How to choose and how to replace the level( level)

In construction and surveying, measurements are taken that require high accuracy. For this purpose, various levels are used, in the people they are called levels. Depending on the work carried out, select the appropriate type of measuring device: laser, optical or other.

Table of Contents

  • 1 What is a level
  • 2 Types of levels
    • 2.1 Level with a sweep angle of 360 degrees on video
  • 3 How to choose a device: the main parameters
  • 4 Rating by manufacturing companies: which ones are the best?
  • 5 how to choose: reviews bought a device for building and repair
    • 5.1 oasdBuilding a vertical plane
    • 6.3 The simplest laser level with your own hands
      • 6.3.1 Homemade level from a laser pointer: video

What is a level

Level is atboron, determining the difference in height of several points located on the same surface, relative to a certain level. These points are on the same line of sight, called the line of sight. The point of leveling is to determine whether points are located at the same height. And if necessary, align this parameter.

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Types of levels

There are several ways of leveling:

  • geometric. Produced by leveling and slats. In the right points of the surface are installed slats. Level is the beam. The height of the line of sight above the surface at a given point is determined at the point of its intersection with the rail. The height values ​​at all points are compared and the difference is obtained. The disadvantage of this leveling is that the height measurement is limited by the length of the slats. Therefore, it cannot be used on terrain with high hills. Used in construction and surveying;
    Geometrical leveling
  • trigonometric. The difference between the heights of the selected points is determined in several stages. Measure the distance between visible points. Then, using a theodolite, determine the angle of inclination of the sighting axis from one point to another. Using a special formula, calculate the excess points. This leveling method is used in geology, geography and topography;
  • trigonometric leveling barometric. Barometers are used here. Measure the pressure at different points. On it determine the height and calculate the difference. Application is similar to trigonometric;
    Barometric leveling
  • hydrostatic. Based on the use of a hydro level. The simplest example is a hose filled with fluid, with the edges elevated. The accuracy of the method is affected by the absence of bubbles in the liquid. If they exist, the uniform filling of the vessel is disturbed, and an error occurs when measuring the level. This method is used in construction and in the installation of professional and household appliances, for example, a washing machine;
    Hydrostatic leveling
  • radar. Echo sounders and radio altimeters are installed on aircraft and ships. Signal to the desired point. Knowing the speed of the signal and the time it travels there and back, the distance is automatically calculated. And the device draws a surface relief. Used in geography and geodesy;
    Radar leveling
  • satellite. Conducted using GPS measurements. This method is more economical and more productive than geometric leveling. Used in surveying;
    Satellite leveling
  • construction of planes. A zenith is used here - a device or a laser level:
    • in the construction of high buildings zenith - a device makes special measurements to determine the position of the walls. In all overlappings parallelism of the planes should be observed. For this measurement is carried out at different angles of rotation: 0 and 180 degrees, 90 and 270 degrees;
      Zenit - the device
    • laser level is similar in its action to geometric leveling, but without the use of slats. It is very simple to use, does not require the presence of a second person. Used for construction and repair. Some models allow you to build inclined planes.
      Construction of planes by the laser

Levels differ in design:

  • optical. Consists of a telescope placed on a tripod. The pipe can rotate in a horizontal plane. Used in the construction of roads and buildings, archeology, landscape design and geodesy;
    Optical level
  • digital. This is the same optical level, but with electronic memory and a processor that processes the measurements;
    Digital level
  • laser. This level builds horizontal, vertical and inclined planes, measures angles of 45 and 90 degrees. It consists of a body, a device for creating a laser and prisms. Used in construction and installation work.
    Laser Level

Classification of laser levels:

  • positional. Build lines at an angle of 120, 160, 180 degrees. In some models, the rays connect and form a 360 degree angle. The range of rays up to 50 meters, therefore, are used for the repair of premises;
    Positional level with a rotation angle of 360 degrees
  • . Emit a rotating point, which is converted to a line. Beam range up to 100 meters, which allows them to be used outdoors.
    Rotational level

Level with a 360 degree sweep angle on video

Types of positional levels:

  • point. Builds multiple points;
    . Point-level
  • linear. Builds vertical and horizontal lines;
    Linear level
  • combined. Creates points and lines.
    Combined level

Split level on accuracy:

  • high-precision. The average error per 1 km of double stroke is 0.5 mm;
  • accurate. The average error per 1 km of double stroke - 3 mm;
  • technical. The average error per 1 km of double stroke is 10 mm.

Types of levels by the method of installation of the line of sight:

  • level. The line of sight is set independently along a cylindrical level fixed in the pipe. Used in industry and construction;
  • with a compensator. The line of sight is set automatically using a compensator that replaces the cylindrical level. Very convenient to work on unstable soils. Widely used in geodesy.

How to choose a device:

basic parameters When purchasing, pay attention to the following device parameters:

  • maximum range;
  • number of rays and wavelength. The more rays, the greater the range of possibilities. The optimal wavelength is about 635 nm;
  • error. The accuracy class depends on it. With its increase, cost increases;
  • self leveling. In the presence of a compensator, the alignment will occur automatically, and you will not spend time on it;
  • temperature range at which the level can work. The most optimal: from -10 to +40 degrees;
  • tripod availability included. If not, then it should be purchased for convenience;
  • glasses included. Allow to see the beam in daylight;
  • size and weight.

Features of choice for different types of work:

  • simple alignment at home:
    • range of up to 10 meters;
    • scanning angle of 120 degrees;
    • automatic beam alignment optional;
  • building planes in the room:
    • range up to 30 meters;
    • scanning angle of 180 degrees;
    • self-leveling with the ability to disable. This allows you to set the level at an angle;
    • accuracy up to 0.3 mm / m;
  • street work:
    • 360 degree projection;
    • range up to 500 meters;
    • self-leveling;
    • accuracy of 0.1 mm / m;
  • for geodesy, topography and road construction:
    • lens diameter;
    • magnification;
    • minimum focusing distance.

To summarize, we can say that when choosing a level you need to focus on the types of upcoming work and financial opportunities:

  • optical technical level will be suitable for accurate measurements during construction on large objects;
  • If you are not limited in budget, and you need high-precision measurements with the ability to quickly process and record data, then choose among electronic devices. The same devices will suit surveyors;
  • for the repair of an apartment or house, for the installation of various equipment, consider laser projection levels;
  • for landscape design and work over long distances, choose among the rotary models. Rays are visible in daylight. When working with a special receiver, the range of the rotational level increases up to 700 m.

Rating by manufacturing companies: which ones are the best?

Levels manufacturers have their own rating. Top 5 among them:

  1. The leading place is occupied by the well-known brand BOSH.Levels of this manufacturer are in great demand among professionals and home craftsmen. Despite the fact that the cost of professional and domestic levels is very different, it did not affect the quality. Even cheap devices are of excellent quality.
  2. Chinese manufacturer ADA ranked second in the ranking. He attracted buyers with combined levels of good quality and rich equipment. Devices are resistant to temperature extremes and high humidity.
  3. Chinese firm Condtrol settled in third place. Products of this company are inexpensive and have a good quality.
  4. The German manufacturer Matrix is ​​appreciated by household levels, and professional devices are not very high quality.
  5. The German company Kapro showed itself well for indoor applications.

Rating of manufacturers of levels

Rating of manufacturers of levels of

How to choose the services of the systems that have bought the device for building and repairingmake a mark under the eaves, shelf or picture.

And how much does a husband love him! In the process of construction, he rescued it almost every day - to mount the drywall, trim the floor fastener, and set up the fence, and there is a lot more that you can't remember right away to list.


http: // review_1506775.html

Laser level Bosch Quigo III

Laser level Bosch Quigo III

Scribed a wall for a tile, 3 minutes, everything is ready. Put, turned, pointed, noted. Thing. Powered by AAA type batteries. There are drawbacks, not 360 degrees, so you have to turn it in place if the markings around the perimeter of the room. For the countryside will come down. In my opinion, the real price for him is 1000 rubles, which costs over 3,500 rubles. What is there inside the cube, the laser pointer hangs on a string, it lights up when it calms down, the protective screen is a switch. You can do without Kronsheins, racks and other special supports, it is automatic, that is, just do not try to see the curved line on the wall. You can put on a chair on the table.


http: // review_4477780.html

Laser level Condtrol xliner pento

Laser levelCondtrol xliner pento

Purchased this level a year ago, approximately. I approached the purchase carefully and clearly. The requirements were two-precision and reliability. The budget is up to 20 thousand.
Of all the levels I revised, I stopped at condtrol. First of all, it attracted the fact that in its category it turned out to be the most accurate in terms of its characteristics. Horizontal error + -1 mm by 10 meters. Dear rotational levels are similar in accuracy!
I bought the usual equipment. Level in a case with a target on a magnet. In the more expensive configuration is a receiver, a small tripod. The receiver to me to anything as I work in rooms. The distance( up to 50 m without a receiver) of the beam is sufficient for rooms. Immediately checked it for accuracy. Vertical strictly plumb. Horizon corresponds to the characteristics.
The level has 3 verticals, 2 horizontal lines. Displays zenith and nadir, which is convenient.
the photo removed thickness of the beam at a distance of 50 cm and about 15 m


http:. // review_3191677.html

Optical level GEOBOX N7-32

Optical level GEOBOX N7-32

selected from the low-cost models, because they do not have to shoot away. I bought this because there was some kind of do not skip with hydro level. Convenience in construction appeared.
Once a couple of times, the external sewage system was laid with it.even the screed was poured. I do not regret spending a little.
of the minuses also note the weak painting on the rail.erased numbers on one side.
I generally perceive the purchase of such a thing as an investment. It practically does not wear out over time. By used and can be sold.


http: // review_1900113.html

Bosch optical level GOL 26 D

Bosch optical level GOL 26 D

I liked the design in Bosch style. In the kit was a rake 5 meter, on the one hand with a millimeter scale of division with the other standard centimeter red and black. Also included was a suitcase for a level with adjustment screws and a plumb line. Trinoga is very comfortable, light and durable, with sharp tips that will always stick into the densest ground.

The level itself has a 26-fold increase, 120 meters of flux free, good optics.
The focal length of approximately 30 centimeters, is a magnetic compensator. It weighs 1.7 kg. The work is not whimsical, simple and very accurate.
He has a strong case, fell many times, had to tune the peephole and check on the spot. In the repair never handed over.


http: // review_4355283.html

Overview of Bosch levels on video

How to use different types of levels at home and beyond

Working with optical level:

  1. Install staff. Secure the level on it. Rotate the elevation screws to level the horizontal position. This will be indicated by the zero position of the bubble, which is attached to the tube.
    Bubble setting
  2. Set the rail at the first point. Point the pipe at her. Rotate the focus ring to set a sharp image. With the eyepiece ring adjust the reticle. Measure height.
  3. Install the rail at another point. Measure height. Calculate the difference of these values ​​and get the excess.

The electronic level will calculate everything for you and write it in the built-in memory. And for the laser does not need helpers and slats. Just install it, center it and aim the beams. Get horizontal or vertical levels that you can work on.

How to replace a level with improvised means

If you have a broken level or it is not available at all, you can make a level yourself from improvised means.

How to make a hydraulic level for several meters

You need a transparent flexible tube with an inner diameter of 6 mm. The smaller diameter contributes to the accumulation of bubbles, due to which measurement error occurs. The length of the tube depends on the distance between the points.

  1. Wash the tube with a solution of grease dissolving detergent.
    Transparent tube
  2. Pour water. Attach one end to the first point, and the other to the vertical plane of the second point and see at what level the same height.
    Determining levels using the tube
  3. So you can go around the perimeter of the entire room.
    Setting marks on the perimeter of the
  4. . If you need to make a level below the ceiling, then it is not necessary to climb there. It is enough to put labels at an accessible height, and then add the desired distance.

Building a vertical plane

Suppose you want to hang a picture or a TV on the wall. To do this, do not bother with the hydraulic levels.

  1. Take a thread 50–80 cm long and tie a not very light object to it, for example, a wrench or a nut.
  2. While holding the free end of the thread near the wall, hang your object near the mounting point of the TV.And you will see the line to which you want to equate the side face.

The simplest laser level do it yourself

  1. Take the pan. Pour water to the brim.
  2. Place a piece of foam or plank on the water so that the surface protrudes above the pan.
  3. Take the laser pointer. Connect it to a battery or battery.
    Laser pointer with battery
  4. Put on the foam or plate.

The water will adjust the level surface itself. You do not need to adjust anything. Just turn the laser pointer in the right direction.

Homemade laser pointer level: video

The use of a laser level makes work much easier. Familiarize yourself with the characteristics and features of the choice to choose the device to suit your needs. Well, if you don’t have one yet, but it became necessary to build a level, then use the available tools.


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