- Tagetes erecta
- Velvets rejected( Tagetes patula)
- fine leaved Marigold( Tagetes tenuifolia),
- most important thing about marigold - Tagetes
video - this is one of the favorite annual flowers gardeners. Almost at every site you can find lush bushes with carved foliage and bright flowers, publishing a spicy scent familiar from childhood. The velvet flowers bloom almost all summer, delighting with an abundance of inflorescences.
Description of the plant
Marigolds or Tagetes, belong to the genus of annual and perennial plants of the Aster family. Erect branched stems form a bush with a height from 20 to 120 cm. The leaves are pinnate, openwork, and rooty system is fibrous. Inflorescences - baskets, simple or terry, yellow, orange or brown flowers. Abundant flowering from mid-summer to frost. Fruit - achene, 1 g contains up to 700 seeds. The whole plant has a spicy aroma. It grows best in sunny places, although it tolerates a slight shading. The soil should be nutritious, moderately hydrated.
Marigolds are widely used to create flower groups, rabatok. Low-growing varieties are beautiful in the borders, and in the arrays on the lawn. Planted in a pot, can bloom in the room for a long time. The culture is suitable for cultivation in balcony boxes, containers. Cut inflorescences are long in the water.
Agrotechnology of growing
Tagetes is unpretentious, it grows and blooms in almost any conditions, but with good care the bushes look much more decorative. It is grown in two ways - seedling and sowing seeds in the ground.
Descentless method of growing marigolds
Marigolds are grown by sowing seeds in the ground at different times:
- Before winter, after the onset of a steady minus. They form ridges in advance, make grooves and store up some land in a warm place. Seeds are sown in dry ground and sprinkled with stored soil. Top mulched quail sawdust, compost, leaf litter. In the spring, when the last frosts are bypassed, mulch is raked so that the soil warms faster.
- In the spring, in mid-April - early May, marigolds are sown on warmed ridges or greenhouses. After sowing, the grooves are shed with warm water.
In the beginning - middle of May tagges are sown directly in the ground at a permanent place. The emerged shoots thin out, leaving at least 10 cm between plants. When several true leaves appear on the seedlings, they are planted at a distance of 30–40 cm.
How to grow marigold seedlings in the greenhouse
The marigolds from seeds are successfully grown in a greenhouse. Landing dates occur when weather forecasters no longer promise to lower night temperatures below –1 –3 ° C.The soil in the greenhouse quickly thaws already in the first warm days of April.
In order to prevent sprouted seedlings from catching night frost, use covering material. Also in the greenhouse you can put containers with water. It heats up during the day and gradually gives off heat at night, maintaining the temperature several degrees higher than outside.
Shoots appear in a week. Care marigold seedlings is regular watering with warm water, loosening and weeding. If the soil was prepared in advance, young plants do not need separate dressings. If necessary( weak growth, yellowing of the leaves), foliar spraying is carried out with a 1-3% urea solution. By mid-May, seedlings are ready for transplanting into open ground.
How to grow marigold seedlings at home
The most reliable way to get flowering plants in the early stages is to plant marigolds on seedlings. Like the main seedlings - peppers and eggplants, they are sown in late February - in March. More accurate dates depend on the climate and region of residence.
The soil for sowing marigolds is prepared in the following proportions:
- 1 part of compost;
- 1 part peat;
- 1 part of garden land;
- 0,5 parts of sand.
A layer of drainage is being poured at the bottom of the tank - broken brick, expanded clay, and coarse sand. Then - prepared soil mixture. It is slightly compacted and watered. In water for irrigation, you can add a drug for fungal diseases, as the seedlings of Tagetes often suffer from blackleg. A few days later, when the earth settles and evenly soaked with moisture, make grooves and lay out the seeds of marigolds in them.
Sprinkle on top of the earth and a little more moist. Pots covered with glass or film and put in a warm bright place. The coating is regularly removed for airing. After the first shoots appear, the film is removed and the containers are moved to a sunny place. Until the seedlings appear the first true leaves, water very moderately to prevent the disease of the black leg.
Caring for seedlings at home is no different from agrotechnics of growing seedlings in the open field: timely watering, feeding and good lighting will allow you to get the first flowers marigolds in June.
Planting seedlings in open ground
The optimal distance between plants when planting marigolds in open ground is 0.4–0.5 m for upright varieties. Low-growing can be planted a little more. The place should be sunny, without stagnation of air.
Plants are transplanted along with a clod of earth. Before planting marigolds should be watered so that the roots do not dry out during transplantation. It is advisable to prepare a place for future flower beds even in the autumn - to add phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, ashes and dig up. When planting seedlings in the ground under each root add compost, carbamide or saltpeter. But you should not be zealous with nitrogen, so that the plants do not grow fat, that is, do not increase the green mass to the detriment of flowering. Greater benefit to the velvet ribbon will bring spraying solution of micronutrients for flowers. They do this after the plants have taken root, they have grown into stature and have begun to pick up buds.
Taking care of tagetes in open ground
The marigolds are moisture-loving, but they do not like long-term stagnation of water. Therefore, watering should be moderate. After watering the land necessarily loosened. For abundant flowering several times per season, the flowers are fed with an extract of mullein or liquid fertilizer from nettle and other weeds.
To maintain a high ornamental content, faded buds are torn off. Thickened spots are easy to cut with pruning, using cut flowers for bouquets.
Diseases, treatment and prevention of
Due to their phytoncid content, marigolds are less prone to disease than other crops. However, conditions that are unsuitable for them can cause the disease gray mold and the invasion of spider mites. Specimens that are sick with rot destroy, reduce watering in healthy ones, and spray them with anti-fungal drugs. For spider mite, taggettes is treated with infusion of garlic, wormwood, red pepper or tobacco dust. In case of severe damage, the plants are sprayed with the solutions of the drugs "Actellic", "Fufanon", "Antiklesch", "Fitoverm".
Plant marigolds on sun-blown places, not thickening, and the plants will bloom more abundantly and hurt less.
How to harvest and preserve marigold seeds
With good care in the open ground, marigolds planted in May and June will form withered and dried seeds filled with seeds by the middle of August. They are rather large and resemble an arrow with a black tip and light plumage. For seeds collect the largest specimens. The collected seeds are dried in a dry place and cleaned, freeing from the husk.
Seeds are harvested only from varietal marigolds, hybrids are not suitable for this, as they inherit the signs of only one of the parents.
Well dried seeds are poured into fabric bags and stored at 1–5 ° C and humidity 50–60%.In such conditions, planting material does not lose its germination for several years.
A bunch of cut marigold heals the air in the room, frightens off flies. Dried petals in some countries are used as seasoning. In the Caucasus, it is known as Imereti saffron. Leaves treat constipation, fever, used as a diuretic and diaphoretic. In large doses, marigold leaves act as an emetic. Lutein contained in flowers reduces the likelihood of developing cataracts and improves visual acuity. Baths with the infusion of Tagetes relax, relieve anxiety. They are recommended to take at bedtime for depression and neurosis. Tincture of the plant copes well with stomatitis and skin diseases.
On an industrial scale, marigolds are grown to produce essential oil.
The raw material for it is the entire aboveground part of the plants. Butter has a sweet fruity aroma with a light citrus note. It has a sedative, antifungal, antihypertensive, antiseptic effect. Well softens the skin, at the same time scaring away flying flies and mosquitoes. Helps healing of cuts, scratches, softens corns.
Tagetes oil is a popular ingredient in many French perfumes.