For heating a small dwelling or a two-storey part of the house not need to use complex and expensive technologies. Known since the days of the Soviet Union, the heating system "Leningradka" today is effectively used to provide heat to small residential buildings.
It remains popular due to its simplicity of design and economical material consumption. After all, you see, it is more expensive and more difficult - is not always better.
Build single-pipe "Leningradku" you can own. We will help you to deal with system operation principle, present the main technological schemes and describe step by step installation of the technology of the heating system. Illustrative photo and video content to help plan the procedure for implementing the project.
The content of the article:
- The operating principle of the heating circuit "Leningradka"
Overview of the main technological schemes
- Features horizontal schemes
- The use of vertical circuits
- Comparison of spontaneity and pumping systems
The specifics of the installation of a heating system
- Preparatory work premises
- Selection of radiators and pipe
- Compound of heating elements and tube
- Carrying out welding work
- The final moments of the work
- Strengths and weaknesses of the system
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The operating principle of the heating circuit "Leningradka"
The advent of modern heating equipment, new technologies allowed to improve "Leningradku", to make it manageable and increase functionality.
Classical "Leningradka" is a system of heating devices (radiators, converters, panels) connected by a single duct. Under this system, the coolant freely circulates - water or an antifreeze mixture. As the heat source is a boiler. Radiators mounted on the perimeter of the property along the walls.
Leningradka - an improved version of one of the simplest heating circuits used to this day in the arrangement of the houses a small area
Devices in this embodiment, heating sequentially connected to the collecting pipe, the coolant flows alternately from one radiator to another
heating assembly Leningradka performed using tees collectron pipe is located on the perimeter of the room
For device odntrubnyh heating circuits typical minimum number of pipes, fittings and connectors, which positively affects the construction budget
The number of heating systems, relating to the scheme Leningradka, have an open structure with their characteristic open-tank. Most often it is the gravitational options
In the case of a pressurized expansion vessel Leningradka device in closed circuit priority, security group, and a circulating pump, as with a characteristic lower connecting devices require movement stimulation coolant
For the construction of the system is characterized by Leningradka bottom connection radiators and horizontal cabling. The batteries are equipped with cranes to be able to suppress the repair case
For Leningradka device with the natural movement of the precise calculations required coolant. In this case, only the collecting pipe is laid on top, and the coolant flows vertically
One of the simplest schemes of organization of heating
The principle of the system devices and connecting devices
Extremely simple in the construction of the heating system
The minimum material consumption Leningradka
Expansion vessel open heating system
One-pipe heating system with closed espanzomatom
A common variant with bottom connection
coolant supply to circuits with an upper wiring
heating system, depending on the piping location, divided into two types:
system piping may be located either below or above. The top position of the pipe is considered to be the most efficient in terms of heat dissipation, while, as the bottom of the pipe easier to mount.
Bottom connection devices require mandatory pump use, Because of what the economic priorities of some of the cutting system. In the upper embodiment requires accurate calculation during design of the device and the accelerating section, which due to increased length of the pipeline and its construction costs.
At lower heating connecting line to the heating devices must be provided on the constriction pipe section required for the radiator direction coolant
The circulation of coolant can be forced (via the circulation pump) or natural. Also, the system can be open or closed. About the features of each type of system will describe in the next section.
Referred to as "Leningradka" one-pipe heating system suitable for single and two-storey residential buildings of a small area, the optimal number of radiators - up to 5 pieces.
When using 6-7 batteries necessary to produce rigorous design calculations. In the presence of 8 radiator system may be insufficiently effective, and its installation and completion - unreasonably expensive.
Diagonal connection option in single-pipe circuit though and allows to increase the heat transfer system 10 - 12%, but not eliminating the "bias" in the temperature range between the first boiler and of extreme battery
Overview of the main technological schemes
Each of the heating circuits has its own characteristics Leningradka practical implementation advantages and disadvantages, seen below.
Features horizontal schemes
The one-storey buildings or private houses a small area is generally set "Leningradku" horizontal scheme. It should be taken into account in the practical implementation of horizontal schemes that all heating elements (Batteries) are located on one level, and their installation occurs along the walls around the perimeter equip premises.
Consider the simplest classical horizontal open-circuit with forced circulation.
The horizontal pattern "Leningradka": 1 - the boiler; 2 - nozzle; 3 - a tank; 4 - circulation pump; 5 - drain ball valve; 6 - overclocking collector; 7 - bleed screw; 8 - radiators; 9 - a discharge line; 10 - drainage; 11 - the ball valve; 12 - Filter; 14 - feed conduit. The arrows indicate the direction according to which the movement occurs coolant
The scheme shows that the system consists of:
- heating boilersWhich is connected to the water supply system and to the sewage network;
- Expansion tank with a spigot - due to the presence of the reservoir system is called open. To this is connected a branch pipe that extends from the excess water when the filling circuit, and the air that may occur when the liquid boils in the boiler;
- circulation pump, Which is embedded in the return pipe. It provides the circulation of water on the circuit;
- Hot water supply pipe and removing chilled coolant piping;
- radiators Defined bleed screw through which venting occurs;
- filterThrough which water passes before entering the boiler;
- Two ball valves - at the opening of one of them, the system begins to fill the coolant-water until the pipe. The second is the secret, with the help of water is drained directly into the sewer system.
Scheme battery connected pipe from below, but it is possible to organize a diagonal connection, which on heat transfer is considered to be more effective.
This diagram illustrates the connection of the diagonal principle. The coolant is supplied from above through the line connected to the upper portion of the radiator, and exits from the back side of the device at the bottom of
The above scheme has considerable drawbacks. For example, if you need to repair or replace the radiator, you have to completely disable the heating system, drain the water, which is extremely undesirable in the heating season.
Also scheme does not provide for the possibility to adjust the heat transfer panels, to reduce the temperature of the premises or to increase it. The improved scheme below, solves these problems.
Its main difference from the previous one is that the pipelines both sides put ball valves (highlighted in blue), and introduced into the lower pipe bypass needle valve (highlighted green)
Ball valves are installed on both sides of the battery, introduced in order to be able to stop the flow of water into the radiator. To disassemble the battery for repair or replacement without release of water from the system can be closed ball valves.
Due to the bypasses battery removal can occur without shutting down the system - water will pass through the lower contour of the pipe.
Bypass allows also control the amount of coolant flow. If the needle valve is fully closed, the radiator receives and gives the maximum amount of heat.
If you lift the needle valve, a portion of the coolant will pass through the bypass, and the other part - through a ball valve. In this case, the amount of coolant flowing into the radiator is reduced.
Thus, by adjusting the level of the needle valve, it is possible to control the temperature in a particular room.
Consider a horizontal heating closed circuit with forced circulation.
The figure shows an implementation of a closed circuit "Leningradka" forced circulation. Supply of heated heat medium is made of one of the collecting pipe which collects the cooled water and diverts it to the boiler for further processing
Unlike an open circuit, closed type system It is under pressure due to the presence Closed expansion tank. Also, the system control panel and the control is present.
It consists of a body, on which is installed:
- Safety valve. It is selected based on the technical parameters of the boiler, namely - on the maximum allowable pressure. If there is a failure of the thermostat, the main valve will be released excess water, thus the system pressure drop.
- Air vent. The apparatus outputs the excess air from the system. If you fail the thermoregulatory system, then the boiling liquid excess air appears in the boiler, which is automatically released through the air vent;
- Manometer. A device that allows you to monitor and modify the system pressure. Typically, the optimal pressure is 1.5 atmospheres, but the index may be different - usually it depends on the parameters of the boiler.
A closed system is considered the most modern solution by automating certain processes.
In the horizontal type Leningradke necessarily used pump, without which the coolant it would be difficult to overcome the flow resistance in the components of the system
When using a circulating pump in the heating circuit is required to include a security group consisting of venting of a control device the pressure gauge and pressure relief valve
The horizontal heating circuits inevitably there is a need in the abduction of excess air, because equipment required to equip the automatic air vent, or mechanical devices - cranes Majewski
To connect devices with the ability to balance the heating circuit is used fittings with integrated ball valve and bypass formed cast housing
The circulation pump in one-pipe heating system
Security group for heating pump
Automatic air vent on a radiator
Balancing fitting with bypass and a ball valve
The use of vertical circuits
Vertical "Leningradka" installation schemes are used in two-storey houses of a small area. They are similar can be open or closed, presented circuits with forced circulation and gravity.
Systems with circulation pump we quoted above. Consider a vertical natural circulation circuit with gated.
In Scheme conduit positioned vertically, and the water supply takes place downwards through the surge tank
To implement a scheme of a natural circulation is difficult. There conduit mounted at the top of the wall at a predetermined angle in the direction of water movement. Heat transfer fluid coming from the boiler to the expansion tank, where the pressure is moving through the pipes and radiators.
To work effectively the boiler system should be located below the level of installation of the radiators.
The circuit may also be possible seizure radiator batteries without stopping the heating system due to installation of the pipeline bypass with needle valves and ball valves.
Comparison of spontaneity and pumping systems
There is an opinion that the organization of gravity heating system allows you to save on the circulation pump.
To organize the natural movement of the coolant circuit, you need to calculate the right angles, diameters and lengths of pipes that do not easy. Moreover, the Gravity system can operate smoothly and efficiently only in a small one-storey buildings, in other houses its use may cause a number of problems.
Another drawback lies in the spontaneity that for his organization required pipe diameter is greater than in the construction of forced heating circuits. They are more expensive and spoil the interior.
The diagram shows the implementation for drift horizontal wiring. Here, the boiler is located below the radiator, the coolant rises through the vertically oriented pipe enters the expansion tank, and from there, via the booster manifold is supplied in radiators
The room should be equipped with a basement for the boiler as heat source must be positioned below the radiator. Also, for the organization of spontaneity will require a well-landscaped and insulated attic, which will be mounted expansion vessel.
The problem of any drift in the two-story house is that the second floor of the battery warm stronger than in the first. Installation of balancing valves and bypasses will help partially solve this problem, but not essential.
Moreover, the introduction of additional equipment leads to a rise in price of the system and its operation may be unstable.
The most rational solution to the issue of differences in temperature of coolant coming out of the boiler and reaching the farthest devices on the ground floor, it is the installation of radiators with an increased number sections.
The increase in heat transfer area in this way allows you to almost equalize the heating characteristics on different tiers of the system.
Gravity "Leningradka" not suitable for loft-style homes, for a tube positioned exactly can only be in the house with a full roof. Also it is impossible to implement the system in the event that the house people live impermanent.
In embodiments gravitational Leningradka coolant enters the apparatus from a ceiling located under the collecting tube or the battery located above the floor
In gravitational systems use a minimum of shut-off valves. By installing the recommended full bore ball valves
A significant disadvantage is the restrictions on the length of the heating circuit. The maximum distance from the boiler to the battery is considered at 30 m
To stabilize the pressure in the system, and constructing the temperature balancing conduit with the upper portion positioned after the boiler
The principle of natural movement
reinforcement at least in the scheme
Restrictions on the length of the system
The upper portion of the pipe kollektornogoy
The specifics of the installation of a heating system
Single-pipe system "Leningradka" complicated calculations and execution. For its introduction into the house as an efficient heating system, you must first make a thorough professional calculations.
The main elements of the "Leningradka" system:
- pipeline metal or polypropylene (but not Metal-);
- radiator section;
- expansion tank (A closed system), or a tank with a valve (to open);
It may also need circulation pump (For systems with forced movement of the coolant).
To improve the capabilities of the system used:
- Ball Valves (One radiator 2 have ball valves);
- bypass needle valve.
It should be noted that the principal line system can be sharpened in the plane of the wall or be situated above this plane. If the pipe is in the wall, ceiling or floor, it is important to ensure that it is insulated with any material. This improves heat transfer pipes and the temperature drop in the latter radiators will be minimal.
Magistral is possible to install on top of the wall, avoiding shtrobleniya, but in this case suffers from the interior space
If the pipe is installed in the floor plane, the installation of the floor covering is made over the pipe. If the pipeline is laid on the floor, it will allow in the future to make some changes to the system construction.
A delivery pipe and the return circuit line with the natural movement of the coolant normally mounted obliquely 2 - 3 mm per meter of length in the direction of movement of the water or other coolant in system. The heating elements are installed on one level. In schemes with artificial circulation there is no need to comply with the slope.
Preparatory work premises
If the piping is hidden in the building design, before installation of the system do Stroebe on the perimeter in a place where the pipe will be placed.
When shtroblenie wall formed microcracks through channels appear both outside and inside. It is fraught hit the cold outside air, and undesirable formation of condensate on the tube. As a result - increased heat loss radiators and overrun gas.
Therefore, during installation of pipe in the wall, floor or ceiling is important to insulate the pipe by any insulating material.
Selection of radiators and pipe
Polypropylene pipes differ ease of installation, but not suitable for homes, which are located in the Nordic regions. Polypropylene melts at temperatures between + 95 ° C, so increases the likelihood of a pipe fracture at maximum heat output of the boiler.
It is advisable to use only metal pipes, although the installation is accompanied by difficulties.
The metal conduit is considered the most reliable. He withstands high water temperatures, but are necessary for its installation welding works
When the diameter of the pipe is necessary to consider the number of radiators. 4-5 Battery suitable pipe diameter of 25 mm and 20 mm on the bypass. For the circuit consisting of 6-8 radiators used trunk 32 mm and 25 mm bypass.
If the system involves the drift, it is necessary to choose the pipe of 40 mm and above. The more radiators are involved in the system, the greater must be the diameter of the pipe, otherwise it will be difficult to do later balancing.
Number of radiator sections is also important to correctly calculate. The coolant entering the radiator first battery has the greatest efficiency. It is a cooling water for at least 20 degrees. As a result, the output from the water temperature of 50 degrees is mixed with a substance with temperature +70 degrees.
As a result, the second radiator coolant gets longer with a lower temperature. Passing through each battery, temperature of the carrier will sink lower and lower.
To compensate for heat loss, to provide the necessary heat of each battery, it is necessary to increase the number of sections of radiators. At first radiator must be considered 100% capacity, the second - 110%, the third - 120%, etc.
When choosing radiators recommend following the advice in this article.
Compound of heating elements and tube
The bypass is built into the existing pipe is manufactured separately from the taps. The distance between the taps counted with an error of 2 mm, so that during the welding of the angular radiator valves with American fit.
Acceptable clearance on tightening American usually 1-2 mm. If you exceed this distance, it will go down the slope and flow. To get the exact dimensions, you need to unscrew the radiator angle valves, measure the distance between the centers of the joints.
K taps is connected or welded tees one opening for bypass is withdrawn. Second tee taken for measurement of - measuring a distance between the central axes of taps, given the size of the bypass landing on a tee.
Carrying out welding work
In welding, if the pipes are made of metal, it is important to avoid the internal influx. If the pipe diameter half closed, the pressurized coolant will prefer to go through a large pipe. As a result, the radiators can not get enough heat.
If formed an influx of welding elements, it is necessary immediately to alter the work, re-welded elements
When welding the main pipe and the bypass is necessary to determine in advance which end must be welded first, because there are situations when one end is welded, the second between the pipe and the tee can not be inserted soldering iron.
After the willingness of all elements of radiators hanging by a corner valve and combined joints, lay in cutting grooves bypass tapped measure the length of the fingers, the excess is cut, removed, and combined clutch welded to taps.
The final moments of the work
Before starting the system from the conduit and the radiator must eliminate air by Majewski cranes.
Also after running and checking all nodes and connections it is important to balance the system - equalize temperature throughout all radiators, adjusting the needle valve.
The vertical Schemes water is fed from the top of the risers. Expansion tank must be located above the radiator, and piping is typically mounted in the wall. Also in the system it is important to implement a forced circulation device.
Strengths and weaknesses of the system
The main advantages of "Leningradka" - easy installation, high efficiency, savings on consumables, mounting (cutting grooves formed to a pipe or not done at all, if the outdoor type is selected installation).
Through the introduction of bypasses, ball valves, control panel, it is possible to regulate the temperature in rooms without lowering the level of heat in other rooms; replacement, repair of radiators without stopping the system.
The main drawback of the system is the complexity of the calculations, the need for balancing, which often results in additional costs - the installation of additional equipment, repairs, and others.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Informative video about the implementation of the schemes "Leningradka" system:
Called "Leningradka" heating system is a budget-effective solution for heating a small area of homes.
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