You have to replace the cartridge for the bulb with a new one, but you don’t know how to do it correctly, so as not to damage important wires and nodes? For such a simple job you do not want to call an electrician, whose services will be very expensive, right? Or do you need to upgrade your home power grid with the replacement of individual elements?
We will help to deal with the peculiarities of connecting various cartridges - the article discusses the main types and marking of factory electrical cartridges.
Also provides instructions for connecting the cartridge with screw terminals and consider the existing options for mounting it in lighting installations. Pictorial photos with step-by-step process of connection and installation, and videos showing the replacement of the cartridge, the correct connection of wires to it were selected.
The content of the article:
- Purpose and features of the cartridge
Types of electric cartridges on the type of basement
- №1 - popular threaded options
- No. 2 - variety of pin varieties
- Factory marking
How to connect the cartridge?
- Fastening methods in lighting
- Connection option with screw terminals
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Purpose and features of the cartridge
The production or home electrical network consists not only of wires and fixtures, but also of a variety of electrical installations that serve to control or connect individual parts of the circuit.
The cartridge connects the base of the lamp with an electrical cable and simultaneously fixes it in a lamp, chandelier, or simply holds it in suspension.
The problem of fast lamp replacement arose immediately, as electric lighting was invented, that is, at the end of the 19th century. The first lamps had caps, but the methods of connecting them to the wires were different and did not have a classification.
In 1881, Edison patented the first screw-type base and cartridge for it. Thus, the most popular types of socles and cartridges remain relevant for over 130 years.
Of course, they were originally invented incandescent lamps. Then gas-discharge and light-emitting diodes appeared, for their installation both usual and structurally different types of cartridges were required.
Same sizes make it easy to replace: instead of an incandescent lamp, a more economical alternative can be screwed into the same cartridge - a LED with a screw base or a filament “pear”
For the manufacture of modern cartridges using various materials, among which you can find the traditional metal and ceramics, as well as heat-resistant polymers and even silicone.
The latter option is most often used to create design compositions. Silicone products are equipped with an electrical cord of 1 m and painted in all colors of the rainbow.
A photo of
When buying plastic products, it is necessary to observe the parameters of recommended lamp power especially carefully.
Ceramics is considered one of the best materials for cartridges: it does not melt and does not deform, it withstands high heating temperatures
Chinese retro cartridges are most often made of steel, but coated with brass, chrome, copper, etc. There are products from non-ferrous metals, but they are more expensive.
Like plastic, silicone does not withstand high temperatures, so it is intended for use mainly LED lamps
Heat-resistant plastic for low-power lamps
Ceramic products with metal liners
Metal cartridges with a dusting
Decorative silicone products of different colors
When buying a sconce, chandelier or another lamp you need to carefully consider the recommendations. manufacturer: if you install too powerful lamps, cartridges can fail, and the ceiling deform.
Types of electric cartridges on the type of basement
As already mentioned above, two large categories of cartridges remain in demand - under the threaded base and under the pins. They are often universal, meaning they are suitable for different types of lamps.
For example, equipped with incandescent lamps and stylized under them LED devices.
But some products can only interact with one option. Let us consider in more detail their design features and technical characteristics, on which you need to rely when choosing.
№1 - popular threaded options
Cartridges with internal thread are designed for lamps with a threaded base. Dimensions are usually denoted in the same way: for example, for a lamp with an E14 base, an appropriate E14 cartridge is required, although a variant with an adapter from E27 to E14 is possible.
Numbers 14 and 27 designate the diameter, while 27 is often considered as the classic size, and 14 is called the minion.
LEDs have come to replace incandescent bulbs: in stores you can encounter a large assortment of LED bulbs for E14 and E27 threaded chucks from various manufacturers
A total of 8 sizes of bases, therefore, the same number of rounds for them: E5, E10, E12, E14, E17, E26, E27, E40.
Diagram of a threaded plastic cartridge. The “phase” and “zero” conductors are inserted into the cartridge through the upper hole and fixed inside the case with screws. If there is a "ground", then it is fed to the metal parts of the lamp.
The most popular are plastic products. They have a limited service life and are subject to the requirements set forth in GOST 2746.1-88. The method of mounting the cartridge may be different and be suspended, with a straight or inclined flange.
The first is used for mounting to the ceiling or mounting fixtures, and flange - for installation on the surface.
A popular example of a lamp with a flange chuck is a table lamp-night light. The type of flange is straight, therefore, the light bulb is positioned strictly vertically
Table of the characteristics of the most common threaded sockets for connecting lamps to the electrical network, which differ in size. The larger the diameter of the cartridge, the higher the power and load current.
|Cartridge size||Maximum power, W||Load current, A||Purpose|
|E14||440||2||Cartridge with internal thread ∅14 mm, which is also called the "minion". We use for household type incandescent lamps with low power|
|E27||880||4||Cartridge with internal thread ∅27 mm, which is considered traditional, but is increasingly replaced by 14 mm. Used for various types of medium power lamps|
|E40||3500||16||Ceramic cartridge with internal thread ∅40 mm. It is used to connect high-power lamps required for street or industrial lighting.|
The body is made of various types of plastic, so before using the lamp it is necessary to study the marking - find out the allowable power of the lighting device.
If you screw in a high-power bulb, the plastic will melt or gradually break from regular heating.
No. 2 - variety of pin varieties
Requirements and standards relating to pin cartridges are placed in GOST R 60400-99. They operate from a network of 220 V. The letter G indicates the type of cartridge (pin), and the next number - the distance between the two holes for the pins.
If the contacts are not 2, but 4, then the diagonal distance between the opposite holes (grooves) is indicated. Special types are marked with additional Latin letters or numbers.
Cartridges with “G” marking are used, among other things, for installation of spotlights in suspended structures. For this purpose, in stretch ceilings, mortgages to the concrete base are mounted.
Cartridges for pins are used for domestic and industrial premises, as well as for lamps, which installed on the street - along the park paths, the carriageway, to illuminate the playgrounds or the house adjoining territory.
|Cartridge size||Maximum power, W||Load current, A||Purpose|
|G4-G10||60||5||Versions from G4 to G10 inclusive are suitable for mounting low-power halogen lamps. The number after “G” is the distance in millimeters between the pins|
|G9||60||5||Lamps for G9 holders have a loop-shaped flat base, which is inserted into special grooves|
|GU10||50||5||Analogue of the cartridge for the base G10. The bulbs at the ends of the pins have thickenings that are inserted into the holes and then fixed with a pivoting motion.|
|G13||80||4||Cartridge for linear lamps for various purposes. Features - double use and swivel connection mechanism|
|GX53||50||5||Analog G10, but with an increased distance between the pins - 53 mm. Designed for installation in suspended structures, therefore, has a minimum thickness.|
To install the U-shaped and cylindrical lamps use cartridges GX23, G24, 2G7. They differ in the number of contacts - 2 or 4, have a load current of 2 A. The recommended lamp power is up to 75 W (for 2G7 - 50 W).
Schematic images of bases and patrons of some types of pin and pin lamps. Usually, no pin adapters are used for the pin connection, as is possible with threaded counterparts E14-E27
Thus, pin cartridges can differ in the following characteristics:
- case material;
- inner liner material;
- type of attachment of the cartridge to the base and wires;
- number of contacts;
- the distance between the pins.
All listed parameters can be specified when marking the product.
Linearly elongated discharge lamps have a slightly different type of attachment. In addition to the fact that the cartridges are paired (the lamp is inserted from two sides), they are designed to operate on 220 V and 380 V mains, with a rated current equal to 1 A or 2 A.
By design, the cartridges are end, overhead and rack-mount - this also depends on the type of lamps used. The number of contacts can be different: for example, in the presence of a conductive strip - three instead of the usual two.
Over time, the cartridges wear out. This can happen for completely different reasons: due to a crack in the case, electric contacts burn out or mechanical damage during operation.
In order for the cartridge to work out the warranty period, it is necessary to follow the installation rules, select the product according to the lamp specifications, select the desired degree of protection (moisture or dustproof).
In addition to cartridges for pin and threaded bases, there are products for other types: focusing, pin, with recessed contact, soffit.
They are used to install and connect LED and gas discharge lighting devices.
Additional information on the base types is given in the articles:
- LED lamp base: types, marking, technical parameters + how to choose the right one
- Types of bases for lighting lamps: standard marking and varieties of bases for light bulbs
Professional electricians are not content with the same size and quick visual inspection of the product, they carefully read the markings applied in indelible ink or stamped on the visible part of the cartridge.
Typically, the label indicates technical characteristics or conditions of use that are of fundamental importance when choosing light sources.
The most responsible manufacturers and labeling put, and attach to the product brief guidelines listing important characteristics.
The list of parameters that can be found on the cartridge is not always complete.
Usually reflects any of the listed characteristics:
- type, for example, threaded, pin;
- the size;
- load current;
- trademark manufacturer;
- level of protection;
- the presence of a contact for grounding.
Before purchasing the cartridges, check the manufacturer’s website, which usually contains detailed technical information and a diagram with dimensions.
In addition to reviewing the technical characteristics and conditions of use of the product, it is necessary to clarify exactly how the cartridge is mounted and which holes / latches are provided for fixing
When choosing, it is also worth considering that ceramics is stronger than plastic and can withstand higher temperatures. If the cost of the product is doubtfully low, it is likely that it is a fake.
It is better to insure yourself and buy a more expensive, but high-quality electronic cartridge of a reputable brand.
How to connect the cartridge?
From household products the most difficult thing is to connect the wires to the old type of cartridge - the “Soviet” one, since it must first be disassembled.
These devices are easily recognizable by the black polymer case. To get to the terminals, the carbolic body must be unscrewed.
Disassembly is performed by rotating the housing parts in opposite directions. As a result, the cartridge is divided into 3 parts: the holder (the largest element), the back part and the central part - contact ceramic insert
In order to fix the wires, they need to be stripped and arranged with “eyelets” in order to make it easier to fix them on the contacts. The phase is fixed to the central screw-contact, zero - to the second terminal.
When tightening the threaded connection, it is necessary to apply force and remember that it simultaneously transfers voltage to the contact. When the wires are connected, it remains to connect the two parts of the case.
Fastening methods in lighting
The difficulty of installing the cartridge may be caused by the design of the chandelier or the lamp. In order to quickly cope with the replacement of a broken product, we recommend in advance, prior to the initial installation of the lighting device, to get acquainted with its device and position.
Manufacturers of luminaires most often choose the following methods of fastening cartridges:
- for electrical wire;
- on a metal tube;
- using a sleeve;
Option number 1. When fastening for the electric drive, it is necessary to additionally strengthen the wire, for this purpose use the sleeve with the mounting screw, which is screwed into the bottom of the cartridge.
Option number 2. The metal tube is used more often, as it allows you to install heavy chandeliers with a large number of decorative elements.
Often, instead of a tube, a metal chain is used, which also reduces the load on the electrical wire and allows you to adjust the height of the hanging fixture
Option number 3. Cartridges with bushings are subjected to heat, as a result of which the elements are deformed. Therefore, plastic bushings are recommended to be replaced with metal ones.
Option number 4. The latter mounting method is suitable for devices with screwless terminals. The cartridge is installed in parts. First fix the bottom, then insert the wires, and only then mount the remaining part of the cartridge with the help of latches.
Connection option with screw terminals
Cartridges of a more modern type do not need to be disassembled - the terminals are located on the outside. Wires are fixed with screw clips, the connection process takes only a few minutes.
The only disadvantage of such a cartridge is the inability to repair. If the terminals are burned or the product is deformed, you will have to change it completely.
A photo of
Using the tool, remove the insulation from the ends of the zero and phase wires to expose the metal conductor
Using a flat screwdriver, unscrew the two screws, which fix the wires in the socket with the terminals
The voltage from the phase must be supplied to the central terminal, so before connecting we check the wires with an indicator screwdriver
We insert the wires into the selected terminals, carefully tighten the fastening bolts - firmly, but without clamping and bending
Step 1 - Stripping the ends of the wires
Step 2 - Unscrew the mounting bolts
Step 3 - Phase Detection and Terminal Selection
Step 4 - Connect Wires to Terminals
The connection option with clips is relevant for luminaires designed for E14 and E27 lamps. When installing a new cartridge and replacing be sure to check it for integrity and compliance with the standards.
Suppose that the number of turns should be at least three, and there should be no cracks and chips on the case.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Installation of various lighting devices may vary, so we present several video instructions for connecting.
Connection of ceramic and carbolite cartridge:
Option of attaching wires to the plastic cartridge:
G4 cartridge replacement:
Cartridges are arranged quite simply, so disassembly, replacement or repair of home electrical installations can be done by hand.
The most important thing is to turn off the mains voltage, if you work with a lighting device, strictly follow the recommendations of experienced electricians. When installing a new model, you must follow the manufacturer's instructions.
Is there anything to add, or have any questions about the choice and replacement of the cartridge for the light bulb? You can leave comments on the publication, participate in discussions and share their own experiences. The form for communication is in the lower block.