Alternative energy sources, allowing to provide a warm living space and electricity in the required volume - not cheap "pleasure", requires considerable financial costs for the purchase, installation and installation.
Make the solar generator with their hands are much cheaper and are quite capable of many domestic masters. Consider the instruction is available describing all the details of the manufacturing process.
The content of the article:
- How does solar power generator?
- What do you need?
- How to choose the right type of photoconverter?
- amorphous transformers
- polycrystalline converters
- monocrystalline converters
- How to make a frame for the plates?
- Selection of the transparent member
- Installation of silicon cells
- How to test the mounted unit?
- The final stage of work
- Where and how to place the generator?
- Useful videos on the topic
How does solar power generator?
Solar generator is a set of photoelectric semiconductor elements directly convert solar energy into electrical energy.
Quanta of light rays generated in contact with a photographic plate knock an electron from a final atomic orbit the operating member. This effect creates a lot of free electrons, which form a continuous flow of electric current.
The silicon is used as the active material. It is highly effective and provides the coefficient of photoelectric conversion in a conventional mode at 20%, and under favorable conditions - to 25%.
On one side of the silicon wafer is applied a thin coating of passive chemical elements - boron or phosphorus. It is on this surface as a result of intensive sun exposure occurs actively release electrons. Phosphor film securely holds them in one place and does not allow to scatter.
On most operating plate are arranged metal "track". They are constructed free electrons, thus creating, orderly movement, i.e., the electric current.
The minus plates include only the complexity and cost of the silicon purification process and to avoid these problems actively exploring the use of alternatives in the form of gallium, cadmium, indium, and various compounds copper. However, so far the real competitors silicon cells yet.
What do you need?
For the manufacture of a generator at home required tools and materials such as:
- modules for converting sunlight into energy;
- aluminum angles;
- wooden slats;
- Chipboard sheets;
- a transparent member (glass, plexiglass, plexiglass, polycarbonate) to generate protection for a silicon wafer;
- self-tapping screws and screws of different sizes;
- dense foam thickness of 1.5-2.5 mm;
- quality sealant;
- diodes, terminals and wires;
- Screwdriver or screwdriver set;
- handsaw for wood and metal (or Bulgarian).
The extent to which the needed materials, will depend on the planned size of the generator. Large-scale work will entail additional costs, but in any case cheaper than the purchase module.
For final testing the assembled unit using an ammeter. It allows you to capture the real efficiency of the plant and helps to determine the actual impact.
How to choose the right type of photoconverter?
Measures to create their solar generator hands start with the selection of the type silicon photoelectric converter. These components are of three types:
- single crystal;
Each option has its advantages and disadvantages, and the choice in favor of any of them do, based on the volume of funds allocated for the purchase of all system components.
Amorphous modules do not consist of crystalline silicon and of its derivatives (silane or kremnievodorod). By sputtering in vacuum, of a thin layer applied to a high quality metal foil, glass or plastic.
Finished products have faded, blurry gray tint. Visible on the surface of silicon crystals are not observed. The main advantage of the elements considered reasonable price, but their efficiency is very low and varies in the range of 6-10%.
The polycrystalline solar cells produced with the gradual very slow cooling the silicon melt. The resulting products are characterized by a saturated blue color, have a surface with a distinct pattern, reminiscent frosty pattern, and show efficacy in the region of 14-18%.
To give a higher-efficiency performance is there prevented within the material area, separated from the overall structure granular boundaries.
Monocrystalline modules are characterized by a dense dark color and consist of solid silicon crystals. Their efficiency is higher than other components and is 18-22% (under favorable conditions - 25%).
Another advantage is considered to be an impressive lifetime - at the request of the manufacturer for over 25 years. However, with continued use of single crystals of the efficiency falls and after 10-12 years fotootdacha already is not more than 13-17%.
To create a solar generator at home with their own hands mainly take polycrystalline and single-crystal plates of different sizes. They are gaining in popular online retailers, including eBay or Aliekspress.
Due to the fact that the solar cells are valued quite high, many providers offer customers products group B, that is suitable for the full operation of the fragments with a small defect. Their value is different from the standard price by 40-60%, so that the generator collection costs in a reasonable price, not too expensive for clubbing.
How to make a frame for the plates?
For manufacturing the generator frame future use solid wood slats or aluminum corners. Wooden embodiment is considered less practical, since the material requires additional processing in order to avoid subsequent rotting and delamination.
Aluminum has a much more attractive physical characteristics and thanks to its lightness does not providing unnecessary burdens on the roof or other support structure, which will be installed unit.
Furthermore, due to the corrosion resistant metal coating does not rust, rot, does not absorb moisture and can easily tolerate the effect of any aggressive atmospheric manifestations.
To create a frame structure of aluminum over the first panel define the size of the future. In the standard embodiment, one block is used photocells 36 measuring 81 mm x 150 mm.
For subsequent operation correctness between fragments leave a small gap (about 5.3 mm). This space allows you to take into account the change in the basic parameters of bases subjected to atmospheric phenomena. As a result, the overall size of the blank is 83 mm x 690 mm with a width of the frame bracket 35 mm.
After determining the size of cut out corners of pieces required and via fasteners collect them in skeleton frame. On the inner surface of the design layer of silicone sealant is applied, very closely, to avoid gaps and voids. From this it depends on the integrity, strength and durability of the mounted structure.
Laid top transparent protective material (with anti-reflection coated glass, plexiglass or polycarbonate with special parameters) and securely hold it by means of hardware (for short and 1 to 2 with the long portion of the frame 4 and at the corners housing). For operation using a screwdriver and screws suitable diameter. At the end of the transparent surface carefully cleaned of dust and small debris.
Selection of the transparent member
The main criteria for selecting the transparent member to create generator:
- ability to absorb infrared radiation;
- the level of refraction of sunlight.
The lower the refractive index, the higher the efficiency demonstrate silicon wafers.
Most possess a low coefficient of retroreflection plexiglass and plexiglass. Polycarbonate also has a far better performance. It recommended for creating frame structures under the house to use solar anti-reflective as possible Transparent glass or a special type of polycarbonate with anti-condensation coating, providing the necessary level of thermal protection.
The best characteristics in the absorption of IR radiation have a solid plan termopoglaschayuschee plexiglass and glass with optional IR-absorption. A simple glass, these figures are much lower. From the IR absorption efficiency depends on whether warm during use silicon wafers or not.
If the heating will be minimal, solar cells last a long time and provide stable returns. Overheating plates will cause interruptions in operation and rapid failure of the individual fragments or the entire system complex.
Installation of silicon cells
Immediately prior to the installation of protective glass, arranged in aluminum frames, well clear of dust and degreased with an alcohol compound.
Purchased photocells exactly positioned on the marking substrate at a distance of 3-5 mm from each other and make the marking angles general construction. Then proceed to welds elements - most important and time-consuming work on the segment generator assembly.
Welds generator operating elements is performed according to the scheme in which the "+" are tracks on the outer side, and "-" - channels disposed on the underside of the plate. For proper contact the compound is applied first flux (soldering acid) and solder, and then processing is performed in sequence from top to bottom. At the end all the rows are interconnected.
The next step is making the sizing of solar cells. For this purpose, the center of each plate of slightly silicon extruded sealant formed Chains elements inverted outer side up and placed in strict accordance with the markings applied previously. Gently his hands pressed against the plate, fixing them in place. They act very carefully, trying not to damage or bend the material.
Contact photocells arranged along the edges is output on a separate bus (br silver conductor) as "+" and "-". In addition, the complex equipped with a blocking diode. Connecting contacts, it does not allow discharge of the battery through the carcass structure at night.
At the bottom of the frame doing a drill hole through which the lead wire to the outside. So they do not sag, using the silicone sealant.
How to test the mounted unit?
Before finally seal the assembled generator, be sure to test it, to reveal potentially possible in the process of soldering failure. The most sensible option - to check each number individually soldered. So immediately it becomes clear where contacts are connected bad and requires re-treatment.
To carry out the test using household ammeter. Metering is carried out on a cloudless sunny day at lunch time (from 13 to 15 hours). Design feature in the yard and set at an appropriate angle.
K derived solar battery contacts are connected and carried ammeter measured short-circuit current. If the device shows the results greater than 4.5 A, the system is completely correct, and all connections are soldered accurately and correctly. Lower data appearing on the tester display, talk about the violations that need to track and re-soldering.
Traditionally, solar generators, constructed with his own hands from the cells with a small defect (group B) on the test show the numbers from 5 to 10 amperes. Aggregates factory production data show 10-20% higher. This is because in the production of silicon wafers used the group A, which have no defects in the structure.
The final stage of work
If the test shows that the battery is fully operational, it is sealed special silicone sealant or the more expensive and durable epoxy. Work provides two ways of carrying out.
- Full bleed - when the entire surface is covered with a hermetic structure.
- Partial treatment - when the sealant is applied only on the extreme elements and the empty space between the elements.
The first variant is considered more reliable and provides full protection of the system from external factors. Photocells clearly fixed on their places and operate correctly with maximum efficiency.
When pouring implemented, sealants provide "grab". Then a transparent cover element and tightly pressed against the plates.
Then placed on a surface load that acts on the fibers and pushes them out of the air bubbles. Ready generator is tested once more and finally mounted on a prepared place.
Where and how to place the generator?
Place the solar generator installation is chosen very carefully and without haste. Plate light receiving necessarily placed obliquely to rays do not "fall" on the surface perpendicular to, as it were gently "trickled down" on it. Ideally, a structure so that left open the possibility, if necessary, to adjust the inclination angle in this manner, "trapping" the maximum amount of sun.
It is perfectly acceptable to put solar systems on the ground, but most often chosen to accommodate the roof of a house or utility room, namely that part that goes to the most hallowed, mostly south facing portion. It is important that a number was not tall buildings and powerful, spreading trees. Being in close proximity, they provide shade and prevent a full-fledged operation of the unit.
Mid-optimal for the installation of the solar generator is considered the level of the roof inclination in 45⁰. With this arrangement, the flow of solar cells absorb sunlight very efficiently and deliver the necessary life support for the correct amount of energy at home.
there are several other indicators for the European part of the CIS states. Professionals recommend to base the angle of inclination in the stationary 50-60⁰, and mobile designs during the winter season have the battery at an angle to the horizon 70⁰.
In the summer, to change the position and tilt angle of solar cells 30⁰.
Immediately before installing the roof further strengthen and equipped with special strong opornikami since not every design has the ability to withstand the full weight of the equipment for converting solar energy.
In some cases, put under the roof rafters reinforced, protecting the roof from collapsing, the potential due to the increased load, increase significantly in winter, when snow accumulates on the roof surface.
Useful videos on the topic
Features and nuances of welds for the manufacture of solar cells with their own hands at home efficient solar generator. Tips and advice for artists, interesting ideas and personal achievements.
How to test solar cell and measure its basic parameters. This information is useful in subsequent calculations of the exact number of plates required for full system operation.
Full-step description of solar cell collection process for the generator in the home. Rules of operation, starting from the acquisition of the necessary elements and ending general test manufactured device.
Knowing about the device solar generators, assemble them at home does not take much. Of course, the work will require attention, accuracy and thoroughness, but the result will justify all financial and labor costs. Ready unit fully provide heat and electricity to the building, creating a living for a level of comfort.
Immediately threaten a major project is not necessary. To begin, it makes sense to try their hand at assembling a small unit, and then fully mastered all the nuances of the process, to begin construction of a more powerful and large-scale installations.