Today, consumers are increasingly choosing energy-efficient household and industrial lighting devices. However, in addition to economy, an important role is played by the quality of the backlight. A worthy alternative to traditional light sources are induction lamps.
They emit a soft light that is pleasant to the eyes and does not change the objective perception of objects. Let's understand the device and the principles of operation of induction lamps.
The content of the article:
- Device and principle of operation
Induction lamp varieties
- Electrodeless light bulbs classification
- Options and labeling
- The benefits of using IL
- Scope of use of IL
- Street and road lighting
- Safe industrial light sources
- Illumination in greenhouses and greenhouses
- IL selection rules
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Device and principle of operation
The primary source of light in an induction bulb is plasma, artificially created as a result of the ionization of a high-frequency gas mixture by an electromagnetic field.
The current generates an alternating electric field, causing the occurrence of a gas discharge in a glass flask. Excited mercury generates UV radiation, which is converted into visible light through the phosphor.
Induction lamps belong to the category of gas-discharge light sources, more details about which are written in this stuff.
The design of the induction lamp includes three basic functional elements:
- gas discharge tube;
- induction coil with a ferrite ring;
- electronic ballast.
Inside the tube are mercury amalgam drops. The flask itself is filled with a gas of low chemical reactivity — argon / krypton, and its inner surface is coated with an inorganic phosphor.
The induction coil and the electromagnet form a high-frequency magnetic field, under the influence of which free electrons are accelerated, collide and excite mercury atoms.
The result is ultraviolet radiation. Phosphor it is transformed into a visible bright glow.
As in simple fluorescent light bulbs, the combination of different phosphors in the coating of the flask IL gives different colors. The most common devices with a colorimetric temperature of 3500 K, 4100 K, 5000 K, 6500 K
The electronic ballast is connected to a DC 12 V / 24 V source or to a sinusoidal voltage network of 120 V / 220 V / 380 V.
The starter control system transforms 50 Hz alternating current into direct current, and then into high-frequency current from 190 kHz to 2.65 MHz.
This RF current and creates a magnetic field. In addition, the starter generates a strong starting pulse that ignites the induction light source.
To ensure the stable operation of the electrodeless lighting device, the control system can also change the strength of the electric current and its frequency through the inductor coil.
In order to reduce the scattering of the high-frequency electromagnetic field, lamps are equipped with ferrite shields and / or special cores.
The main difference between inductive energy-saving lamps and other light sources is the absence of filaments and contact thermal cathodes. In induction lamps electromagnets are located outside, i.e. there is no direct contact of the electrodes with the ionized gaseous medium.
This makes the balloon of the lighting device more uniform and approximately equally loaded in temperature.
With prolonged operation of such illumination, the cracking of the glass bulb is not observed; over time, the electrode material does not deposit on the walls.
The absence of incandescent electrodes, which are necessary for the ignition of ordinary light bulbs, makes it possible to achieve an incredibly long lifetime of induction lamps - up to 120,000 hours of operation.
Some manufacturers even claim a service life of up to 150,000 hours. This indicator is 10 times greater than the durability of simple fluorescent light bulbs, gas-discharge LVD, mercury-tungsten and sodium lighting fixtures.
In addition, the lifetime of the induction light sources is approximately 2-3 times longer than the lifetime of the LEDs.
Induction lamp varieties
For the first time, the lamp without contact electrodes was demonstrated by Nikola Tesla back in 1893 at the World Exhibition in Chicago. The lighting device presented to the public was powered by the Tesla coil's magnetic field. And the first reliable prototype of the induction light source was created by John Melvin Anderson in 1967.
Electrodeless light bulbs classification
In 1994, General Electric introduced the GENURA compact energy-saving lamp with an integrated high-frequency generator in the base.
Serial production of induction fluorescent lamps started in the 1990s.
Today, PHILIPS Lighting, GE Lighting and OSRAM Licht AGO are the leaders in the production of electrodeless energy efficient lighting. The table shows the parameters and the cost of different models of lamps of these manufacturers.
Depending on the type of construction, induction light sources are:
- with integrated ballast - electric generator and lamp are combined in one block;
- with a separate electronic starter - the external generator and the lamp are spaced devices.
Depending on the method of placement of the coil, these lamps are also divided into devices with an external (low-frequency) and internal (high-frequency) inductor.
In the first case, a coil with a ferromagnetic rod is wrapped around a cylinder. The operating frequency of light bulbs with external induction lies in the range of 190-250 kHz.
They have the best conditions for intensive heat exchange with the environment, since the coil outside the sealed flask easily dissipates the heat generated by the device. The service life of low-frequency devices - up to 120000 hours.
In the second case, the induction coil with the wound core is located inside the glass bulb. The heat released is in the cavity of the lighting device, and therefore the lamps with internal induction heat up more.
Their operating frequency is in the range of 2-3 MHz. The resource of such light sources does not exceed 75,000 hours.
In appearance, devices with an internal inductor resemble vacuum light bulbs. But the models with an external inductor are in the form of a ring or a rectangle
Both high-frequency and low-frequency lamps have a large margin of safety and are distinguished by a long service life.
Options and labeling
Currently, companies that specialize in lighting have started mass production of induction bulbs of various shapes. Design features and versions are traced in their labeling.
The first two alphabetical characters in the cipher determine the type of device (IL - induction lamp), the third indicates the form. After the letter designation is usually announced power.
ILK - induction bulbs round shape. They have high luminous efficacy and a large range of spectrophotometric temperatures. Suitable for installation in round and oval lamps.
Such light sources are actively used to illuminate warehouses, spacious production and repair shops, shopping malls, sports facilities.
ILSH - lamps in the form of a ball. Made in the traditional form of conventional vacuum lighting devices of high power. Create a soft light and light up almost instantly.
Suitable for replacement incandescent bulbs energy efficient light sources without the need to change the lamp itself.
ILSH is installed in searchlights to illuminate hotels and restaurants, supermarkets, as well as in street and industrial lamps
ILU - U-shaped bulbs. They are devices with a separate generator. Radiate bright white light, do not flicker when working.
They are used to illuminate stadiums, tunnels, subways and highways, advertising stands, signage and other objects.
ILB, ILBK - lamps with a ring-shaped flask. In them the generator, the coil and the tube are combined in a single unit. They generate a soft light that does not blind, quickly and easily lit at temperatures down to -35 ° C.
Similar constructions are used to illuminate hotels and marketplaces, parks and squares, private homesteads.
Separately, it should be said about the induction phytolamps for plants. They differ in the shape of the glass bulb and the color of the radiation.
Different models of induction fitolamp are suitable for lighting green spaces in a certain period of growth and development. Series of such products designate TIL. The following two letters indicate the specific lamp model.
Phytolamps induction GP and VG are designed to highlight plants at the stage of vegetative growth. They are dominated by a blue emission spectrum.
FL devices are used in the initial phase of fruit formation, as well as to accelerate the formation of colors. They emit red light.
Bulbs of the KL model are universal. Such light sources make it possible to control the growth of plantations. They generate a rich red light, necessary for the full development of the fruits of plants and abundant flowering.
- ILK-40 - 40 W round induction lamp;
- TILPVG-120 - rectangular fitolamp induction with a power of 120 W, VG model for the initial stage of vegetative growth of plants.
The emission of an induction bulb is 97% consistent with the solar spectrum, and therefore it is excellent for artificial lighting of greenhouse complexes.
The benefits of using IL
Electrodeless lamps generate a soft light that is comfortable for the eyes to see. Shades of flowers are not distorted.
The brightness of such lamps can be changed in the range of 30-100% with a simple dimmer for incandescent devices.
The content of solid-state mercury in modern induction lamps is several times lower than in conventional fluorescent gas-filled lamps.
Even after 75,000 hours of operation, induction devices retain the level of light power at around 80-85% of the original.
Ordinary daylight fluorescent lamps near the end of their lifespan lose up to 55% brightness. Over time, dark opaque circles form on their flasks.
Advantages of using induction electrodeless lamps:
- Efficiency of 90%;
- resource of work to 150 000 hours;
- light output greater than 90-160 lm / W;
- optimal conditions for visual perception of objects;
- operating temperature range from -35 ° C to +50 ° C;
- color rendering ratio Ra˃80;
- high energy efficiency;
- minimum heating of the flask;
- unlimited number of start / stop cycles;
- lack of pulsation;
- the ability to adjust the intensity of the glow;
- The warranty period is 5 years.
Manufacturers claim that induction light sources have better technical characteristics than LEDs and are several times cheaper. The power consumption of these types of light bulbs is about the same.
Modernized lighting devices that do not contain thermal cathodes and filament are used for both indoor and outdoor lighting.
Scope of use of IL
Electrodeless lamps have built-in protection against short-circuit (short circuit) and voltage surges.
Induction lamps are resistant to vibration loads and accidental shocks, they work stably even at low air temperatures.
Due to high luminous efficiency with a small consumption of electricity, they are used in different areas:
- for the organization of high-quality street lighting;
- in shopping malls and hotel complexes;
- in office centers and domestic premises;
- for lighting spacious workshops and warehouses at industrial sites;
- for lighting greenhouses and greenhouses;
- for highway and tunnel lighting;
- for the organization of explosion-proof lighting at the gas station.
Due to the stability of the parameters, mercury electrodeless lamps are used as precision point sources of UV radiation in spectrometry.
In addition, the principle of induction excitation of gas is used in the process of pumping energy from external sources into the working medium of lasers.
However, due to the presence of high-frequency electromagnetic radiation induction lamps are not installed at railway stations and airports.
Also, these bulbs can cause interference with simultaneous work with ultra-sensitive laboratory and medical equipment. Therefore, in rooms with similar special equipment they are not recommended to use.
Street and road lighting
The most effective road lighting can provide street lamps with induction energy-efficient lamps. This type of lighting ensures comfortable visibility for both drivers and pedestrians.
Road lights have a solid console mount and mounted on poles, as well as standard supports. They are used to illuminate the park areas and squares, streets and squares, highways and parking lots, embankments, courtyards.
Instant start of IL minimizes energy losses and allows for the most efficient use of the lighting system This makes it possible to organize the backlight using motion sensors.
As an example - instant start of lighting on motorways in places where there is a movement of cars and pedestrians.
In addition, the sensitive motion sensor can be combined with a programmable twilight switch.
The device is customized for specific values of illumination. If the light level is insufficient, the sensor will give a command to turn on the lamps.
The possibility of dimming allows you to successfully use intelligent systems to effectively manage street lighting.
By controlling the brightness of the induction lamps with the power control and astronomical timer real savings of electrical energy can be achieved, as well as significantly reduced costs for maintenance.
The introduction of intelligent systems makes it possible to control the state of lighting, measure and analyze data on the energy consumption of lamps.
Safe industrial light sources
The use of devices based on induction technology is a cost-effective solution for the modernization of lighting systems of industrial enterprises.
Induction lamps are of high build quality and do not need regular maintenance. They significantly reduce electricity consumption and help improve the profitability of production.
Industrial lighting devices have an IP54 protection class, which allows operation even in the conditions of pollution and high humidity. They can be installed in unheated and poorly ventilated areas.
Tempered glass in combination with silicone insulation reliably protects the case from ingress of foreign matter and water.
There are also industrial explosion-proof models of IL. They not only provide high-quality lighting, but also prevent the occurrence of flammable situations. Such devices increase safety at work.
An antistatic polymer coating is applied to the case of induction explosion-proof luminaires.
Thanks to this composition, the lighting devices are characterized by impact resistance and resistance to negative temperatures.
Special intrinsically safe coating is not destroyed even in an alkaline and acid environment and is capable of maintaining its properties for 30 years.
Illumination in greenhouses and greenhouses
The spectrum of the induction lamp by 75% corresponds to the photosynthetically active radiation required for active growth and long-term flowering of plants.
That is why electrodeless-type bulbs use as additional sources in greenhouses and greenhouses, for lighting standard and compact grow boxes, direct, side and inter row lighting plants.
The operating temperature of induction lighting does not exceed 60 degrees Celsius, which allows them to be located close to the greenery
The use of such lamps in the gro-boxes makes it possible to significantly reduce the cost of cooling tanks.
The use of IL also allows you to pre-design and separately install the lighting for each zone of the greenhouse.
To correct and direct the maximum light in the desired sector using optical surfaces - screens. They focus the radiation at a particular site.
And with the help of special reflectors, artificial light is evenly distributed over the entire height of green spaces.
IL selection rules
When choosing induction lighting devices, it is important to consider their design features, performance characteristics, and safety.
Only with the observance of such an approach can the IL be considered an expedient acquisition.
Today, in specialized stores it is easy to find induction electrodeless lamps with a capacity from 15 W to 500 W. But there are more powerful, designed for various production needs.
Oval lamp bulbs are available for luminaires with standard E14, E27 and E40 cartridges.
There are also special rectangular and ring types of induction lighting devices that can operate both in AC and DC.
It is worth noting that induction bulbs in the shape of a sphere will be larger in size than conventional devices with a filament, since the high-frequency current generator is hidden in the base. This is important to consider when buying.
All induction lamps and electrodeless lamps are subject to mandatory certification.
Therefore, it is safe to talk about their security. Amalgam is in a sealed flask and subject to the basic rules of operation, its leakage is excluded.
However, you need to understand how standard fluorescent lamps, induction require appropriate disposal because of the presence of mercury compounds and electronic components.
Solid amalgam - an alloy of mercury with other metals - can be reused. The glass from the lamp is also handed over for processing, but separately from the phosphor.
Lamps with induction technology do not belong to environmentally friendly types of lighting and in this criterion are much inferior to LEDs.
It is necessary to add that the induction-type light bulb does not immediately enter its stable luminous flux. At the start, it produces about 80% of the total radiation.
In order for this figure to reach its maximum, an electrodeless lamp needs 2-3 minutes. During this time, the amalgam is sufficiently heated and the required amount of mercury evaporates.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Induction lamps - a new generation of discharge lamps. The principle of operation of this type of lighting:
What makes lamps induction, features of lamps of this type and scope of application:
The advantages of using modern induction light sources in industrial plants:
Proper installation of induction lamps in compliance with all standards and regulations allows efficient use of energy-saving technology. Today, such light sources are a reasonable alternative to traditional approaches to the organization of lighting.
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