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Huge Heightl, greatness. This is how the oak tree is described in ancient legends. Representatives of the genus grow in many parts of our globe, but the most interesting and ancient specimens are located in the territory of the Russian Federation. In places with ideal conditions for their development.
Oak is a powerful deciduous or evergreen tree belonging to the beech family( a genus of shrubs).For a plant to grow naturally, a temperate climate is needed, so it is most often found in the Northern Hemisphere, sometimes in high mountain regions.
Regardless of the species, all trees have common features. The height ranges from 35 to 50 m. Some specimens reach 60 m. The trunk is very thick, and its bark is rough and covered with deep cracks.
You can determine the type of tree by the shape of the leaves( for example, dentate, lobed, pinion-split) and various colors.
It is remarkable how the oak looks in the fall. The habitual green summer foliage changes to “clothes” of red, purple, orange, brown, yellow tones.
Wood reacts strongly to lighting. Its branches are winding because they stretch towards the light and change their direction depending on weather conditions.
Whoever touches the root system, it is also powerful and well developed, like the aboveground part and goes deep into the soil. Grow giants prefer on nutrient soils. In this case, the humidity should be moderate. But there are representatives who have chosen swampy or arid places.
Flowering occurs in late spring with the dissolution of small, bisexual flowers of green color. Moreover, female flowers contain only a pistil, male( collected in inflorescences) - only stamens. Pollination occurs with the participation of insects or wind.
After flowering, a fruit is formed - an acorn of different lengths with a cap, the so-called plyus. The shape of the fruit and the appearance of the pluses determine the varietal identity of the oak.
Age and Coloring
Oaks live the longest. On average, the life span of an oak reaches 300-500 years. But there are some instances that live to 2000 years. The first 150 years, the tree is gaining height, and after - the width. Therefore, the diameter of the trunk is calculated, how many years the oak lives. The oldest is the Stelmuzhsky oak, which grows in Lithuania, and has 1500 years old with a height of 23 m and a diameter of 4 m.
The number of oak species in the world is enormous. According to various sources, their numbers range from 450-600.
Consider the varieties of oaks, which most often grow in Russian regions.
In addition to the Russian Federation, the species can also be found in Western European countries. And it is he who is long-lived. Among the distinguishing features distinguish: resistance to winds, prolonged drought and large temperature differences.
Copies growing individually, as they say "in the field," extrude up to 50 m in height. But in the vicinity of other oaks their height is somewhat lower. In addition, by virtue of light-loving, the crown, formed by a foliage of 15 cm in length, is located at the top of the trunk. As for the soil, trees prefer fertile land.
It is very difficult to meet the species on the territory of Russia, only in artificially created parks and deciduous forests, because as a result of uncontrolled cutting for construction the plant is listed in the Red Book. Distinctive features are a long trunk, reaching 30 m in length, on top of which is a tent crown with triangular leaves and pointed edges.
The special value of wood lies in wood of increased hardness and frost resistance.
There is a species in the southern Caucasus in the mountainous regions. Most often in artificially created parks. In height the tree develops very slowly. The crown is formed by short leaves with blunt blades. The length of the foliage reaches 8 cm. The plant is very fond of light, has a high resistance to frost and dry weather.
Wood is very attractive in appearance. For its decorative oak and received recognition from designers.
As a rule, it is planted in areas as a tapeworm or on the alleys as an array. The plant develops well in the penumbra. A distinctive feature of the variety is foliage. It has an elongated shape and grows up to 20 cm in length. Interesting and color crown. In the summer it is dark green. But with the advent of leaf fall, its color changes to bright brown.
Also known as Armenian oak. His homeland is the western part of the Caucasus. The plant loves to grow in humid, moderately shaded areas with fertile lands and a rather warm environment.
It is precisely because of the conditions and climate where an oak grows, that it cannot exist in cold areas. In addition, he is very bad for the winter.
Foliage is obovate with semi-oval lobes. After flowering on long stalks acorns form.
Mediterranean and Europe
No less interesting specimens grow in these regions.
This variety is a valuable probkonos, reaches 20 m in height, grows slowly and belongs to evergreen plants. It grows mainly in squares and alleys. Despite the fact that the plant loves moisture, it is resistant to drought. The crown is formed from oval-shaped leaves up to 6 cm long. In addition, they have a fluffy substrate and a shiny surface. The fruit is represented by a small-sized acorn heavily planted.
This is the main array of park zones and forests. The plant is shade and heat-loving, prefers to grow in places with moderate humidity. Distinctive features have foliage. It is located on the petioles 2 cm long. Female flowers of oak are on a short stalk. The same goes for acorns.
This specimen is similar in appearance to a tall bush, reaching a height of 10 m. It prefers to grow on dry and limestone lands, and in the natural environment. Therefore, it is almost impossible to grow it. If oak is used in landscape compositions, it is used as a background. The tree is amenable to cutting, you can form a crown at its own discretion.
The name of the oak has gone because of its appearance: everything, starting with branches and foliage, and ending with acorns, is covered with felt felt.
In the Americas, the species is presented in the following instances.
A very beautiful representative, remarkable not only for its size( reaches a height of 30-50 m and is up to 1 m in diameter).
Oak has a very beautiful crown color. At the time of the dissolution of the foliage has a red base. In the summer, its color is bright green. But with the onset of autumn changes to a bright brown or crimson.
Oak steel has often been used in landscape design for its bright appearance. All other characteristics are similar to ordinary Russian specimens.
Otherwise, it is known as boreal. His homeland are regions of North America. Oak is similar in appearance to the “red” variety. The crown and leaves are egg-shaped. The leaves grow to 25 cm in length and with the onset of autumn are painted in a beautiful bright red color. The only difference is the barrel. It does not crack and coarsen so much, so it looks somewhat smoother than other oaks. For its beauty, the plant is most often planted in park areas.
This variety has its own characteristics:
- is an evergreen;
- has a trunk with a large circumference, completely cracked;
- bark colored gray;
- crown sprawling, with infrequent branches;
- small foliage, reaches a length of 8 cm;
- distinctive feature - the substrate is white or yellow, in some cases covered with a nap;
- can form a crown;
- has its own subspecies.
In addition, the plant is completely undemanding to light and can grow on any soil.
This specimen prefers wet places, so it can be found near water bodies or in rainy regions. You can learn by wedge-shaped leaves of elongated shape and having 5 pairs of blades. In spring, blooming foliage is colored silver. It seems that there is some kind of spraying on it. In the future, the color changes to rich green with brilliance. At the same time, the underside whitens slightly. Oak got its name for the fruit. His acorns are very large( about 5 cm in length) and are located on short stalks. Strip closes the fruit to half.
Looking at the tree, you might think that you have a willow. The fact is that the plant has an unusual form of leaves for all oaks. It is oblong, narrow and reaches a length of 12 cm. In autumn, the foliage acquires a matt yellow color. The plant has no requirements for habitat and soil. Often found in deciduous forests and planted in parks.
Homeland varieties - Eastern regions. The plant, in principle, does not have land requirements, but develops best on nutrient, limestone and well drained. Its dimensions reach 30 m in height. The crown is spreading, powerful, tent-shaped, oblong-oval shaped by leaves. The latter have up to 9 "blunt" blades and grow up to 22 cm in length.
The color of the crown is extraordinarily beautiful. Immediately after the dissolution, it is bright red. With the arrival of summer is transformed into a bright green top and whitish-gray below. And in the fall the foliage becomes violet-purple or dark red. The trunk is covered with light gray bark, which is not strongly cracked. After flowering acorns are formed up to 2.5 cm in length, on ¼ hidden plyus. The plant tolerates drought well, somewhat sensitive to frost. Well developed. Often landed on the alleys. Can grow as alone or in a group with other trees.
Grows "giant" in the eastern zone of North America. It prefers “wet” lands with poor drainage, loam, clay soils( substrate is unacceptable and high concentration of lime).Therefore, it can often be found along river banks, streams, and wet meadows. Oak loves heat, prefers to grow in sunny places, normally belongs to a penumbra, tolerates frost and wind well. Looks good on the alleys or in the vicinity of other trees.
The plant grows very slowly, reaching 25 m in height and 10-15 in width. Crown pyramidal shape. The trunk is covered with light green bark, which remains smooth for a long time. Foliage grows up to 12 cm in length, has several well-defined blades. The leaf color is bright green, with the lower side slightly lighter. Near the corners of the vein hairiness is observed. In autumn, the color changes to bright purple. The fruit is represented by a small acorn( up to 1.5 cm) for a third hidden plyus.