Your private house is equipped with an autonomous water source and you want to organize the water supply of a private house from a well? Agree that it is very convenient to have completely independent communications. You have no practical experience in arranging the water supply system and you doubt your own abilities?
We will help you to cope with the task. After all, a person is able to live more than a month without food, but without water it will not last even three days. Therefore, the organization of uninterrupted supply of water from the well is a priority in your diary.
Useful advice on the arrangement of the water supply system, collected from our article, will come to the rescue.
Also here you will find step-by-step instructions with colorful photos and detailed diagrams. For a simpler perception of information, we picked up a video about the independent organization of an autonomous water supply system from a well.
The content of the article:
- Water for autonomous water supply
- Types of wells for private water supply
Subtleties of arrangement of the water supply system
- Stage # 1 - choosing the right place
- Stage # 2 - the definition of a general scheme
- Stage # 3 - equipment layout and location
- Stage # 4 - Pipe Laying Features
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Water for autonomous water supply
First of all, it is necessary to figure out what water is suitable for the device of autonomous water supply.
If you imagine everything is simple and accessible, there are three types of groundwater.
- Verkhovodka. What managed to seep into the soil, but has not yet become a stable aquifer. The weakest in quality water. It is easy to recognize it - the level of riding varies greatly depending on the season. Unsuitable for drinking water supply.
- Groundwater. More stable aquifers. The depth of occurrence is from several meters from the surface to several dozen. They are mainly used for the device of autonomous water supply.
- Artesian water. The deepest and most ancient waterpots. The depth of occurrence may exceed a hundred meters. Water is most often suitable for drinking purposes, but may be too hard, saturated with various minerals.
The water extracted from an autonomous source must undergo a cycle of comprehensive studies in the SES or other accredited water analysis organizations.
According to the results of the analyzes made, conclusions are made about the possibility of its use as a drinking or technical one.
A scheme simulating a hydrogeological profile without respecting the scale demonstrates the principle of the occurrence and distribution of groundwater.
The organization that conducted the water analysis may recommend an optimal purification scheme if the technical option can, after filtration, acquire the drinking category.
Types of wells for private water supply
Unsuitable for drinking vodovodka quite suitable for watering the garden, cleaning and similar needs. Getting it easier and cheaper by setting up a well-needle, also called abyssinian well. It is a column of thick-walled pipes VGP Ø from 25 to 40 mm.
The Abyssinian well is the easiest and cheapest way to get water for temporary supply of the dacha
The first link of the column is equipped with a tip and a filter arranged directly in the walls of the water-gas pipe. The Abyssinian well is not drilled, but driven into the ground with the help of a weighty woman, who is attached to the cable, thrown over the block.
This is the cheapest and easiest way to get water for temporary water supply. For summer residents who need only technical water and only in summer.
A photo of
Well needle, otherwise the Abyssinian well, is the easiest and cheapest way to arrange a water source for a private house
It is possible to break the Abyssinian well in one day. The only drawback is an average depth of 10–12 m, which rarely allows using water for drinking purposes.
Abyssinian well can be arranged within the house, placing pumping equipment in the basement or utility room
Well needle is great for extracting water for watering a garden with a garden and caring for a country site.
A set of equipment for the Abyssinian well
Abyssinian well in the basement of the house
Watering the garden of the needle well
Wells in the sand can supply water for both technical and drinking purposes. It all depends on the specific hydrogeological situation in the suburban area.
If the water carrier on top overlaps the layer of impermeable soils, then the water may well be a drinking discharge.
Water-resistant soils that prevent water penetration prevent the penetration of domestic wastewater. If the sand enclosing water does not have natural protection in the form of loam or solid sandy loam, it is likely that you will have to forget about the drinking purpose.
The walls of the well strengthen the column of steel casing, interconnected couplings or weld. Recently, polymer casing has been actively used, demanded by private traders because of the affordable price and corrosion resistance.
The construction of the well on the sand provides for the installation of a filter that prevents the penetration of gravel and a large sandy suspension into the barrel.
The device of a well on sand will cost much more than the Abyssinian well, but is cheaper than drilling in rocky soils.
Working part well filter should protrude beyond the limits of the aquifer from above and below by at least 50 cm. Those. its length should be equal to the sum of the thickness of the aquifer and at least 1 m of reserve.
The diameter of the filter should be 50 mm smaller than the diameter of the casing, so that it can be freely loaded and removed from the barrel for cleaning or repair.
Without a filter and partially without casing, wells can be dispensed with, the trunk of which is buried in rocky limestone. This is the deepest water intake, extracting water from cracks in the bedrock.
They serve longer analogs buried in the sand. The silting process is not peculiar to them, since there is no clay suspension and fine grains of sand in the water-bearing soils.
The risk of drilling an artesian well is that the zone of fracture with underground water can not be detected
The casing of artesian wells is arranged on the telescopic principle. Each underlying tier of the structure should be 50 mm past.
At a depth of over 100 m, it is permissible to use asbestos-cement pipes or drill a well without a casing at all, if the rock walls of a hydraulic structure are not necessary to be strengthened.
If more than 10 m of fractured rock that encloses groundwater is covered by an artesian well, the filter is installed. Its working part is obliged to cut off the entire thickness of the water supply.
The scheme of the water supply system of an autonomous house with one filter is typical for artesian wells that do not require multi-stage water treatment.
Subtleties of arrangement of the water supply system
The process of arranging the automated system water supply from the well straight into the house to meet domestic and business needs can be divided into several stages. Let us examine in more detail each of them.
Stage # 1 - choosing the right place
The first step is to determine the location of the well. Once they preferred to drill right under the house - the kitchen was often arranged in the basement and this solution seemed convenient.
But the fact is that with such an arrangement is problematic flush well if necessary. And if it fails, then it is impossible to drill a new one. So the best place for a well is somewhere outside, though not very far away.
Be sure to take into account sanitary standards. The intake point should be no closer than 20 meters from the sump or septic tank in clay soils: loams, sandy loams.
The presence of sand, capable of passing and “absorbing” domestic sewage, increases the specified distance to 50 meters.
The distance between the well and surface sources of pollution is allowed 20 m, since the well is considered to be a protected point of intake
It should be remembered that the further the water intake point is from the point of dismantling, the more funds will be spent on water supply device. To summer residents who are building a summer water supply system on the site, the distance from the source is not very interesting.
It should take into account lovers of permanent residence in the country. After all, for the construction of a stationary water system will need to dig a trench.
The Abyssinian well and small wells should not be located closer than 5 m to the foundation. Removing the underground water, they will at the same time drag particles of loose soil and gradually wash out the rock.
Over time, the process of such weakening can lead to subsidence and deformation of the foundation. But deep wells have practically no effect on the properties of the underlying rocks.
A photo of
Shallow wells should not be drilled less than 5 m from the basement. Closer location may cause undermining of the soil under the base of the house.
The place for drilling a deep well, the development of which will be carried out by the drilling crew, must be chosen so that it is where the machine gets to stand and the tower does not touch the power lines when lifting
Be sure to consider the option of arranging the water source and organize the caisson in the most convenient place.
The point for underground water intake should be positioned so that the water supply route is as short as possible and there are no turns.
Shallow well site
Deep well search
Caisson for water source
Optimum pipeline length
Stage # 2 - the definition of a general scheme
Structurally, the whole scheme looks simple. The main element is a pump. He raises the water from the depths. It may be located directly in the well (submersible type) or work on the surface (surface pump type). The first option provides a water intake from a greater depth.
Internal water supply is arranged either with a storage tank located in the attic, from which water flows to to the consumer by gravity, or with hydropneumatic installation, located in the basement or perov floor
The second is more convenient to install and maintain, it is preferable for large seasonal breaks (at the dacha, for example). But the surface pump does not provide lifting from depths of more than 8 meters.
Here it is also necessary to take into account the removal of horizontal sections on the surface - 10 meters of water transportation in the horizon are equal to the lift meter. By the way, another reason not to remove much of the well from the house.
A photo of
Step 1: Before connecting the hydroaccumulator to the water supply system, it is prepared: an angle tap is installed
Step 2: Before screwing in the spigot, the threads are tightly wrapped in a linseed compactor.
Step 3: The tap is screwed onto the accumulator nozzle with application of force when tightening
Step 4: A water pipe is connected to the outlet connected to the hydraulic tank; it is taken out of the tank to consumers
Preparation of the accumulator for connection
Compaction of the compound with sanitary flax
Spinning on the hydraulic tank
Connecting the water pipe to the tap
Then the water flows into accumulator tank. It is a steel or plastic tank. It has a rubber tank where air is pumped.
This compressible volume also creates pressure in the system and displaces water to the points of analysis — water, as is known, does not compress, but the air has this property.
Automatic controls the pressure drop. When the pressure drops below a predetermined level, it turns on the pump, and when it reaches it, it turns it off. This creates a stable pressure in the system and a normal flow of water to the points of analysis.
The power and volume of the hydroaccumulator (and pump) is selected with a small margin, based on the peak flow rate. That is, plus all the points: toilet, sink, shower and so on. If there is seasonal watering, then it is also taken into account when calculating.
Typical water supply scheme of a private house from a well equipped with a caisson
In addition to the pump and drive, the kit includes check valvethat prevents water from flowing back into the well; a safety valve that relieves pressure, various sensors and relays, valves and filters.
Sand skew filters are mandatory and prevent sand from entering the system. But fine filters need to choose, based on the composition of the produced water.
All lines of the autonomous water supply network must be shut off by stop valves. It is desirable that the connections are made collapsible - with the help of the so-called "American."
But in general, the final configuration of the whole scheme varies based on specific tasks. But the basis on the basis of the pump and hydroaccumulator always remains unchanged.
The water supply scheme from the well is not very complicated and can be assembled by hand.
Stage # 3 - equipment layout and location
When installing the water supply from the well with their own hands, the placement of equipment is often the most difficult. There are many options.
The most rational is to recognize caisson device - a special well at the well, where all the mechanisms are located. It turns out that the equipment is located directly at the water intake point and the cost of transportation across the horizon is minimal.
The second plus is silence in the house. The pumping station is quite a noisy device, so placing it outside the perimeter of the residential zone is justified.
Often the equipment of the pumping station is installed directly in the caisson of the well - quieter in the house
Caisson is a reinforced and insulated pit with insulated overlap, recessed to a depth below the calculated point of freezing.
This eliminates the freezing of the caisson - the fact is that the temperature on the ground at this depth is about the same throughout the year and is always above zero.
So with a normal warming of the walls and the tip of the caisson there is no risk of temperature drop. Ground structures in such cases work much worse.
If the device of the caisson is impossible for any technical reasons, the wellhead is closed with a sealed head
If it is not possible to build a caisson, then all the equipment can be placed in the house.
It is good if a separate room is allocated for this purpose.
With a thoughtful placement of equipment, it does not take up much space in the space allocated for it.
If it is not possible to allocate a separate isolated area for such purposes, you can use the bathroom for this purpose.
But if there is no space there, then you can look at the cabinets under the sink in the kitchen.
The storage tank, filters for water treatment and the heating system are best located in a specially arranged technical room.
Often placed under the stairs or in the closet, good for such purposes suitable basement or even a cellar - this type of equipment is not so cumbersome and unpretentious.
The main thing here is not the place of installation, but its correctness. And the location itself does not affect the quality of work at all. For ease of access, yes. But not to work.
Equipment can be placed in the kitchen cupboard under the sink - this is one of the most popular equipment placement options.
Stage # 4 - Pipe Laying Features
Pipes for mounting the entire system is better to take plastic, HDPE. They are lightweight, durable, reliable. They are not afraid of corrosion, there is no bacterial plaque on the inner surface.
Hydraulic shock resistant, can withstand the freezing of water inside them. Although this, of course, it is better not to bring. They just bend and cut. Laying directly into the ground is allowed.
Warming input on the way from the well to the house is never superfluous. Especially if cold winters are observed in the region.
In the area outside the house, pipes are laid at a depth below the freezing point. In extreme cases, there is a special low-temperature heating cable, which is passed into the pipe and connected to the electrical network.
It does not allow the water inside the highway to freeze even in extreme cold. But this is an extra power consumption - it is much simpler and more efficient to simply lay the pipe a little deeper.
If the laying of a stationary pipeline is made below the depth of seasonal soil freezing, only the section above the level of freezing is warmed.
It is better to make the introduction of the water supply system from the well into the house, too, at depth, underground. If this is not possible and you have to run a pipe into the house through the base, then this section is subject to compulsory insulation.
Moreover, the insulation should begin even below the level of freezing.
If you plan to exit the supply pipe within the freezing area, it should be to warm - at the same time warming has to begin on the site located below the settlement depth freezing
Already in the house installation can be done in any way: PVC pipes, copper, steel, and so on - to whom that is more convenient and easier.
The main thing that it was reliable and soundly.
Proper device of water supply from the well to the private house ensures trouble-free operation of the system and the absence of equipment breakdowns
Many questions are caused by the location of the sensors and their range, the rules for the installation of valves and safety valves.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The best help to clarify these dark places will be the video below.
Just remember the principle: always take all the parameters with a margin.
You can build a water supply system from a well with your own hands if you follow the instructions of the collections of construction and technological rules.
If you have big doubts in your abilities, it is better to invite specialists. And although this option will cost more than the arrangement of their own hands, but the result will please you. Moreover, you can save power and personal time.
Do you have experience in self-construction of wells and water supply? Or did you encounter certain difficulties in constructing a water supply system? Please share your experience in the comments to our article.