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In regions of traditional viticulture, for example, in Spain or in the south of France, the grapevine is pruned only in spring and autumn, in the autumn and autumn, in the autumn and autumn, the vine is harvested only in autumn and autumn. At the same time, the removal of shoots is aimed at the formation of a bush, healing and renewing the vine. The south of the growing area, the more sun gets the berries and the longer the growing season of the plant. The main problem of growing grapes and ripening berries in the middle lane is the lack of heat and light.
Partially compensating for the shortness of the Russian summer, summer pruning of grapes helps to create the conditions for obtaining the highest quality crop. It, unlike spring, does not affect the woody parts of the vine, but is directed exclusively at green shoots, foliage and ovaries.
Therefore, operations performed in summer are often referred to as green and include debris and chasing of shoots, removal of stepsons, banding, as well as rationing of the crop and thinning the leaves.
How to cut grapes before flowering?
After the pruning in spring, the gardener's attention to the grape bushes should not weaken, since along with the fruit eyes, fat shoots coming from the old parts of the vine or from the base of the shoots also grow. When and how to cut the grapes in the summer from unnecessary shoots at this stage? Fragments of grapes are produced in the last decade of May or at the beginning of summer, when new green shoots reach a length of 15–20 cm and are easily removable.
With competent fragments of shoots on a bush and pruning grapes in summer, you can achieve:
- the presence on each plant of the number of shoots corresponding to the strength of the bush;
- a good start for the full maturation of shoots and laying a bountiful harvest;
- crop preservation from grape diseases and pest attacks;
- access of air and sun to the ovary;
- redirects food from stray shoots to the hands;
- the correct formation of the bush for next year.
If the tops do not break out in time, they develop due to the nutrients that are essential for flowering and the formation of the ovary. In addition, the fat shoots obscure the bush, interfere with the penetration of air and sunlight into the crown, and even prevent the formation of future berries.
In parallel, when pruning grapes in July or earlier, wild growth is removed that grows from the underground part of the bush, but leaves the cultural shoots without inflorescences if they are needed in the future to form grapes. The stronger the plant, the more shoots are left.
How to cut grapes in summer from unwanted shoots
Nutrient reserves accumulated in the previous season in the roots of a grape bush and overwintered above-ground parts, with the onset of spring are sent to the growth points, including apical parts of shoots and inflorescences. If the development of the shoot is extremely active, the future racemes lack nutrients, the flowers begin to crumble, and the inflorescences can turn into antennae.
In order not to lose the crop, pinch the tops with the leaves that have not yet opened, which leads to the cessation of the growth of the shoots, and the buds that have been laid develop and give rise to the ovary. After watching a video about pruning grapes in the summer for beginning gardeners, the subtleties of this process and the compatibility of various “green operations” become clear. For example, the removal of young apical parts of the shoot can be combined with cutting out the stepsons or normalizing the inflorescences.
Escape is pinched in the middle of the internode above the first inflorescence. Reception will be used also in case regulation of growth of a bush is necessary. Pinching the strongest shoots, you can achieve the formation of more inflorescences in the next year.
How to cut grapes before flowering and during it?
The removal of the apical parts of the shoots with 5–8 upper opening leaves is called embossing of the vine. Young shoots grow as actively as possible simultaneously with the entry of grapes into the time of flowering and the formation of the ovary. In this case, the growing tip eats due to the leaves that have already opened in the lower part.
Can the grapes be cut in summer when the plant is preparing to bloom, or the ovary is already formed? Yes, shortening shoots with opening buds not only does not damage the future harvest, but also helps:
- to prevent the fall of buds;
- get a bountiful harvest on the shoot;
- to improve the quality of ripening berries;
- prevent the development of diseases associated with overcrowding, lack of food, light and air.
This technique is most in demand on vigorous varieties, and on grapes with a compact crown and weak growth, where there is almost no shedding of brushes during flowering, such pruning of grapes in the summer is not performed.
Summer pruning of grapes stepsons
For grapes, as well as for many other crops, the formation of lateral shoots - stepsons are characteristic.
Removal or shortening of such an increase is necessarily carried out on young, only formed plants, and also doable on already fruiting bushes. At the same time, the operation often turns out to be useful on table grape varieties, while on technical plantations of grapes it is almost not used.
Depending on the number of stepsons, the chosen method of forming and the strength of the plant, similar pruning of grapes in July is repeated twice or three times per season and can be combined with embossing or garter of a vine.
Pruning grapes in July
Is it possible and how to properly trim the grapes after flowering so that the formed clusters receive more sunlight, are blown by the wind and are not under-nutrition? These goals are pursued by thinning of already formed berries, as well as the removal of part of the leaves during the period when the grapes begin to ripen.
Elimination of 5 to 10 lower leaves on the shoots, where the berries ripen, allows:
- to provide the best ventilation to the bush;
- reduce the amount of shadow that interferes with the pouring of the brush;
- dramatically reduce the risk of developing gray rot and other grape diseases on the berries.
In the conditions of a cool short summer of a middle band, such summer pruning of grapes can be carried out regularly, and in southern regions, where there is more sun, foliar thinning helps in wet years, and also on strong plants, where maturation lags. To obtain the most visible result from removing leaves at the same time as this operation on vigorous bushes, pruning of grapes is carried out in the summer after flowering, shortening the tops of actively growing shoots.
On table varieties, where it is extremely important to get dense healthy brushes with large berries, thinning of the ovary is practiced.
As a result of the stage when the berries have not yet begun to ripen, sparse brushes get the normalizations. But more often with sharp scissors, trying not to disturb the berries, they shorten the bunch. In some cases, at this stage, more than half of the tied berries can be removed, which significantly increases the amount of nutrients entering the remaining ovary.
Pruning grapes in summer after flowering
Another technique that helps to get an early quality crop is called banding and consists in removing the bark from a fruit sprout in the form of a thin, 1 to 3 mm thick ring. Food in this case is redirected to pouring clusters and those parts of the shoot that were above the cutoff.
As a result of similar pruning of grapes in summer after flowering, as well as due to improved nutrition, larger grapes can be obtained almost two weeks earlier than without the use of banding.
However, the operation turns out to be quite painful for the plant and should not be used annually so as not to bleed the vine and not deplete its root system.