of the most expensive options for facade insulation, but also one of the most durable. The material does not burn, is not afraid of water, it does not start rodents and mold, it is durable and has excellent thermal insulation properties;
- foamed polyurethane foam is applied outside or inside, allows you to create a monolithic layer of insulation and avoid the appearance of cold bridges. The material is not afraid of mold, quickly applied, but always requires the involvement of specialists with appropriate equipment. After applying and drying the insulation, it is better to do the exterior finish of the facade as quickly as possible, since the material is afraid of the sun's rays;
- warm plaster can also be applied outside and inside, but it can not always provide high-quality thermal insulation - a calculation is necessary taking into account the peculiarities of the region and the house. Installation of such insulation is relatively simple, is carried out using monolithic technology and is inexpensive. Among the minuses are a lot of weight, high water absorption and the need for waterproofing, as well as the inability to apply a layer of more than 5 cm, which is not always enough for high-quality insulation, so the material is very rarely used for thermal insulation of apartment buildings, and in private construction is used more often.
If we are talking about the complex weatherization of a house, then buildings with a height of more than 26.5 m are recommended to be insulated exclusively with mineral wool. For buildings below suitable and polystyrene foam. All this in order to achieve fire safety.
№7.What should be considered before carrying out
facade insulation Main errors during insulation of the facade of an apartment building:
- point insulation;
- selection of substandard materials;
- appeal to non-professional performers.
We have already figured out with point warming, but even this is not the worst. Much worse if the work was carried out using poor quality insulation and other related materials. Cheap insulation of Chinese or it is not clear what kind of production is not enough that may not correspond to the declared insulating qualities, so also be toxic and extremely flammable. What can be obtained if poor quality insulation will be installed by a non-professional? However, unskilled workers are able to ruin even the highest quality insulation, and all this from ignorance of the subtleties of installation and the sequence of work. The result - the insulation will fall off from the rain or more or less strong wind. A lot of cases.
If the wrong materials or the wrong specialists are selected( or both), then there will be no noticeable results from the insulation, and new problems will appear in the form of mold and increased fire hazard.
Use material from well-known manufacturers and use services from proven companies that can provide proof of worker qualifications. It would be nice to read reviews about the artist, see examples of works. All this information on different cities is widely represented on the Internet.
It is worthwhile to pay only a little attention to the study of various technologies and heaters, the choice of a reliable executor, in order to enjoy comfort in the apartment and savings on utilities for years. If we include all our communication and organizational skills, then we can carry out the insulation of the whole house and our apartment in particular very cheaply. Since it is sometimes impossible to come to an agreement with the neighbors, and spot insulation cannot be avoided, then at least try to find as much as possible a qualified and responsible team of performers and ask what materials they use.