How to choose and how to replace the level( level)

In construction and surveying, measurements are taken that require high accuracy. For this purpose, various levels are used, in the people they are called levels. Depending on the work carried out, select the appropriate type of measuring device: laser, optical or other.

• 1 What is a level
• 2 Types of levels
• 2.1 Level with a sweep angle of 360 degrees on video
• 3 How to choose a device: the main parameters
• 4 Rating by manufacturing companies: which ones are the best?
• 5 how to choose: reviews bought a device for building and repair
• 5.1 oasdBuilding a vertical plane
• 6.3 The simplest laser level with your own hands
• 6.3.1 Homemade level from a laser pointer: video

What is a level

Level is atboron, determining the difference in height of several points located on the same surface, relative to a certain level. These points are on the same line of sight, called the line of sight. The point of leveling is to determine whether points are located at the same height. And if necessary, align this parameter.

Types of levels

There are several ways of leveling:

• geometric. Produced by leveling and slats. In the right points of the surface are installed slats. Level is the beam. The height of the line of sight above the surface at a given point is determined at the point of its intersection with the rail. The height values ​​at all points are compared and the difference is obtained. The disadvantage of this leveling is that the height measurement is limited by the length of the slats. Therefore, it cannot be used on terrain with high hills. Used in construction and surveying;
• trigonometric. The difference between the heights of the selected points is determined in several stages. Measure the distance between visible points. Then, using a theodolite, determine the angle of inclination of the sighting axis from one point to another. Using a special formula, calculate the excess points. This leveling method is used in geology, geography and topography;
• trigonometric leveling barometric. Barometers are used here. Measure the pressure at different points. On it determine the height and calculate the difference. Application is similar to trigonometric;
• hydrostatic. Based on the use of a hydro level. The simplest example is a hose filled with fluid, with the edges elevated. The accuracy of the method is affected by the absence of bubbles in the liquid. If they exist, the uniform filling of the vessel is disturbed, and an error occurs when measuring the level. This method is used in construction and in the installation of professional and household appliances, for example, a washing machine;
• radar. Echo sounders and radio altimeters are installed on aircraft and ships. Signal to the desired point. Knowing the speed of the signal and the time it travels there and back, the distance is automatically calculated. And the device draws a surface relief. Used in geography and geodesy;
• satellite. Conducted using GPS measurements. This method is more economical and more productive than geometric leveling. Used in surveying;
• construction of planes. A zenith is used here - a device or a laser level:
• in the construction of high buildings zenith - a device makes special measurements to determine the position of the walls. In all overlappings parallelism of the planes should be observed. For this measurement is carried out at different angles of rotation: 0 and 180 degrees, 90 and 270 degrees;
• laser level is similar in its action to geometric leveling, but without the use of slats. It is very simple to use, does not require the presence of a second person. Used for construction and repair. Some models allow you to build inclined planes.

Levels differ in design:

• optical. Consists of a telescope placed on a tripod. The pipe can rotate in a horizontal plane. Used in the construction of roads and buildings, archeology, landscape design and geodesy;
• digital. This is the same optical level, but with electronic memory and a processor that processes the measurements;
• laser. This level builds horizontal, vertical and inclined planes, measures angles of 45 and 90 degrees. It consists of a body, a device for creating a laser and prisms. Used in construction and installation work.

Classification of laser levels:

• positional. Build lines at an angle of 120, 160, 180 degrees. In some models, the rays connect and form a 360 degree angle. The range of rays up to 50 meters, therefore, are used for the repair of premises;
• . Emit a rotating point, which is converted to a line. Beam range up to 100 meters, which allows them to be used outdoors.

Level with a 360 degree sweep angle on video

Types of positional levels:

• point. Builds multiple points;
• linear. Builds vertical and horizontal lines;
• combined. Creates points and lines.

Split level on accuracy:

• high-precision. The average error per 1 km of double stroke is 0.5 mm;
• accurate. The average error per 1 km of double stroke - 3 mm;
• technical. The average error per 1 km of double stroke is 10 mm.

Types of levels by the method of installation of the line of sight:

• level. The line of sight is set independently along a cylindrical level fixed in the pipe. Used in industry and construction;
• with a compensator. The line of sight is set automatically using a compensator that replaces the cylindrical level. Very convenient to work on unstable soils. Widely used in geodesy.

How to choose a device:

basic parameters When purchasing, pay attention to the following device parameters:

• maximum range;
• number of rays and wavelength. The more rays, the greater the range of possibilities. The optimal wavelength is about 635 nm;
• error. The accuracy class depends on it. With its increase, cost increases;
• self leveling. In the presence of a compensator, the alignment will occur automatically, and you will not spend time on it;
• temperature range at which the level can work. The most optimal: from -10 to +40 degrees;
• tripod availability included. If not, then it should be purchased for convenience;
• glasses included. Allow to see the beam in daylight;
• size and weight.

Features of choice for different types of work:

• simple alignment at home:
• range of up to 10 meters;
• scanning angle of 120 degrees;
• automatic beam alignment optional;
• building planes in the room:
• range up to 30 meters;
• scanning angle of 180 degrees;
• self-leveling with the ability to disable. This allows you to set the level at an angle;
• accuracy up to 0.3 mm / m;
• street work:
• 360 degree projection;
• range up to 500 meters;
• self-leveling;
• accuracy of 0.1 mm / m;
• for geodesy, topography and road construction:
• lens diameter;
• magnification;
• minimum focusing distance.

To summarize, we can say that when choosing a level you need to focus on the types of upcoming work and financial opportunities:

• optical technical level will be suitable for accurate measurements during construction on large objects;
• If you are not limited in budget, and you need high-precision measurements with the ability to quickly process and record data, then choose among electronic devices. The same devices will suit surveyors;
• for the repair of an apartment or house, for the installation of various equipment, consider laser projection levels;
• for landscape design and work over long distances, choose among the rotary models. Rays are visible in daylight. When working with a special receiver, the range of the rotational level increases up to 700 m.

Rating by manufacturing companies: which ones are the best?

Levels manufacturers have their own rating. Top 5 among them:

1. The leading place is occupied by the well-known brand BOSH.Levels of this manufacturer are in great demand among professionals and home craftsmen. Despite the fact that the cost of professional and domestic levels is very different, it did not affect the quality. Even cheap devices are of excellent quality.
2. Chinese manufacturer ADA ranked second in the ranking. He attracted buyers with combined levels of good quality and rich equipment. Devices are resistant to temperature extremes and high humidity.
3. Chinese firm Condtrol settled in third place. Products of this company are inexpensive and have a good quality.
4. The German manufacturer Matrix is ​​appreciated by household levels, and professional devices are not very high quality.
5. The German company Kapro showed itself well for indoor applications.

Rating of manufacturers of levels

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