There are many different designs and materials of manufacture of batteries for heating systems of residential and non-residential premises. But heating registers among them are its high heat transfer efficiency and ease of self-assembly.
Externally and constructively, these heat transfer devices resemble conventional coils towel, but in size they strongly surpass analogues for bathrooms.
In the present article, we discussed in detail the types of heating registers, and analyze features of the installation of such equipment.
The content of the article:
Varieties heating registers of the pipes
- Types shaped design
- Options on the material manufacturing
- Devices with built-Tan
- Calculation of heater design
- Features of the installation
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Varieties heating registers of the pipes
heating register - is a classic heat exchanger "water-to-air". In most cases, it is made of smooth-walled metal tube. The latter is a single or a series of several pipe sections, arranged horizontally above each other. At the same time, there are individual constructions with fins.
The heater is made only with smooth tubes, easy to wash with regular cleaning. It does not have the plate of ribs or narrow places that are difficult to wipe off with a cloth. As a result, such a register is not formed "colonies" of dust and dirt. In this regard, he strongly outperforms common today panel and sectional radiators.
Typically, heat registers installed in garages, warehouses, workshops, hospitals and schools - that is, in areas where high requirements for fire safety and sanitation
On the effectiveness and impact of thermal energy costs for heating tube register is not inferior conventional batteriesAnd often exceeds them. The total heat transfer surface area in both cases approximately the same, but in the present device the coolant flows through the wide channel.
Hydraulic resistance is obtained in this situation is much lower than that in the standard panel radiator of several sections. This has a direct impact on energy costs for pumping water on a similar heating circuit.
Types shaped design
Externally heating register does not look very elegant. But it is cheap and easy to manufacture. And if a little effort, such a heater, a heat exchanger it is possible to enter the interior of even the living room.
In domestic farmhouses until recently this variant of the heating system is almost universally used. In Soviet times, the panel and sectional radiators for sale were not available, but the wider the pipe to get it was not so difficult.
And then it needed only welding machine. Connected obtained tubular heater with inside water coil welding elementary wood oven and quickly. For more information about battery replacement technology by gas welding, see Further.
The closer to the edge of the vertical pipes are arranged in sectional register, the higher the device heat transfer coefficient - water at the end of horizontal pipes is updated more slowly than in areas with direct current coolant
All kinds of heating registers are divided into two groups:
- The coils (S-shaped).
In the first case, the horizontal pipes are connected with each other by transverse pipes of smaller section, and the second - the arcs of the same diameter.
Both options involve large volumes of welding. Coil device can also be manufactured by bending one pipe. However, not every large-diameter tubular steel can be bent in this way. It is much easier to take a ready-made arc and weld them to the horizontal segments of the Register.
The device with a compound "thread" (connections are arranged alternately on the right / left) zones with no cold coolant, the water is gradually goes through all the tubes
When joining horizontal portions register sectional compound "column" cross-connections are welded at both ends. The circulation of coolant in a heater takes place in parallel. As a result of separate areas therein may receive less heat. Hot water simply flows down into the lower segment before reaches the distal end.
In the "thread", where the heat carrier passes all the register areas, such problems do not arise. In this regard, this case is reminiscent of the coil. Only the water is moving from input to output of the battery through the pipes of different cross sections.
The coils may have several bends, in this case for structural reinforcement in some places often made transverse insertion of the thick bar or corner
If you are ready for the arcs of the S-register at hand is not, then prepare themselves better to the sectional unit. Exactly bend pipes of large cross-section, without special equipment, is extremely difficult. Virtually the only option - a metal heat the gas welding and bend it gently. But there is a risk of loss of strength of the pipe walls.
By referring also relates Sectional register with a pair of side manifolds. They are made of pipes of the same diameter as the main areas, playing the role of cross-connections. The water in this case is not moving from top to bottom and from left to right (or vice versa).
Options on the material manufacturing
Most often, the master home with his own hands made from heating registers steel pipes. The main advantages of this option - cheapness, availability of the material and the relative ease of welding.
Apart from a circular tube heating register can also be made from profiled its analogue - hydraulic resistance will somewhat different, but no more
The factory registers release of:
On heat transfer and durability of lead copper version. But with such a large scale heater will cost a considerable penny. Aluminum unit inferior to him in heat conductivity, but is much cheaper.
The most inexpensive type of suspension, and heating registers - steel. However, it is the most inefficient heat transfer from air to water option of all sold in shops of heat engineering.
Coefficient of thermal conductivity at different steel ranges from 45-48 W / (m * K). Cast iron is it in the region of 60, 200-240 for aluminum, copper and at about 400 W / (m * K). Steel all of them on the technical parameters of losing.
When choosing a steel pipe it is necessary to give preference to products made of carbon steel, they are more durable and resistant to high temperatures
Iron and aluminum is usually used only when a factory making registers. Independently in primitive conditions these metals too difficult to weld. The same applies to stainless steel or galvanized steel, so the tube of these materials is better not to take. They are difficult to cook and heat dissipation are lower than that of conventional black counterpart.
If there is welding experience register do copper surfaces of these tubes are not too problematic. Because of their high rate of heat transfer can take a smaller diameter than the choice of the steel embodiment. Since the heater is cheaper.
However, copper is a serious disadvantage - the need for a neutral and clean coolant. If the "dirty" circulates in the heating system, water with impurities, then a long service life of such a battery can be forgotten.
A similar problem also frequently observed due to the presence in the cell system of incompatible with copper metal. If you do not provide a range of preventive measures, due to galvanic corrosion similar to register a long period.
Devices with built-Tan
Standard variant the register assumes its connection to centralized heating system pipes or boiler water heating. But there are appliances and fully self-contained. In one of the lower pipes embedded therein a heating element powered by a mains 220 V.
According to the design and function of heater in the register - it is a regular electroboilers powered by a standard single-phase sockets
Power water heating element may vary within 1-6 kW depending on the internal volume of the heat exchanger. Such a heating device is often equipped with a circulating pump to the coolant reached all of its sections.
Such autonomous register is often used as an additional heat source, which is only activated when severe frosts. At not too low temperatures outside space heating is provided by the general heating system. Addition of water to an electric register can fill antifreeze.
On our site there is an article, which we described in detail the features of the selection and fine connection of heaters for heating radiators. Read more - go on link.
Calculation of heater design
First, you need to calculate the required heat output for a particular room.
According to the rules, a Thermal calculation should be done taking into account:
- area and direction of external walls (in sunny south direction or not);
- cubing heated room;
- the highest possible level of negative temperatures in the region;
- the degree of thermal insulation of walls facing the street;
- Lower availability and / or on top of one another the heated space;
- the amount and variety of squaring the set of windows;
- presence / absence of doors opening directly outside.
Building codes is recommended even take into account the prevailing wind rose in the winter. On the windward side of the wall heat losses will obviously higher during the winter period.
Simplified for the room with a ceiling height of 2.7 meters in the area of the required heat output is calculated by multiplying the area of the room at 100 W
If the ceiling in a room located at the level of 3 meters and above, for a simplified calculation has to be multiplied by the cubic content of the heated space at 34 or 41 Watts. The first factor is taken for brick buildings, and the second - for buildings of reinforced concrete.
Multiply a couple of numbers is not difficult. But we must clearly realize that such conditional calculations can be very far from the real figures, as there are many nuances.
The most optimal way - is to order the correct calculation of a specialist, who will take all of the room into account. Heat loss occurs through the walls, windows, floor, ceiling, and even ventilation. For exact figures should be taken into account, without exception.
Next you need to calculate the size of the pipes for the heating register. To do this, use the formula:
Q = K * St * dt
- Q - thermal capacity of the register;
- K - heat transfer coefficient depends on the material of the tube;
- St - heat transfer area (number of PI is multiplied by the pipe diameter and length);
- dt - thermal head.
Accordingly, knowing Q and dt, can only pick up the tube diameter and its total length. Then, however, depending on the design of the register, the pipeline may be divided into several sections which are subsequently connected to the cross members. Heat transfer from the latter in order to simplify the calculations, it is better not to take into account.
Dt figure in turn is calculated from the desired room temperature (Tg) and its performance in the supply (T) and return (To) - Total dt = (T + To) / 2 TV
When connecting pipes snake each next horizontal segment receives approximately 10% less heat than the overlying. Each segment of the pipeline register to be regarded as a separate battery. A heat transfer fluid as it moves them gradually and inevitably cools, the heat goes into the room.
Another parameter - distance between horizontal sections (main pipes), which reflects the height of a single nozzle. If the clearance to do too little, the heat flows from the top and bottom begin to overlap negatively impacting each other.
This figure must be chosen so that it was little more than a pipe diameter. Then, the register will be the maximum possible efficiency.
More detailed calculations of heating power batteries and their number can be read here.
Features of the installation
Nothing too complicated to install heating register no. Difficulties are possible only when the welding of the individual tubes. If a lot of experience performing welding work is not available, it is best to practice. When buying a ready instrument factory manufacturing problems with the installation of all should not arise.
Attaching to register tubular wall produced using powerful brackets (hooks). If it is placed on the floor, it is enough for the iron legs. It is important to remember that the subject of the heater began to weigh a lot. Plus, there is added to the weight of water inside, so the attachment and the stand must be ultra-reliable.
The ends of the pipe sections are closed-spherical plugs or special welded with small steel kruglyashey cut from sheet iron. Fittings with an external thread for mounting the air outlet tap and connection bump directly into the pipe wall to the heating system or the endplate.
The surface of the battery formed of steel should cover the heat-resistant paint. Thanks to this device will not only become more aesthetic appearance, but also acquire additional corrosion protection.
For detailed instructions on creating your own hands heating registers can be read in this material.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The collected video below will help you to understand all the nuances of the calculations of the heating register and its installation in the room.
The technology of manufacture of the register rectangular tube profile:
Dignity and power calculation of the heating register:
If you want to heat a large cubic capacity of the room, then register with smooth steel tubes suitable for this ideal. If you are comfortable performing welding to assemble a homemade battery with your hands is easy. We only need to accurately calculate the parameters of the device and choose tubulars for him properly.
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