Wiring in the bath with their own hands
Electrical work in the bath, sauna due to high temperature and humidity differ in a number of features. Knowing and observing them when working with an electrician is vital. How to prepare the project, choose the tools and materials, lead the cable and do the internal wiring with your own hands? You will find the answers to these questions below.
- 1 Key security requirements for wiring
- 2 Preparatory stage: prepare the project, calculate the cross-section of cables
- 3 Select wires and electrical appliances for interior work
- 4 How to supply electricity to the bath: underground or through the air?
- 5 Features of the installation of internal wiring in the bath and sauna do it yourself + scheme
- 6 Installation of internal wiring and outlets. Video
- 7 The most frequent mistakes when wiring a device
- 8 Competent step-wiring installation of wiring in the bath. Video
Key safety requirements for wiring
The increased safety requirements are imposed on the electrification of rooms such as saunas or baths traditionally loved in our country. This is due to higher humidity( and, consequently, the formation of condensate), high temperature in the steam room and the washing compartment. Take into account the need and the material of the walls. Most often it is a tree, a material with increased fire risk.
Key wiring requirements:
- The entrance shield should be located in the most protected from temperature changes( dressing room, vestibule, rest room), have a separate RCD or difavtomat( triggered at a leakage current <0.05 Am), meet the requirements of IP44.
- A good separate grounding( PE-conductor) is needed for a sauna or a bath, the capacity of which will be sufficient for all current consumers. If there is an electric boiler, then it must be grounded separately.
- Continuous lines from connection point to shield. It is advisable to exclude any junction boxes.
- Best of all, if the equipment has a degree of protection from IP55 and higher, the cables have 3 wires with obligatory grounding and insulation that can withstand temperatures from -40 to +130 ° C.
- The cable is laid using metal hoses or refractory corrugations. For insulation, only non-flammable or self-extinguishing materials are used.
- For mounting wiring elements it is prohibited to use metal screws, self-tapping screws, etc. Only the use of dielectrics is allowed.
In detail, the rules for lighting baths / steam rooms / saunas are set forth in the Electrical Installation Code( electrical installation rules). This is a basic regulatory document where the requirements for a variety of electrical equipment are spelled out.
Do not be lazy to carefully study the requirements of the provisions of the EMP before starting work.
Preparatory stage: prepare the project, calculate the cable section
Preparation of the electrical wiring concept is the task of an experienced specialist who knows the nuances of designing electrical circuits in rooms with specific conditions. Any construction has individual features, and the wiring device in a particular case is determined by the number of consumers and their total capacity.
Starting work on a project, you need to decide which cable to bring to the structure, with one or three phases. This defines the configuration of the finished circuit. But the general approaches to the drafting of the project are preserved.
When the scheme of the future wiring for the sauna or bath is prepared, it is time to take up the calculations. It will be necessary to calculate the cross section of the wires, to determine the technical characteristics of the RCD, automata and other elements of the electrical circuit. The single-phase connection is most commonly used. In the case when the circuit assumes the presence of high-power electrical appliances, it is advisable to use a three-phase connection. It is designed for a significantly larger load( up to 42 kW) than a single-phase line connected by a SIP cable( up to 14 kW).
Let's start with the main thing - calculating the cross-section of the wire supplied to the electrical panel( electricity will be fed into the building).First, you need to calculate the total power consumption of devices installed in the bath, according to the circuit circuit. The value of power consumption is indicated on each appliance or in its instructions. Having calculated the total power of electricity consumers, we obtain an approximate load on the cable going to the bath from the panel. We divide the resulting number by the voltage of the network and get the current strength( measured in amperes, A).The required cable cross section depends on this parameter, which is chosen as follows:
- 16 A = 1.5 mm2;
- 25 A = 2.5 mm2;
- 32 A = 4 mm2;
- 40 A = 6 mm2.
The parameters are suitable for all types of wires with copper conductors.
To the calculated cross-sectional area you need to add a margin of 25% - 30%.And also in the calculations the total power of the instruments is also preferable to take a little more, considering the devices that are rarely included in the network.
Choosing wires and electrical appliances for interior work
When choosing wires for internal wiring, keep in mind that their conductors must be exclusively copper. Do not use wires with aluminum cores.
The cable size for internal wiring branches( up to luminaires, switches, electrical outlets, etc.) is calculated similarly to the input cable.
When selecting the circuit breakers it is also necessary to determine their performance indicators. The basic rule: the maximum power should be at the main machine, and for devices that disable individual branches of the wiring, it is significantly smaller.
To calculate the trigger threshold of the automaton, use the same formula as for calculating the wire cross section - it is necessary to determine the strength of the current in the circuit or in its separate section( for automata that disconnect some of the devices).For example, if the total current in the circuit is 20A, then the response threshold of the main machine needs at least 25 A, and even better - 32 A. The threshold of the switches for individual branches is calculated on the basis of the current that the least powerful device consumes.
Required wiring element in a sauna or a bath room, according to PUE - a protective shutdown device or RCD.According to the regulations, it is necessary to choose the RCD, which operates at a current of 10–16 mA.In reality, with such parameters, the device often triggers falsely, so the majority chooses an RCD with a threshold of 25–30 mA.But for maximum security, we recommend that you follow the rules established in the EIR.
Choose cables and accessories for internal wiring, given their ability to work in conditions of high temperatures and humidity. Particularly stringent requirements for wiring in the steam room and washing compartment. It is recommended to use only the following types of wires:
- OLFLEX HEAT 250.
In other rooms, such as a lounge, a vestibule or a waiting room, use may be made of NYM or VVGng-LS.
Do not use wires PUNP due to possible significant deviations in the thickness of the core.
When choosing lamps, lamps, sockets, it is important to consider their safety class( IP-44 / IP-65) and the presence of rubber-based seals. Choose fixtures with a base of corrosion-resistant materials, covered outside with heat-resistant glass. Outlets must be protected from moisture and splashes( covers).
Do not install fluorescent lamps or plastic-protected lamps in the bath.
A good choice for a steam room and washing - lighting with the use of modern fiber, resistant to humidity and elevated temperature. For such premises as a rest room and the same washing room, LED lighting fixtures are suitable. They consume little energy and give good illumination. For the steam room diode lamps are not suitable.
How to bring electricity to the bath: underground or by air?
The best option is to supply electricity via a separate cable directly from the main electrical panel. This can be done in one of the ways:
- by air - inexpensively and quickly.
- underground - requires a significant investment of time and money.
The selected method should be reflected in the project design. Choosing the "air" method, you need to strictly adhere to the rules for the location of the cable in height and not only:
- The cable can not be located no less than 6 meters from the roadway.
- The minimum distance from the pedestrian section to the cable is 3.5 meters.
- The distance between the supports is not more than 25 meters.
- The cable should enter the building at a height of at least 2.75 meters.
In the "air" method, a self-insulating power wire( CIP 4) is used, where there is no carrying cable. In SIP-cable, the cross section of the aluminum conductors is not less than 16 mm2.The number of conductors depends on the selected input type: single-phase to 2 conductors or three-phase to 4 conductors. The main problem of CIP cable is low ductility, due to which it is difficult to insert a wire into a circuit breaker.
The CIP cable is inserted into the room through a metal sleeve. Do not forget that inside the bath can not use wires with aluminum conductors.
For the underground method, an expensive but very strong VBbsHv cable is used( the second name is “cable with armor” because of the steel protection between the polymer sheaths).He immediately has 4 copper conductors and a cross section of 10 mm2.
Step-by-step instruction for underground cable installation to the building of a bath / sauna:
- Cut a trench at least 0.7 m deep and pour 10 cm of sand into it.
- Lay the waves on the sand in waves and cover with another 10 cm of sand layer.
- Cover the ground with 0.2 m of thickness, on which to lay the warning grid.
- The cable is introduced into the interior through a steel sleeve.
- Before connecting to the shield, the wire is released from the protective sheaths. Do not forget to take care of grounding and protection from lightning.
Features of installing internal wiring in a bath and a sauna with their own hands +
scheme Many people can cope with the installation work for wiring inside a bathhouse or a sauna. The main thing is to take into account everything to the smallest detail and comply with the requirements prescribed in the EIR.
The main stages of wiring in the bath:
- Install the panel;
- Wiring from the panel;
- Connecting fixtures;
- Connecting sockets.
Key installation requirements for the switchboard:
- Place the shield as close as possible to the exit, in a place with good ventilation, with free access and bright lighting.
- Choose a device with a body of reliable material and a high level of protection from moisture.
- The minimum distance from the floor surface to the upper part of the device is 1.4 m-1.8 m.
The electrical switchboard consists of:
- input automat;
- outgoing machines.
For a single-phase connection, the main cable contains at least 3 wires. In accordance with the requirements of GOST, the phase core is gray( can also be brown or white) and is placed on the upper terminal of the main circuit breaker. From the bottom terminal, it is bridged to the upper terminals of the outgoing switches. It can be moved to the same distribution distributors. The zero core of blue or blue is placed on the zero pad. The third vein is yellow-green, protective, is sent to the protective block. For wires to consumers, the phase conductors are connected to the lower contacts of the outgoing circuit breakers. The input cable and wires coming from the shield are brought out through the corrugated pipe.
Sign automata to quickly disable the branch you need, if necessary, and to facilitate future repairs. And also inside it is worth to place a visual wiring diagram.
When distributing the electrical cable from the shield, follow these rules:
- Try to distribute the outgoing wire in one piece.
- If the walls are wooden, it is better to mount open wiring.
- . PVC pipes, metal pipes cannot be used as a wire sheath.
- Wires are mounted only vertically and horizontally. Twisting and kinks are not allowed.
- Electrical switches and sockets should be placed in a waiting room, vestibule or lounge. In the steam room and washing compartment their installation is not allowed.
- Cable cores are welded or soldered.
- Do not run wires over the stove.
Do not place switches and power sockets in the washing compartment and the steam room, do not forget about it.
The single-phase connection is most commonly used.
As regards the connection of luminaires, it is preferable to place them on the walls, 20 cm below the ceiling, but not on the ceiling itself( where the maximum temperature).
Installation of internal wiring and outlets. Video
After completing work with the wiring, you need to check the quality of its work, good grounding, etc. It is best to entrust it to the specialists of the power supervision or fire service.
The most frequent errors when installing
wiring The most common mistakes made during installation of electricians in bath rooms and saunas are related to non-compliance with the requirements of electrical installation codes or incorrect calculations. Most problems arise in the following situations:
- The type of wire and the size of its cross section are not correctly selected.
- Insufficient insulation of the wiring or its poor quality.
- Failure to comply with the safety requirements prescribed in the EMP.
Competent step-by-step installation of electrical wiring in the bath. Video
When deciding to install electrical wiring in the sauna or bath on your own, do not forget how important it is to perform this work correctly, observing safety rules, be attentive to even small details. Proper installation of electricians in the bath or sauna is a guarantee of safe rest and protection of the building from fire. Before starting work, study the EIR in its latest edition. Take into account all sorts of risks, responsibly approach the wiring, or entrust these concerns to professional electricians.