- operation diagram Compressor performance test
- Current and resistance test
- Causes of malfunctions
- How to replace the compressor?
You can repair the refrigerator yourself, but you need to have certain skills and knowledge. An important part of the preparation for repair is diagnostics, and for this you need to know the principle of operation of the refrigerator. Let's try to figure out how the scheme of work of this popular home appliance is organized.
Scheme of operation of the refrigerator
The refrigerator can be divided into three large components. The failure of one unit makes the entire refrigerator inoperable, but does not affect the operating status of other elements. The freezer consists of an evaporator, a condenser and a compressor. The composition of the compressor includes a relay and a motor.
The work system is closed. The refrigerant is pumped out of the evaporator using a compressor, and then it is fed under high pressure to the condenser. In the condenser, it undergoes cooling, facilitating the transition from a gaseous state to a liquid, and then re-moves to the evaporator, flowing naturally. So work is repeated continuously.
Unlike other components, the compressor is not always on. It comes to a working condition on a signal from the temperature sensor when the temperature in the refrigerator exceeds the permissible rate. In this case, the relay drives the motor, as a result of which the compressor begins to perform its operating function. When the temperature starts to conform to the norm, the relay turns off.
Checking the performance of the
compressor The first external sign of improper operation of the compressor is the temperature rise in the refrigerating chamber, up to its defrosting. Before you start repairing the compressor yourself, you need to figure out what exactly is the fault of this device. Getting to the compressor is not so easy - it is hermetically sealed with a casing, where it is located in the oil.
Most compressors have a similar device. The main components are the motor and start relay. The relay closes when a signal is received from the sensor and starts the motor. If the motor does not start, the system does not function. In most cases, the problem when the compressor is not running is precisely in the motor. In such a situation, it is required to put a new motor, a little less often a complete replacement of the compressor of the refrigerator is needed. Let us examine the cases when the repair and replacement of the compressor of the refrigerator is the easiest to implement.
Test current and resistance
The cause of a malfunction can be a cable, it is not so rare that a trivial break becomes a source of serious problems. Replacing the cable is the easiest situation to repair. In any case, before starting any work with your own hands, you need to check the current and resistance in order not to get injured.
To check the resistance, you need to find a place without paint or erase it a little with your own hands. Attach the multimeter to the contact and to the case, the device should not show any values, otherwise it is dangerous enough to do further repairs on the refrigerator compressor with your own hands. In the course of further work with the motor and the starting relay, precautions should be observed.
To test the current, you need a working relay, that is, before starting the tests, you must be sure that it works. It is most convenient to check the current with a multimeter, where the contact is made by tongs. With a motor power of 140 W, the current is 1.3 Amps. The ratio of values remains the same for other indicators of engine power.
Causes of Failures
All malfunctions in the operation of the device can be divided into two types. In the first case, everything works at first glance well, that is, the motor hums, the light is on. The reason may be a refrigerant leak, just check it yourself. It is enough to touch the condenser, it must be very hot. If refrigerant leaks, the condenser will be at room temperature. The second common cause is a breakdown of the thermostat, that is, a signal to raise the temperature just does not come.
If the refrigerator does not turn on at all, then in 20% of cases the problem comes down to a motor breakdown. If the motor is in good condition, but you need to repair the refrigerator compressor yourself, you need to successively check the main elements - the thermal sensor and the relay. Each device in case of breakage is subject to replacement. If everything works well, you need to change the compressor itself, tell you how to do it yourself.
How to replace the compressor?
In order to repair the compressor yourself, you need to prepare the appropriate tools:
- drive for freon;
- valves for piercing and extraction;
Burner is recommended to use oxygen-propane. Now you need to disconnect the device from the electrical network, free it from the products and boxes with grids, and then proceed with the repair work.
The compressor needs to be advanced and slightly lifted and broke the filling tube. The device starts up for five minutes, during which the freon completely goes to the condenser. A piercing valve is connected to which the hose from the cylinder is connected. The valve is unscrewed for 30 seconds, this time is enough to collect all the gas.
Instead of a refueling pipe, you need to solder a copper one, for this purpose a burner is used, but you can also use an ordinary soldering iron. Then, a few centimeters long incision is made on the capillary expander, then the tube is broken, and the filter is sealed off from the condenser.
Now you need to completely disconnect the compressor from the pipes( most often there are two of them - to build up pressure and suck off excess gas), that is, the compressor needs to be soldered. To install a new compressor, you must repeat all the steps in the reverse order. After all the work, make sure that the relay is working. If the launch was successful, then everything was done correctly.