- heating selection principles greenhouses
- methods heating
- greenhouse Electric heating greenhouses
Oven heating greenhouses( solid fuel heating) Water heating greenhouses Air heating greenhouses Gasheating greenhouses
- electric heater in the greenhouse
- Infrared ceiling heaters in the greenhouse
- soil Elektroprogrev( cable heating)
. Emergency heating of the greenhouse.
- Gas equipment with open burners in the greenhouse
- Gas convectors in the greenhouse
- GasoNew equipment with infrared burners in the greenhouse.
Heating the greenhouse and maintaining a comfortable temperature for plantings makes it possible for different crops to live in it throughout the year. You will be able to harvest three times a year and surround yourself with beautiful thermophilic Mediterranean tropical plants, arranging conditions suitable for their cultivation.
Principles of choosing greenhouse heating
Before creating greenhouse heating, three main points should be taken into account:
room, type of heating
in the dwelling and size
future material costs.
When organizing heating, it is necessary to reckon with the general rules and requirements, the most important of which is the uniform regular dispersion of the warm flow throughout the greenhouse.
What you need to know before you make the heating in the greenhouse?
- so that the stems and leaves of plants do not fade, the air in the room should not be overdried ;
- The heat output must be slow and distributed from top to bottom, and then the heat will last longer
- heating system should protect grown crops from infection with pathogenic bacteria and viruses;
- give preference to such types of heating, which will allow saving on all stages of investment, mounting and further use;
- control over the heating process should be simple, convenient and easy.
Methods for heating a greenhouse
In fact, the heating of air in a room can occur in two ways - by natural or artificial .Natural heating is carried out with the help of sunlight, which passes through the roof of the greenhouse, forms a greenhouse effect, and thus the earth and vegetation is heated. Heating of the greenhouse in the spring occurs in this way. Therefore, it is necessary to pay due attention to the location of the greenhouse, where the sun will “please” the green inhabitants as much as possible. But you should protect the greenhouse from drafts that will cool the coating.
For those who want to enjoy vegetables, fruits and beautiful flowers all year round, you need installation of technical heating , which in winter will complement the natural solar heating.
There are many ways to heat a greenhouse in winter. Today, electric , solid fuel( stove) , water, air and gas are considered the main types of heating. It is possible to combine various methods of heating, highlighting the main type of heating and an additional source.
Electric heating of the greenhouseThis way to warm the room is the most economical and optimal, at the same time, does not require much effort.
The main advantages of the electric system of heating greenhouses:
- all waste on equipment and consumables will quickly pay off, becauseThe efficiency is quite high;
- during the operation of such a system there are no gases and undesirable evaporation, thus ensuring the purity of the atmosphere and microclimate;
- independence from human influence, absolute automation;
- safety and durability.
Consider the most popular types of electric heating in a winter greenhouse.
Electro-heater in the greenhouse
Electric heater with two main modes of operation, a thermostat and a power of 1.1-5 kW.The device is equipped with closed heating elements and for more efficient circulation of the warm flow has a fan. In industrial greenhouses, heating with an electric air heater is not appropriate.
Advantages of heaters:
- Indoor air circulation by means of a fan is performed inside the greenhouse This reduces the risk of fungal diseases in growing crops. Thanks to a susceptible thermostat, you can create the microclimate necessary for vegetation by yourself. The electric air heater can perform the function of a fan without the participation of heating elements.
- Affordable price for a regular customer, automatic operation mode, easy operation - these factors further increase the profitability and importance of the device for small household greenhouses.
Cons of heaters:
- The larger the area of the greenhouse, the less efficient the device is. To fully circulate heated air, the heater must be moved from place to place by , or additional heating equipment must be purchased; therefore, the waste of electricity increases.
- The fragility of - almost all heaters of the heater type have to be repaired at the end of the heating season. Again, the costs of farmed products are increasing.
- The main disadvantage of the device - can not be heated directly to the ground .This is one of the reasons why plants do not take root, and their growth slows down. Experienced gardeners find a way out of this position - the greenhouse sinks deeper into the soil, and accordingly, the temperature of the soil becomes higher.
- Often in greenhouses, convection heaters and heating systems are used, consisting of pipes that work thanks to an electric boiler. The efficiency of them is less than , but they cope with their task.
Infrared ceiling electric heaters in the greenhouse
If a personal “personal” sun appeared in the greenhouse, it means you purchased an infrared heater. First, the device heats the earth, and then gradually heats up the surrounding air.
Advantages of infrared heaters:
- With low power consumption, heats a large area of greenhouses, i.e. This is an energy efficient way of air heating the greenhouse.
- Self-installation - small size and light weight make it possible to install the heater quickly and without help. IR heaters are also easy to transport.
- Sustainability, reliability and safety - these devices do not overdry air, do not create harmful fumes and unwanted gases, thereby forming natural heat and positively affect the overall development of crops. Safety of operation is to protect the device from spontaneous combustion, and therefore, ensures durability of work.
- The infrared "sun" is famous for the automation of the , the built-in thermostat, and this contributes to energy savings and capital heating.
- Durability. High-quality assembly, excellent components and specifications will ensure trouble-free operation for several years.
Cons of infrared heaters:
- The high cost of .However, this disadvantage has a double meaning. Typically, this type of instrument pays off in a few years due to its quality and lean energy consumption.
- The need for additional equipment - in this case, the fan. When the infrared device is operating, warm air is circulated, which is insufficient for natural ventilation.
Ground Heating( cable heating)
With rational use of cable warming up the land, the owner of saves greenhouses on heating and will harvest faster. The peculiarity of its action lies in laying special heating wires in the soil along which electric current flows through the use of a transformer.
The system of a kind of “warm floor” is famous for its easy operation, profitable operation, automatic maintenance of the optimum temperature, the same distribution of warm air.
For installation of cable heating, you will need to remove a part of the ground, make a layer of sand and lay the wire itself. Above you need to lay a special insulating material that does not allow the heat to go down into the ground, and protect the cable from excessive moisture and various mechanical damage and stress.
On the market there are ready-made sets of heating electric wires with a thermostat that need a voltage of 220 V. The soil warms quickly and efficiently, which means that the plants take root well and the crop is harvested earlier.
Stove heating greenhouses( solid fuel heating)
Stove heating is considered to be one of the most popular heating types and is most common in rural areas, where firewood and household waste is in excess. Solid fuel boiler operates on coal or wood and is the main device in the furnace heating.
The simplest type of such heating includes the boiler itself and the chimney itself( smoke pipe).However, to create better and more efficient air heating, this heating system can be supplemented with additional equipment - radiators, pipes.
Both firewood boilers and actual burning boilers are available today. These greenhouse boilers do not require frequent filling with fuel and use it efficiently.
The installation of the furnace boiler is carried out directly in the greenhouse and this can contribute to the drying out of the ground and the formation of too dry air, and the growing crops are likely to wither. Therefore, installing a boiler for solid fuels requires humidification of the air. The easiest way is to put a large container of water.
Stove heating is also considered one of the most affordable.
Water heating of the greenhouse
An efficient way to heat a greenhouse in winter is water heating, which is considered the most financially advantageous , but at the same time, outdated, irrelevant. This greenhouse heating system can also be attributed to electric heating.
Water heating will allow both air and soil to be heated simultaneously. At the same time, creates an optimal microclimate and soft, non-dry air. Such heating also requires good ventilation.
Water is heated in a special boiler and is directed to the pipes with the help of a circulation pump. The location of the pipes can be different: along the walls of the room or between growing plants.
You can use different fuels for water heating: firewood , peat , coal , household waste , industrial waste and other types.
Water heating of the greenhouse is considered the most economical, because you can heat everything that burns.
For the equipment of the greenhouse water heating will need to buy:
- Boiler for the greenhouse or stove .The choice of boiler for heating the greenhouse depends on each individual situation. In areas where there is a gas pipeline, you can purchase a gas boiler, which is also considered economical. You can use an electric heating boiler or a boiler designed for solid fuels. Those who want to build heating for the greenhouse with their own hands, can simply do - to make a brick or metal stove, using wood or coal;
- Radiator .There are aluminum, cast iron, bimetallic. There are heating systems without a radiator. In them, the upper part of the greenhouse is heated with the help of large round steel pipes;
- Pipes .They form 2 heating circuits - the internal one, where plastic pipes with 30-degree water are located near the roots of the plants. This warming up will reduce the growing season and increase crop yields. And the second circuit - radiators heat the domed air of the structure;
- Chimney. It can be in the form of a metal or asbestos-cement pipe, or it is a traditional brick chimney. Often gardeners use chimney and expensive sandwich pipes;
- Expansion Tank .You can make your own hands from metal sheet or buy ready. It happens open and closed;
- Circulation pump .Some experts believe that you can do without this element, becausewater flow will be carried out due to the pressure difference throughout the system( budget greenhouses), so the purchase of a circulation pump depends entirely on the material capabilities of the greenhouse owner.
Air heating of the greenhouse
Professional heating system, which is mounted by experts during the assembly of the mechanism itself. Inside the boiler for heating the greenhouse, the air is heated, which accordingly "warms up" the room.
The heating and ventilation device is placed on the supporting structures, the foundation or on the selected supports. A warm stream is directed to the top of either the middle of the greenhouse or greenhouse. This prevents the occurrence of burns of plantings and the desiccation of leaves and stems. Perforated special sleeve made of polyethylene, providing the same heating of the soil, is distributed over the area of the greenhouse.
The most primitive way to implement air heating of the room - one end of the pipe protrudes outward, and the pipe itself is laid through the greenhouse.
It should be noted and the advantage of such heating - high heat transfer coefficient with minimal financial costs. No additional heat transfer fluid is required.
Half an hour of “air” equipment operation - and in a greenhouse 20 degrees warmer. Often steam of different pressure is used to heat the air that is supplied.
. The air heating of the greenhouse also includes the use of infrared electric ceiling units.
Gas heating of the greenhouse
Traditional gas heating of the greenhouse is considered as a “gas-water” heating system - heating of the heat( water) carrier is carried out in the gas boiler .
The project of the gas heating system in the greenhouse must be approved by the gas supply company .Then the order is made, installation and introduction of gas equipment into operation is also under the supervision of a specialized organization, but not all owners of greenhouses do this. Most often stands out a separate circuit from the gas-water heating of a residential house.
Gas heating is divided into:
- A system with one heat carrier and its distribution in the greenhouse .This includes gas-water heating with additional water heating devices. And gas-air heating with the dispersion of warm air through polyethylene ducts;
- Gas-air heating system with multiple sources of heat .Gas convectors and various floor and ceiling heaters are used( IR, injection, catalyst burners, as well as the use of an open flame).
Gas equipment with open burners in the greenhouse
The device consists of open burners, primary and standby, and a thermostat. The resource source is a gas cylinder or natural main gas.
A comfortable temperature for plants is created in the lower part of the greenhouse — the warm stream rises upwards, coming into contact with the greenhouse dome, cools and falls.
The main disadvantage of gas space heating is the burning of oxygen. Be sure to have flow through ventilation - a PVC pipe is installed to draw in fresh air.
Gas convectors in a greenhouse
The device consists of an sealed combustion chamber ( cast iron, steel) with a main burner and closed heat exchanger without heat carrier, for example, water. The gas convector is installed on the wall of the building.
Automatically gas is supplied to the main burner and thus the “body” of the heat exchanger heats up from the inside. And then, the natural greenhouse is heated by natural convection.
Gas convector can be in the form of a coaxial pipe. Such a construction( a pipe in a pipe) penetrates the greenhouse wall and uniformly pulls air and releases harmful combustion products to the street - and this saves on ventilation of the greenhouse.
The convector has an integrated thermostat with a function to maintain the required temperature. Shutting down the gas valve or stopping the gas supply can help to close the gas valve.
Gas convectors can also be equipped with electric fans, like heaters. In this case, the air in the greenhouse heats up quite quickly, but the fan operation is accompanied by noise and depends on the supply of electricity.
Gas equipment with infrared burners in the greenhouse
The basis of the heat flux when using infrared burners is electromagnetic radiation when glowing their heating elements.
Burners come with heating elements in the form of pipes: the so-called "dark", the maximum heating temperature of which is about 6000C, and the "light" IR burners with heating elements similar to metal mesh, the temperature of the heat more than 600 0C.
For a more efficient heating of the room, several heating systems can be used at the same time, for example, a set of gas burners that are equally distributed around the greenhouse's perimeter.
Emergency heating of a greenhouse
In a short period of time, you can quickly arrange emergency heating of air in the greenhouse with the help of available tools. To this end, porous bricks are poured with gasoline, kerosene( or other flammable liquid) and put into an insulated metal tank( container).
With this simple “construction” , it will be possible to warm the soil well in a greenhouse at night with a sharp decrease in temperature. The container is placed next to the greenhouse room, a pipe is taken out of it to supply the upper space of the structure with warm air flow, and a protective cover-curtain from cold air is formed.
What you need to know for proper thermal insulation of the greenhouse:
- Using a double film, will save up to 25% of heat due to the air gap between the layers;
- Intelligent selection of the location of the greenhouse. Direct sunlight falling on the south side will also contribute to the creation of warm indoor air. And the northern side, it is advisable to be close to the wall of any other structure;
- Take care of additional warming - with the onset of cold or at night, it is recommended to warm the walls outside with any cloth, blankets, mats, etc.;
- When building a greenhouse, you should know that the layer of compost between the ground and the ground of the greenhouse delays the heat transfer of the between the soil of the greenhouse and the soil of the ground;
- Proper selection of a heating system for the greenhouse. It is necessary to take into account the climate of the region and the right temperature for good growth of green spaces;
- In winter, in the northern part of the greenhouse, can use the mirror surfaces that reflect the sun's rays. So you will significantly save electricity in the daytime.