Scheme of smooth switching on incandescent lamps
Any economical owner of a house or apartment strives to make rational use of electrical energy, since its prices are quite high. For example, if you use an incandescent lamp incorrectly, it will “burn out” regularly. Therefore, in order for it to be able to serve you much longer, experts recommend using devices such as soft start devices. You can also independently make such a block using a specific scheme.
- 1 Contents of the ASMand 12V
- 5 Dimmers or dimmers
- 6 Video:
principle of operation With a sharp current of electricity, the incandescent lamp wears out and wolf very quicklyamovaya filament burns out. But if the temperature of the filament and the electric current is about the same, then the process will be stabilized and the lamp will not burn. In order for light sources to work as expected, you must have a special power supply.
Thanks to a special sensor, the thread will heat up to the required temperature, and the voltage level will increase to the point specified by the user. For example, up to 176 volts. In this case, the power supply will help significantly increase the lamp life.
The protection unit has one drawback - the light in the room will be much weaker.
In the event that the voltage is 176 V, the illumination level will decrease by about two thirds. Therefore, experts recommend to buy high-power lamps to the quality of light was normal. Currently, there are special soft start blocks( UPVL) incandescent lamps, which differ in different power parameters. Therefore, before buying a unit, you need to make sure that it can withstand large surges or voltage drops in the power grid. Such a device must necessarily have an additional margin, while it will be enough to ensure that the voltage in your power supply network is greater than the flow of jumps by about 30 percent. Currently it is possible to purchase a power supply unit with a capacity from 150 to 1000 watts.
Types of power supplies and their characteristics
Today there are many different devices for switching on the LF.The most popular are:
- UPVS blocks, which are basic versions that have a fairly low cost, therefore, are used by most consumers.
- Granite blocks have high quality workmanship and have a long service life. Such a device is very simple in operation and installation.
- Navigator unit( Navigator) is used not only for LC( incandescent lamps), but also for halogen lamps. This universal multifunctional device is quite small in size, so it does not take up much space.
In order to properly use the blocks smoothly turn on the LC, you must use special wiring. Thanks to such schemes, it is easy to understand how this device works and is constructed from the inside, as well as how to operate it.
incandescent soft start circuit Usually, when connecting such a device, specialists use the simplest and easiest version of the scheme. Sometimes use a special scheme with the introduction of the triacs. Also, in addition to the blocks of this type, you can take field-effect transistors, which work similarly to devices of smooth switching.
Also, in order to monitor the voltage in the soft start device, you can use automatic devices.
What is a thyristor circuit
Specialists recommend using a thyristor circuit to use for repetition. It consists of the usual elements that can be found in every home. This scheme can be easily done at home with your own hands.
lamp The rectifier bridge circuit( Fig. VD1, VD2, VD3, VD4) uses a light bulb( Fig. EL1) as a load and current limiter. The shoulders of the rectifier are equipped with a thyristor( Fig. VS1) and a shifting circuit( Fig. R1, R2 and C1).Also, the diode bridge is installed due to the specification of the operation of the thyristor device.
After the voltage is applied to the circuit, the electric current begins to go through the heating coil and enters the bridge, and then the electrolyte is charged through a resistor. When the voltage limit of the opening of the thyristor is reached, it begins to open and then a current from the bulb passes through it. As a result, the tungsten filament warms up gradually and smoothly. The period of its warm-up will depend on the capacity of the capacitor and resistor in the circuit of the device.
What is noteworthy is the triac
This scheme has a smaller number of parts due to the use of a triac( Fig. VS1), which serves as a power key.
An element such as a choke( fig. L1), which is designed to remove various interferences that occur during the opening of the power switch, is allowed to be removed from the common circuit.(Fig. R1) The resistor is a current limiter, which is supplied to the main electrode( Fig. VS1).The circuit that sets the time is executed on a resistor( Fig. R2) and capacitance( Fig. C1), powered by a diode( Fig. VD1).This scheme works the same as the previous one. When the capacitor is charged to the level of the opening voltage of the triac, it starts to open, and then the electric current flows through it and the light bulb.
In the photo below we can see the triac control. Such a device, in addition to adjusting the power in the load, also provides a smooth flow of electric current to the light when it is turned on.
incandescent switching-on device The scheme of operation of the unit on an
specialized microcircuit. A cr1182pm1 type microcircuit was specially created by specialists to build various phase regulators.
specialized chip In this case, it happens in such a way that the chip itself regulates the voltage on the source, which has a capacity of up to 150 watts. And if you need to manage a stronger load system and dozens of lighting devices at the same time, then an additional power simulator is simply included in the management chain. In the picture below we can see how this happens.
The use of soft start blocks does not end only with ordinary lamps, as experts recommend using them together with 220 V halogen lamps.
Important to know! With fluorescent and LED lamps( LED) such units can not be installed. This is due to the fact that there is a different technique of circuit design, as well as the principle of operation and the presence of each source of its own source of measured heating for fluorescent lamps or there is no need for such regulation of LED lamps.
Soft Start Device( UPVL) for incandescent bulbs in 220v and 12v
To date, a large number of different UPVL models are produced, which differ in function, cost and quality. The device, which is sold in specialized stores, is connected in series to a light source of 220 V. We can see the diagram and the appearance of the device in the photo below.
If the power supply of the lamps is 12 or 24 V, then the device must be connected in front of the step-down transformer also in series to the initial primary winding.
The device must match the load that will be connected with a certain margin. To do this, calculate the number of lamps and their total power.
Since the device is small in size, the UPVL can be placed under the chandelier, in a sub-box or in a junction box.
Dimmers or dimmers
Cost-effective and efficient use of devices that create a smooth switching lamps, as well as providing a process to control their degree of brightness. Dimmers of various models can:
- Set the work program of lighting devices;
- Smoothly turn the lamps on and off;
- Controlled by remote control, voice commands or claps.
When purchasing this device, you must immediately make a choice to know what functions are required, and not to buy an expensive device for a lot of money.
Before installing the dimmer, it is necessary to determine the method and place of control of lighting devices. To do this, you will need to mount the wiring of the appropriate type.
Connection diagrams can be of varying degrees of complexity. In any case, you must first disconnect the voltage from a certain area.
In the figure we have shown the simplest wiring diagram. Here, instead of a simple switch, you can make a dimmer.
The device is connected to the gap L - wires with phase, not N - zero. Between zero and dimmer is a lighting device. The connection with him goes consistent.
Figure( B) is a circuit with a switch. The connection process remains the same, but here a simple switch is added. It is usually installed near the door in a certain gap between the phase and the dimmer itself. Near the bed is a dimmer that allows you to control the lighting lying. When a person leaves the room, the light turns off, and when the lamp comes back, the lamp starts with the same degree of brightness.
In order to control a chandelier or other lighting device, you can take two dimmers that will be in different corners of the room( Fig. A).Between themselves, two devices are connected through a junction box.
Thanks to this connection system, you can adjust the brightness from different places independently of each other, but you will need to install more wires.
Pass-through switches are used to turn on lamps from different places in the room( Fig. B).Also, you must turn on the dimmer, otherwise the lights will not respond to switches.
- Dimmer saves energy by only 15%, and the rest is used by the regulator.
- Instruments are highly sensitive to temperature increases. Therefore, they can not be operated at temperatures above 27 ° C.
- The degree of load should not be less than 40 W, since the life of the regulator is significantly reduced.
- Dimmers should be used only for those types of devices that are recommended by the manufacturer and are written in the passport.
Video: the device UPVL
UPVL can significantly increase the life of halogen lamps and incandescent lamps. These are small and inexpensive devices that can be bought at any store and installed on their own, having a certain scheme and precisely following the manufacturers instructions.