- №1. Requirements for wiring in a wooden house
- №2. Concealed wiring in a wooden house
- No. 3. Open wiring in a wooden house
- №4. Creating a wiring diagram
- №5. Cabling to the house
- №6. Cable management by rooms
- Open wiring in cable channels
- Internal wiring in metal pipe
- Wire connection
Nowadays, wooden houses are already the norm. Everyone wants to live in an environmentally friendly house, but modern man does not want to give up modern amenities. We are talking about lighting, use of home appliances, computers, etc. All this will be possible only in that If you build electrical wires inside the house, install switches and sockets, distributive shields. When it comes to a wooden house that easily ignites and burns, special requirements are imposed on the installation of the wiring, the observance of which is the guarantee of security for all tenants. We'll figure out how to properly install the electrical wiring in a wooden house and that it is necessary to take into account that. The material will help to assess their strength and determine whether it is possible to perform all the work themselves, or will have to call for the help of a professional.
№1. Requirements for wiring in a wooden house
The tree belongs to those kinds of materials that easily light up and burn well. A wooden house can easily catch fire from a normal circuit in an electrical circuit, so the wiring installation process is in order to minimize the likelihood of a short circuit, and in case of its occurrence, minimize effects.The wiring in a wooden house is subject to such requirements:
- Use only copper conductors with a flameproof enclosure;
- isolate conductors in non-combustible material;
- perform the correct calculation of the cross-section of the electrical cable, so that the current load does not exceed its capabilities;
- it is better to use an open wiring;
- hidden wiring must be in a metal pipe - use a metal hose and even PVC corrugation with the effect of self-extinguishing is not recommended;
- in the shield must necessarily be an RCD and a circuit breaker;
- it is better to use high-quality materials from proven manufacturers, since the savings associated with the purchase of cheap Chinese products can pose big problems.
№2. Concealed wiring in a wooden house
Electrical wiring in wooden buildings can be carried out in two ways:
The hidden wiring in a wooden house is more complicated and has a lot of risks. Such work is better to trust professionals. Internal wiring is arranged when the wooden walls of the house are trimmed with a finishing material, for example, a lining or plasterboard. In this case, the wires are placed between the main wall and the lining layer. Naturally, it is impossible to leave wires unprotected - they are necessaryhide in a metal tube.Many masters make a mistake and use for this purpose plastic hoses, PVC corrugated or metal hose. This can not be done for a number of reasons:
- There is no guarantee that the insulation of the cable will not be disturbed and there will be no short circuit, and the walls of the boxes and pipes can not withstand such a load. The result is a fire. Insulation can be disturbed not only because of errors in the installation, but also as a result of production rejection, improper storage and transportation. Microcracks in isolation most of the measuring devices do not fix, and with time, under the influence of constant loads, insulation becomes more and more weak;
- plastic corrugation and a box - a weak barrier for rodents, which can easily damage it, stripping the wires;
- for the installation of concealed wiring in the wooden walls are prepared voids, and in the course of time it has the property of accumulating wood dust, for the ignition of which a small spark is enough. It is problematic to localize such a fire center.
That is why hidden electrical wiring in a wooden house must be mounted with the help ofmetal pipes.They are able to provide reliable protection against short-circuits, but it must be carried outa number of conditions:
- Inside and outside such pipes should have an anticorrosive layer;
- Mount the pipes better under a slight slope to allow the condensate to flow freely;
- the pipes must be connected to the ground loop;
- sharp edges that form when cutting pipes, can damage the wire, they need to wear plastic bushings;
- the connection of pipes must be leakproof;
- in the walls you need to cut out the channels.
The best option is copper pipes, but it will not cost much.
The safety standards do not violate the option withusing plaster, although, at first glance, it seems not entirely appropriate. To ensure proper protection, the cable from all sides must be surrounded by a layer of plaster thick minimum of 10 mm, but to ensure that the cable can be replaced, it must be placed in the metal hose. In fact, it turns out that to replace the cable is very difficult, and plaster with time under the influence of "breathing" the tree begins to crack.
No. 3. Open wiring in a wooden house
It is not only very dangerous to lay electrical wires inside wooden walls, but also technically difficult. If the method is open, the owner can at any time fix the problem, since access to the wires is always open, so this mounting option has become more popular. Of the deficiencies, only unaesthetic is called because of the visibility of the wires, but today you can cope with this minus.
For outdoor installation wiring in wooden houses use:
- cable channels, or electrical boxes. This is the most convenient and popular way. Such channels are relatively simply mounted to a wooden surface, and if the color is selected correctly, they will be minimally visible. Producers produce boxes with color and pattern for different types of wood. In terms of aesthetics, cost and ease of access to the wires is the best option, but it is not always easy to calculate the number of necessary elements, turns, corners and stubs correctly;
- electrical plinth- the most modern version, which allows you to achieve the most aesthetic results. In it, fixatives of veins are provided;
- rollers for insulation. These are small ceramic elements that are mounted on the surface and hold the wiring. All the wires will be in sight, so in terms of aesthetics, the option is not the best, but it allows you to create an interior in retro style. Such a method of installation is usually used in houses built from round logs;
- special staples. This is the cheapest and simplest option, but it does not look very much outwardly;
- metal hoseIt is used for open laying of wiring only in non-residential buildings, since the room becomes similar to the production one. Gofra, no matter how hard you try, will not lie perfectly, it will sag, and, moreover, collect dust.
№4. Creating a wiring diagram
Installation of electrical wiring in a wooden house begins with the creation of a scheme, which is coordinated with the State Energy Supervision. It requiresTo specify places where all sockets, switches, and also a board and the counter will be located. The scheme also shows the location of the future location of the cable, indicating the distance from the floor, ceiling, window and door openings. For a basis it is better to take the plan of the house where exact parameters of all rooms are specified.
To correctly draw a diagram, follow these rules:
- in advance it is necessary to think about the location of large household appliances, as well as the lighting scheme. This will eliminate the problem with extensions in the future;
- determine the maximum power of the instruments;
- form connection groups. The rules dictate the provision in each room of two branches of the wiring: one for the sockets, the second for lighting. In a separate group each powerful device (washing machine, boiler, etc.) is allocated - for them it is necessary to lay a separate cable. Illumination of the adjacent territory is another group, but often it is connected to a separate circuit breaker to be able to turn on the lights when no one is at home. For each group, the maximum load is considered;
- The sockets can be located at any height. The main thing is that they are convenient to use, so consider the type and number of electrical appliances;
- switches, as a rule, are located at a height of 80 or 150 cm. It is desirable that all are at the same height;
- the switchboard is mounted at a height of 150 cm so that small children do not reach it;
- The wiring can only pass vertically and horizontally, rotate at right angles.
When the circuit is matched, and the required power is allocated, you can move on.
№5. Cabling to the house
You can carry power cable into the house in two ways:
Underground installation- it is a more reliable and modern technology, but also more difficult to implement. It is justified to use it when building a new house. Under the ground, the cable experiences much less load than the one that hangs in the air and lasts longer: it will not break from the wind or fall of a tree on it. In addition, the house around which wires do not hang, looks much better. Installation is complex, time-consuming and expensive. It will be necessary to dig a trench not less than 80 cm deep, the entry into the house is done by installing metal shells made of thick-walled pipes. Power copper wire is used.
Air installationCost will be cheaper and will be spent more quickly, but be ready in case of strong bad weather to remain without electricity. Such work is possible if the distance to the object is not more than 25 m - otherwise it will be necessary to put additional support, and this is money. For connection, a self-supporting insulated wire with a cross-linked polyethylene sheath is used, the cross-section and the number of wires depends on the power of the connection.
Inside the house aluminum wiring is not started - only copper is used, therefore the cable VVGng is used from the connection point to the input distribution board. For connection, sealed clamps are used, and VVGG cable, according to the rules, must be enclosed in a metal sleeve made of thick-walled pipe. In the same sleeve, the cable leads to the switchboard, if the latter is not carried out on the street or is not located at the entrance to the house.
The shield is installed in a safe place, ensuring free access to it. Automatic circuit breakers and RCDs are mounted in the switchboard.
№6. Cable management by rooms
Cross-section of cableswiring depends on what kind of load on them will be entrusted. This is the subject of serious calculations, but it is also possible to use tables in which the cross section of wires has already been calculated depending on the current, power, and voltage.
Open wiring in cable channels
Before starting work bestmark out the locations of the future location of outletsand switches. It is best to install open wiring in cable ducts in safety and aesthetics in a wooden house. They are made of self-extinguishing plastic, they are a box with a latch, the size and color may vary.The process of laying the wiring in this case is as follows:
- select the cable channel, which corresponds to the number of wires and their cross-section;
- remove the lid and attach the channel box to the surface with self-tapping screws;
- in places of connection of cables put junction boxes;
- the base of sockets and switches (only those used for external wiring are used), fixed to designated places;
- the cable is laid in a channel, covered with a lid;
- The ends of the cables are connected in junction boxes. Plug the cable into sockets, switches and vending machines.
Internal wiring in metal pipe
If you decide to mount a hidden wiring in a wooden house, thenthe order of actions will be as follows:
- preparation of the shroud and the installation of open junction boxes, they should be freely available even after the walls are clad;
- wiring passage through wallsdo with the help of metal pipes, which are called pass-through sleeves. In the wall, first prepare a hole of the required diameter, then put the sleeve, at the edges it should have a plastic sleeve. Special metal sleeves are put under sockets and switches;
- the diameter of the pipe is chosen such that after the cabling of all the cables, 60% of free space remains in it. Preference is given to copper pipes, which are well bent and easily cut. The ends of pipes after cutting are well ground or they are supplied with plastic rims. To the wooden surface pipes are fastened with clamps, to metal sleeves - thanks to the flaring of the pipe inside the sleeve;
- pull the cable through the pipe and check the insulation;
- connection of cables in junction boxes and connection to outlets, switches.
In junction boxeswires can be connected in one of the following ways:
- junction. These are special insulating caps, which allow you to connect two pre-stripped to 2-3 cm and twisted wires together. Caps are very simple to dress and are inexpensive;
- waggingno less simple, but more reliable. A wag with the appropriate number of wire holes is selected, the cables are inserted in them until they click;
- crimping- one of the most modern methods, but special equipment will be needed;
- grandfather's method of twisting with subsequent isolationinsulating tapein a wooden house it is better not to use.
It remains only to install sockets and switches. For a wooden house, the fittings made for a tree are best suited, but this is not necessary. Then follow the work on connecting all the groups of wires to the flap, installing a counter, RCD and automatic machines.
Also needground. To do this, around the house dig a hole in the form of an equilateral triangle with a side of 1 m. The depth is not less than 30 cm. In the tops of the triangle, a metal corner or a 3 m long pin is driven in, they are connected to each other by a 1 m long corner using welding. In one corner make a hole and fix the grounding conductor in it with a bolt and a nut, its output to the switchboard and connect to the grounding bus, to it also connect the earthing conductors cables.
After the completion of all installation work, electrical laboratory specialists are called in to conduct all necessary tests and issue a protocol confirming the correctness of the wiring and its security. The wiring diagram is recommended to be glued to the inside surface of the flap door - it will be much more convenient to orient in case of an accident.
Perform all work on the installation of electrical wiring in a wooden house is only necessary if you have the relevant knowledge and experience. At the slightest doubt, it is better to call specialists - on the quality and correctness of the performance of all stages of work depends on the safety of the house and its occupants.
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