Warm water floor heating may be an additional source or serve as the main heating system. Effectiveness of the system depends on a competent design. It will play an important role and the selected heat water circuit of a floor - a method step and "drawing" pipe laying.
Before proceeding to the design of the heating circuit, it is necessary to study the general principles of the system installation, select the pipe and calculate the warm floor. All these factors are detailed in the article. In addition, we have prepared a detailed algorithm of drawing up schemes and led practical tips for underfloor heating company.
The content of the article:
- Design features underfloor heating
- General principles of installation of water systems such as
- Drafting and scheme
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Design features underfloor heating
It has long been known and quite popular warm water type floor. Narrow pipe enclosed in the concrete floor by a suitable floor covering. The system allowed the hot heat transfer fluid, which heats the room. Of course, the system does not only consist of pipes and tie, it includes many other important elements.
This type of heating provides a higher quality warming compared to traditional pipe systems. Heat is supplied from below and gradually moves upward. As a result, the room is heated more evenly.
It is believed that with this system you can save about 25% on heating costs. This is due not only to warm-quality, but with a relatively low temperature of the coolant, which should be not higher than 50 ° C.
Since the hidden pipe, excluded direct contact with heaters, i.e. the likelihood of burns completely ruled out. The interior of such a decision would benefit because there is no need to install radiators, grilles for them, etc.
The warm floor can walk barefoot, some housewives are laid out on the surface to wash clothes, it dries very quickly.
However, it is worth noting that such a system has significant drawbacks. For a start it is not easy installation, to be run very carefully. In addition, this option is available heating is not everything.
Can be easily installed water systems in virtually all private buildings, but there are substantial limitations for apartment buildings.
TP-plank installation systems have certain advantages over concrete option, however, and their installation have to spend a lot of money and energy (+)
Here, such a system can only be done on the ground floor, and after consultation with a number of organizations. central heating systems were not originally designed for such modifications, therefore, need to ensure that the adaptation will not disturb the hydrostatic equilibrium of the system.
Consideration should be given considerable weight of the screed and the risk of leakage. Identify the location of the pipe damage, hidden under the tie will not be easy, and quickly repair damage in this situation is practically impossible.
Therefore, in the apartments of high-rise buildings implementation of water underfloor heating for any wiring diagram under the ban, it is recommended to give preference to the electric system.
Water different embodiments of such high efficiency and economy only in areas with good thermal insulation.
The collector pipe TP must be properly connected to the boiler. If you plan to use central heating, it needs to be harmonized with the local engineering services (+)
Prior to installation of any heating system is recommended to insulate the building Check the windows and doors, and this is particularly important for the water system, because the temperature should remain low.
And if you use a floor covering that is sensitive to overheating, for example, linoleum or laminate, over the temperature level will have to monitor carefully.
There are also so-called flatness of options in addition to a concrete system. When they are used instead of concrete ties are used ready-made materials that do not require long drying. installation time at grazing technology is significantly less but costs will increase significantly.
Penoschit - variant for mounting TP, which combines the functions of a heater, the scribe grid, as well as elements that secure the tube
Depending on the materials distinguish such systems are available:
- modular wood.
Manifold for underfloor heating should be equipped with shut-off valves for each loop to remain a quick trip. This feature can be useful not only in the case of breakage.
If some rooms are not used in the winter, you can block the flow of coolant to the service of their path, which will reduce heating of the whole house costs.
Tin substrate for this type of systems consisting of neat modules mounted quite simple, with no need to wait as in the case with a concrete base, until it attains the necessary strength
Most often, everything for such systems use metal and plastic communication, which are relatively inexpensive, very reliable, and install them is not too difficult.
Another embodiment - copper pipes. They are used in such systems is not often, mainly because of the high cost. But such communication extremely reliable, so it makes sense to consider such an option.
Copper pipes for TP does not use too often, as analogues of polymeric materials are cheaper and easier to install
For details on selecting pipes for warm water floor written in this article.
General principles of installation of water systems such as
First you need to prepare the base: flatten it and cleaned of contaminants. Thereafter, insulation layer stack, often used for this purpose plate extruded polystyrene foam.
Such material is supplied in the form of slabs, which is not difficult to install. Thereafter, a heat insulating material veiled waterproofing film.
Before starting the installation of perimeter of the room put a damper tape to compensate for thermal expansion during operation. Over large areas it is set not only the walls, but in the middle of the room passing the seams.
If the insulation tape and stacked properly, the film can be neatly tuck the edge of the insulation material, it will lay down smoothly and with little tension.
Damper tape mounted on the perimeter of the room, it is necessary in the application of concrete screed for laying the TA, to compensate for thermal expansion
Above the film is necessary to lay pipes for hot water, at this stage should be implemented diagram laying of floor heating water, it is selected in advance. The pipes should be laid evenly, trying to maintain an equal distance between them to achieve an even floor heating.
Whatever the chosen TP scheme should be properly bend the pipe and carefully break it along the scribe grid to the floor heating was uniform
Arranged communication is connected to the distribution manifoldThrough which are connected to the heating system of the house, to the boiler, etc. Pipes pour concrete screed, then you must wait for it to dry completely. It remains to test it out and put the flooring.
Each loop of pipe is connected to the collector. Desirably, the individual sections of the system had approximately equal in length and flow resistance
When installing this type of system there is no detail. A small error can cause serious damage in the future.
So it makes sense to consider a number of useful tips before the start of installation work:
- Still better screed completely dismantled, and waterproofing and insulation put on the most solid foundation, carefully aligned horizontally.
- Do not think that under the screed substrate roughness will be invisible, all differences of more than 10 mm is necessary to carefully align.
- If in a room fit several individual circuits of the system, the space between them should be divided damper tape, not limited to its laying on the perimeter.
- In small areas as insulation is quite acceptable to use penofol.
- Above unheated basement or on the ground to do the most reliable insulation, for example, a layer of expanded clay, and polystyrene plates of 50 mm thick.
- When attaching the pipe to the mesh, should not be tightened too tight ties to avoid damaging the pipe.
- The pipe diameter for such a system can vary within 16-20 mm, the material must be rated for at least 10 bar and heated up to 95 degrees.
- With a limited budget should not spend money on the pipe with the options in the form of additional protection, although the reinforcement of polypropylene with glass fiber communication will not be superfluous.
- To automate the operation of the system, you need to properly select and install the reservoir, adding to its design actuators, pressure sensors, air and other useful devices.
- collector box is placed in a niche on the wall, it must rise above the floor level high enough to be able to properly bend the pipe included in it.
- All pipes should go down from the manifold and never - up to ensure correct operation of devices for air exhaust that has entered into the system.
- It is not recommended to make a niche for collector bearing walls, if no other choice, it is better just to install the cabinet on the wall, rather than inside it.
For obvious reasons, to fix the flaws after the installation of such a system can be very difficult, so you should carry out all the operations very closely. For example, each loop should consist of one single tube, no adhesions, and any other compound unacceptable.
Drafting and scheme
Design - is the first step in creating a floor heating systems. First, you need to consider whether it will be the main or only an auxiliary heating option.
After this, take a sheet of paper and draw a fixed arrangement of furniture in the room plan. For example, it makes no sense to warm up under the ceiling built-in closet or under the automatic washing machine.
possible to develop various embodiments for Improvement based on the schema "snake" or "spiral". For example, double snake is suitable for long and narrow room (+)
It is worth noting the position of each of the object and specify the exact dimensions. Thereafter, a specific circuit may be left pipe layouts. Generally use only two main types of layouts. One of them is called the snake, and the second - a spiral or a snail. The first option is easier to implement.
Pipes are laid on one end of the room to another, and then fed back to the collector. But there is a major drawback of this method. The coolant, moving through the tube will gradually give off heat and cool. As a result, a long tube would be at the beginning is much hotter than the end.
This is an example of using scheme "snake" in a spacious room for the uniform heating of the entire space. However, a large number of turns will increase the hydraulic resistance of the system
In small areas such value has no difference, but in a spacious room floor in different parts will warm uniformly. To avoid this problem, use snail scheme. In this case, the pipe is carried out first along the perimeter walls, moving toward the center of the room.
Here, the pipe should form a neat loop. From the center of the gasket continues in the opposite direction parallel to the already laid pipe. Result is that the coolant which has reached the center of the room, while returning a reverse helix will absorb some of the thermal energy of the coolant fresh.
In one room can be used simultaneously two different laying schemes tubes to ensure uniform heating of the entire room (+)
Choosing a mounting scheme for water floor heating in the apartment, you need to take into account the dimensions of the room. For example, in the hallway or bathroom can do a snake, but in large areas need to use a helical stacking.
For complex configuration space is recommended to use the combined version. If you put the right helix it is possible not all, the individual small areas can be arranged snake.
Another important point, which affects the quality of warm - the length of each pipe section. It should be about the same, to ensure an even flow of coolant and qualitative warming of the floor areas.
The smaller the spacing between the loops of the system, the higher the flow tube. This table will help to calculate the lengths of the individual sections
Sometimes the type of snake scheme may be suitable for those rooms that cools unevenly. It is necessary to arrange it so that the start pipe, which receives hot coolant, were there, where the coldest zone.
Combine the different schemes and the passage of such smaller spaces, like a balcony, a loggia, etc.
Begin charting project to determine the heat. At this stage it is necessary to think about the insulation space and take if necessary, additional measures: warm facade, insulated ceiling, Repair the windows, put new doors, etc.
Based on the data, determine how much tubing you will need, how to move them to be stacked, and other system parameters.
Then you can start charting pipe laying.
First of all, you need to choose a suitable place for the collector. If you plan to heat only a small separate room section (bathroom, closet, hallway), it cope with will not be difficult to plan.
But do not think that if the area is small, all the work can be done "by eye". The exact parameters for a large house to determine not just better to entrust the implementation of all settlements experienced.
In addition, there are programs that help make the calculations automatically. If you intend to install underfloor heating in the room complex configuration, it is better to ask for help from an engineer.
To perform the calculations required for designing the system, you should use the following settings:
- length, width and configuration of the premises;
- the type of insulation material;
- Material of walls and ceilings;
- chosen material for a floor covering;
- diameter pipes, which circulates the coolant;
- what material will be made of communication.
After processing the received data is a pipe length required for each specific section, as well as a step that must be maintained for each site.
Over large areas it is not always possible to heat these rooms using only one long tube. Most likely, it will have to be divided into several sections for installation on different sites.
It is also associated with such an important indicator as resistance to hydrostatic system. The greater the length of the tube, the higher the resistance. The number of turns can also affect this figure.
Usually calculations warm floor is performed separately for each room. It should be remembered that it is impossible to lay the pipe close to the walls, you need to back off about 10 cm.
Pipes are laid with a pitch which varies between 10-30 cm. The normal spacing between the turns of the pipe of 30 cm. With the passage of difficult areas where heat loss is higher step make less - 15 cm.
Root pipe installation must be from the outer wall, which is colder and requires additional heating. Mounting the thus is not always possible, in this case recommended to insulate the further pipe section at the entrance to the premises to cool portion.
This will keep the heat energy in order to use it in this problem area.
If the system parameters are calculated correctly, even at relatively low heating temperature of heating to be effective and uniform (+)
If the calculations performed by the system unprofessional, it can lead to serious problems, which will be revealed only in the course of operation. This can be a normal uneven floor heating when the heating in some areas stronger, and the so-called "thermal zebra".
In this case, on the floor of the cold and warm formed the band, making use of the system is not very comfortable.
Correct this situation will not be easy, it will take almost dismantle the entire system and perform the installation again in accordance with the correct calculations.
Less obvious problems arising due to faults in the design, this heat leakage and reducing coolant velocity movement. As a result, the cost of heating will grow, but the house is not heated properly.
For more information about performing calculations in the article:
- Calculation of pipes for floor heating: the selection of the parameters of pipes, the selection step of laying + calculation example
- Screed for a warm floor water: selecting the thickness and popular methods device
Some experts recommend to allocate heating loggias and balconiesAnd premises with high heat losses separate circuit. This will allow to bring a sufficient amount of heat and up to the balcony and to an adjacent room with him.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Detailed information on the installation of this type of system is contained in the video:
Radiant floor heating - convenient system, but to call it simple to install is not necessary. Proper design, precise calculations, the selection of quality materials and components will create a really effective heating option.
Do you have personal experience in the design and construction of water underfloor heating? Want to share accumulated knowledge or ask questions on the topic? Please leave comments and participate in the discussions - the feedback form located below.