The climatic conditions of the middle zone of northern Eurasia and require insulation of houses, but of insufficient insulation. Heat losses to be compensated by means of a heating system. Water heating in a private home is a common and most effective way.
The performance of the heating circuit is directly dependent on the characteristics of design choice and type of heating device wiring. How to determine the equipment and the most appropriate scheme, you will learn by reading our proposed article. The information provided is based on the requirements of building regulations.
We have described in detail the principle of the water heating device disassembled typical embodiments of the device. In order to optimize the perception of a difficult theme attached diagrams, photo collections and videos.
The content of the article:
- The structure and operating principle
- The rules and requirements for autonomous heating
Types of water heating systems
- Two-pipe and single-pipe design
- Variations on the connection pipes and appliances
- Method of assembling a pipeline
- Features baseboard heating
- Equipment of "warm floor"
- For more information about the coolant and its properties
- Selection of pipes for wiring
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The structure and operating principle
Heating design with heat transfer fluid has a similar set of component parts are:
- heating equipment - the boiler (gas, liquids or solid fuel), stove, fireplace.
- Closed loop in a pipeProviding a continuous circulation of the heated and the cooled coolant (antifreeze).
- heating devices - Metal ribbed, smooth pipe or panel radiators, convectors, water piping underfloor.
- valvingNecessary to disable individual devices or systems lines for repair and maintenance;
- devices for the adjustment and control of the system operation (expansion tank, a pressure gauge, relief valve and others.).
- Circulating pumpsUsed to create a forced flow of coolant, sometimes to ensure stable system pressure booster pump is installed.
If laid near central gas pipeline, the most economical solution is to install a gas boiler.
In the absence of the central network for independent gas supply system will have to install gas tank. However, this embodiment is applicable only in the case of arrangement manor sufficiently large area.
Preparation of a water coolant heating boilers produce. The most popular floor gas heat generators because of the cheapness of fuel
Among the gas most efficiently aggregates different types of condensation using not only the heat generated during combustion, but also pairs
Wall boilers perfectly cope with water preparation for heating circuits apartments and houses area of 150 m2
Less active in the private sector uses solid fuel, which is required for installation, and a boiler fuel storage
Solid fuel boilers are processed not only familiar and quite cheap firewood. They stoked with peat briquette, charcoal pellets
In the group of solid fuel boilers Pellet most promising are models in which the firing process is almost completely automated
Operation of the liquid fuel boiler cost three times more expensive than gas analogue 1.5 - 2 times more expensive than the solid. However, it is often the only solution for everything
Installation and connection of the electric boiler will require a minimum expenditure, but payment for the supply of energy will be the highest in comparison with the listed options
Gas boiler with a water heater
Condensation gas boiler
Wall gas heating unit
Solid fuel boiler for heating homes
Detail of the heating system
Fuel oil boilers species
Electrical heating offline
The cottages, built on small plots in negazitsitsirovannyh regions, autonomous operation of the gas heating equipment will provide a regular balloon. Alternatively you can use the stoves with liquid or solid fuels, and only as a last resort - expensive electrical devices.
Preference water heating in suburban homes give thanks to the simple operating principle. Heated in the boiler to a predetermined temperature, the water is supplied under pressure in the pipes leading to radiators or convectors.
Autonomous heating system is designed for self-production of thermal energy, transmission to the consumer through the heating devices, collecting and transporting the cooled liquid back into boiler
By type of coolant flow of the heating circuits are divided into:
- Natural (gravitational). Circulating coolant therein stimulate natural phenomena by which directs heated water upwardly, and after the impact of heat radiators and cooling back down. There she re-enters the boiler to renew the cyclical movement.
- Artificial (they coercive or pumping). For forced coolant circulation circuits responds pump, which on the one hand contour hot coolant pumps, and on the other sucks chilled water.
Gravitational scheme - the most simple and affordable option for self-realization. It is composed of a minimum of equipment. This line and the return flow, the boiler expansion tank open, radiators. Because movement of the coolant pump does not require stimulation system completely non-volatile.
A simple water heating system with natural coolant flow include a minimum of equipment: the boiler, piping, and battery shut-off valve
The advantages natural heating is attributed minor in comparison with the analogue pump for the construction costs. They do not have to be equipped with sophisticated technical devices do not differ cheapness. During operation, no electricity costs.
Strong negative gravity systems is extremely limited range. Work in full force, they are in horizontal length up to 30 m. Such a heating system for a long time "dispersed" after being idle. There is a risk of freezing in the open coolant tank on a frosty period.
Water heating with pump circulation is more difficult technically and technologically. For its construction will require control device and operation control circuit (+)
Forced circulation is good because it is free handles multi-storey buildings with an extensive and extended heating network. Driving efficiently the previous type, but more expensive and complicated in construction. Before its construction is necessary to make educated estimates and develop the project.
heating with artificial circulation It equipped with not only the pump, but also all sorts of technical devices to control heat transfer and control of the system. Among them, automatic and mechanical vozduhotovodchiki, thermostats, pressure gauges, pressure relief valves for discharge of excess coolant into the sewers and other.
Variant combined heating system: a boiler or furnace brick performing the basic function heating the coolant, connected solar panels mounted on a roof and operating efficiently in sunny weather
Forced heating equipment must be selected on the basis of calculations. For example, for coolant movement of each heating circuit 10m 0.6m necessary pressure created by the pump. In order to pick up the necessary equipment, it is necessary to know exactly what length of the pipeline and the flow resistance in all areas.
Often there is to equip the artificial water heating of a country house is not enough pump. Then set the additional circulation analogue or booster pump.
The main drawback of forced heating is depending on the continuous supply of electricity. In case of disruption advised to stock up generator, which does not differ too low price.
Water heating system being constructed for the two / three-storey town houses, arrange on the principle of primary-secondary rings. Within the first floor constructing primary ring encompassing the boiler and boiler. By connecting the primary ring secondary ring radiators and floor heating
The rules and requirements for autonomous heating
Before designing the heating structure is necessary to look into the SNP 2.04.05-91, where the main requirements for pipes, heaters and valves.
General standards are reduced to to ensure a comfortable microclimate in the house for the people living in it, properly equip the heating system, pre-prepared and approved the project.
Many of the requirements formulated in the form of recommendations to the SNIP 31-02, which regulates the rules of construction of single-family homes and ensure their communications.
Separately stipulated position associated with temperature:
- parameters in the coolant tubes must not exceed the level of + 90 ° C;
- optimal parameters are within + 60-80ºS;
- temperature of the outer surface of heating devices which are in a direct access zone, should not exceed 70 ° C.
heating pipelines recommended to arrange from brass, copper, steel pipes. In the private sector mainly uses polymer and metal tubular products, approved for use in construction.
Pipelines water heating circuits often laid open way. Latent laying device is allowed "warm floors"
A method of heating pipe laying can be:
- Open. It envisages the laying of building constructions with fastening clips and clamps. It is allowed at the device contours of metal pipes. The use of polymeric analogs allowed if their damage is excluded from thermal or mechanical impact.
- Hidden. It involves cutting grooves in the lining of pipelines or channels selected in building constructions, in baseboards or protective, decorative screens. Embedment of the circuit is allowed in the buildings, designed for at least 20 years of service and tube life of at least 40 years.
The priority of the open method of laying, because the design of the pipeline route should provide free access to any element of the system for repair or replacement.
Pipes concealed in rare cases, only when such a decision dictated by the technology, sanitary or structural need, for example, when the device "warm floors" in the concrete screed.
When laying a pipeline system with the natural movement of the coolant must be observed deviation of 0.002 - 0.003. Pipelines pumping systems, inside which the heat medium moves at a speed not less than 0, 25 m / s, no need to provide biases
at laying open Railway stations, crossing unheated spaces should be provided with thermal insulation, appropriate climate data construction in the region.
Indirect heating pipes with natural circulation type to be installed in the direction of motion the coolant to the heated water reaches by gravity the batteries, and after cooling in the same manner by moving line the return to the boiler. Turnpike pump systems are constructed without bias, because it is not necessary.
In open heating circuits used unconfined expansion tanks intended for volume expansion when heated coolant
The advantage of open systems is the simplicity of the design. We do not need the pressure relief valves are not required to install the air vent, since air is discharged through the tank
In closed heating circuits ekspanzomaty used - closed expansion tanks. Heat transfer fluid does not evaporate because never in contact with the atmosphere
Stimulate the movement of the coolant through the closed loop should circulator. To control the gauge pressure is set to reset coolant overpressure - a safety valve for venting - deaerators
Specificity open heating circuit
Pros and cons of open systems
Locked auxiliary heating circuit
Technical equipment of the closed system
It stipulates the use of various types expansion tanks:
- open, used for systems with both the pump and the natural compulsion, should be installed above the main riser;
- closed membrane devices used solely in forced systems, installed on the return line to the boiler.
Expansion tanks are designed to compensate for thermal expansion of the fluid when heated. They are necessary to reset the excess to drain or corny outside, as is the case with a simple open embodiments. Sealed capsules more practical because it does not require human intervention to adjust the pressure of the system, but more expensive.
Expansion tank open type mounted at the highest point of the system. In addition to providing provision for expansion of the liquid it is still the task of the air exhaust. Closed tanks pose boiler using exhaust air separators and deaerators
When selecting valves preferred ball valves, in selecting a pump installation - the equipment with the pressure to 30 kPa, and the capacity up to 3.0 m3 / h.
Low opening species must be periodically replenished due to weathering of the standard liquid. Under their installation must be significantly enhance the attic floor and warm attic.
Radiators and convectors should be mounted under the windows, in convenient locations for service. The role of the heating elements in the bathrooms or lavatories can play a towel attached to the heating Communications
Types of water heating systems
heating system type is determined a combination of several factors. Among them are circulation of coolant, a method of assembling the system, the lower or upper napkin embodiment of supply tube and others.
Regardless of the variety of heating device, be it a traditional radiator, convector or Baseboard coil "warm floor", the heated water reaches them, and after leaving the cooling standard for all systems way.
Two-pipe and single-pipe design
The ultimate object of heat recovery devices are located in all areas of the house heated. In many ways, the heating effect is dependent on the installation of the pipeline circuit, so dwell on one- and two-pipe layout.
The most common is the classification, consisting of two items:
- Single Tube option - serial connection of radiators. The bottom line is that the coolant flowing in series flows from one instrument to another. Approaching the farthest points it manages to dramatically cool.
- Twin-Tube option - a system with parallel connecting flow and return pipes. Its principle is based on the fact that the supply is carried out to all devices almost simultaneously. The cooled water does not flow into the next device, and going to the return manifold and is moved into the boiler.
Monotube circuit are both natural and forced movement of water. Within its class divided into two types: flow and bypass.
The heat transfer medium flow circuits upon reaching extreme much time to cool the radiator, so distant rooms recommended to install devices with an increased number of sections.
The pipe heating systems supply of heated coolant, and discharge it carried one collecting tube
Structurally, single pipe heating option is the easiest. The downside is that in the furthest from the boiler enters the battery has cooled coolant
In two-pipe heating circuits supply the heated coolant and removal of stale happens for different pipes
Two-pipe heating scheme more difficult and expensive to install. However, efficient heating, the coolant in all devices equal temperature
The specificity of single-pipe type
Pros and cons of one pipe scheme
The principle of the double pipe heating circuit
Pros and cons of two-pipe system
The introduction of the bypass system can partially redirect the hot coolant to the following devices, so almost all the batteries get and give an almost equal amount of heat. Adjusting the movement of the heated water is carried out either by two valves mounted on the bypass and feed pipe or one trehodovym crane.
The main difference between the double pipe structure is contained in the application of the two branches of: flow and return. The first serves to supply hot coolant to the radiator, the second - for discharging the water back to the boiler.
Single-pipe assembly involves a rapid cooling of the coolant, therefore, the wiring of the type recommended in country cottages with a small area lodges or (+)
Two pipe wiring scheme is used in systems with both types of coolant flow. According to the number of processed contours are one- and two-planimetric.
In the first case mounted boiler at the beginning of the pipeline, and the pipes are bred left and right of the machine along the perimeter of the heated object. In the second case the boiler is placed in the center, and the heating circuits are arranged so that their rings were on both sides of the unit.
2-pipe system more functional and reliable, to evenly distribute heat throughout the premises. With additional cranes and heat supply devices can be controlled adjustment in each individual radiator. When one member of the system performance will not suffer other devices.
The apparatus pipe system will provide nearly simultaneous supply of hot water appliances. The outflow of the cooled down heat carrier is carried out on the return pipe (+)
Variations on the connection pipes and appliances
All of these types of water heating arrangement for a country cottage divided into subspecies:
- According to the location of risersCombining heaters. Divided into horizontal and vertical. It is understood that the former are used in single-story buildings, the second multi-storey buildings. In one pipe systems with natural movement only supply risers.
- By arrangement of the supply pipe and return pipe. There are the upper or the lower wiring. The first providing for a gasket to the highest points of the system, so that heat transfer fluid enters the top devices. According to a second feed tank line situation is laid below the radiators.
Gravitational system with a lower wiring is rarely used because of the difficulties with air diversion distant devices. Bottom routing better with pump circulation, each unit of which is still equipped with air vent.
Vertical heating systems are constructed with the upper and lower wiring. Under the scheme it is clear that they are used for decorating homes with two or more floors
Heating with overhead distribution arrange cottages without basements, but with loft. Occasionally, in the absence of paving loft supply line interfacing with the ceiling walls which negatively affects the film interior. Bottom routing suitable for flat roof, built-up houses, but with a basement.
In systems with horizontal existent or minimal number of vertical risers
Method of assembling a pipeline
Classification method pipeline construction divides the heating system on tee, manifold and combined.
Tee schemes can be safely attributed to the classics of the genre. They suggest an assembly of piping and connect to devices using the tees used in nodes connecting to the pipe risers, radiators for pipes, etc. In principle, this series circuit.
According to the type of assembly piping heating circuits are divided into tee, manifold and combined
Tee assembly option determines the location of pipes and appliances for the perimeter, because also called perimeter
When the device collecting tube heating circuit as original rays from the collector are fed to each device
If the assembly of the heating system used, and tee, and radiation scheme, then it belongs to the category of combined
Tee circuit assembly
Perimeter option structures
Collectron type heating assembly
A combined embodiment of the device
The headers or otherwise beam construction It increases the possibility of water heating cottage. It's kind of a modified system with outstretched to each instrument separate branches (beams) of the pipeline and the distribution element in the center.
Distribution unit - manifold provided with a plurality of taps, so you can control the heat output of each device separately, turn it off for repair. If desired, and the financial opportunities each finger can be provided with its own pumping device.
The main advantage of a collector - the ability to control and adjust the heating processes in separate rooms of the building with a "control point"
Collecting wiring satisfied predominantly for horizontal circuits with lower flow tube gasket. At the device at the 2- and 3-storey homes recommends manifold mounted on each floor - so it is possible to regulate the temperature in any part of the building.
adjustment unit for houses of several floors consists of two interconnected components: a collector for the supply and return line analog. Origin responsible for delivery of hot heat transfer medium to the devices, the second stimulates removal cooled liquid.
To the collector - the distribution device can be connected not only to a radiator structure, but also "warm floors" DHW and baseboard (a panel) system (+)
Collecting wiring satisfied based on one- and two-pipe heating systems are used in combination with the perimeter (tee).
Features baseboard heating
Radiators or batteries in the traditional sense - not only heaters to create a comfortable microclimate in the individual rooms. Not so long ago appeared "Warm skirting" - heating elements, reminiscent of the same name building analogs in shape and arrangement.
baseboard heater construction is simple: inner elements are reminiscent radiators with copper tubes, outside - solid hollow box made of metal, good heat donating
The principle of operation of the device, located on the perimeter, helping to maintain a given constant temperature. First is heated tubes within the housing, and then - a box, away warm air rises, increasing the temperature of the walls.
Thus, indoor air is heated directly from baseboards and all walls, along which they are located.
Rational step is to use warm skirting in areas that directly border with the cold air from the street: on the terraces, verandas and balconies
Benefits baseboard heating:
- creating a comfortable microclimate, exclusive active air circulation;
- the possibility of warming of risk areas on the floor and wall junctions, where mold often appears;
- easy installation, which can be implemented without the involvement of experts;
- selection modules form (single- and double-row) and power (e.g., 310 W and 510 W);
- diverse design that does not require masking;
- affordable price.
By cons include the special conditions of location: along the horizontal elements can not arrange the furniture as it will harm the process of heat transfer. Each circuit included in the system should not be longer than 15 meters, so for a large installation space is required 2 or 3 loops (as an option - combined heating).
For baseboards uses the same coolant as that of the radiator - water or antifreeze in an amount of 330-350 g / m. Normal temperature - from + 45 ° C to + 80 ° C, in some embodiments, may be heating up to + 110 ° C
Besides water baseboards used electric, but their content is too expensive for a private home.
Equipment of "warm floor"
Effective and inexpensive design, called underfloor heatingProducing space heating by the floor, it has long established itself only with the best hand. It is widely used in city apartments to create a comfortable atmosphere in the bathrooms, bathrooms, in bedrooms, kitchens and a balcony.
Scheme floor heating device: a small diameter flexible tube, through which circulates heated heat transfer fluid is part of a controlled heating system
The conduit must have a high thermal conductivity, strength, elasticity, minimal resistance, so use repoussage or embroidered for polyethylene manufacture. Stabilizing and protective coating is a cementitious screed.
Advantages of underfloor heating:
- efficiency in any type of floor covering (laminate, linoleum, carpet, ceramic tile);
- appreciable saving heat - from 30% to 50%;
- inexpensive cost and installation;
- the ability to mount their own hands;
- use in combined heating systems (as well as radiators and convectors).
Hot-water heating is not dependent on the supply of electric power, as fed from the gas (or both) of the boiler.
Variant combined heating system (Heated floor panel radiators +) with extensive temperature control and adjustment system using sensors and thermostats
The disadvantages water underfloor heating include inadequate regulation and failure to install in the city under central heating, but this does not apply to the local suburban systems. If you violate the rules of installation possible accidents and flooding, so you should pay careful attention to the choice of equipment, and installation.
For more information about the coolant and its properties
Liquid, ideal for all heating systems, does not exist. Each of the embodiments of coolants market has specific characteristics, such as operating temperature range.
If you violate the specified range, the heating system is simply "get up", and at worst, the outcome will burst with pipes and costly equipment failure.
Also temperature parameters, Pipeline liquid It has properties such as viscosity, corrosion, ability to excrete toxic substances. Analysis of the necessary qualities has shown that the best heat transfer fluid is purified water and a special chemical solution - antifreeze.
The table shows the major advantage of antifreeze based on glycol - maximum rate of freezing point -40 ° C, while the water turns into ice at 0C already
Fill antifreeze is needed in homes that are not permanent residence. Usually leaving the building during the cold season, the owners of the water is drained, to avoid accidents and damage to equipment. Antifreeze deselect it - on their return can be immediately started without fear of leakage or rupture of the boiler.
In extreme temperature coolant chemistry, changing its structure, it saves the previous size. Simply put, it turns into a gel that retains the properties unchanged. When the temperature reaches the level of comfort, the gel structure becomes liquid again, fully retaining its original volume.
Some more useful information on antifreeze:
- is not less than 5 years old, one is able to withstand fill 10 heating season;
- fluidity 2 times higher than water, therefore, it is required to monitor the integrity of connections;
- increased viscosity requires more powerful tie circulation pump;
- expansion capacity on heating entails installation volumetric expansion tank.
And we must always remember that the chemical solution is toxic and dangerous to human health.
Antifreeze for pouring in domestic heating systems sold in plastic canisters in volume from 10 l to 60 l. The average cost - from 750 to 1100 rubles. for 10 liters
Despite the outstanding performance of antifreeze, water as a coolant is more popular. It has a heat capacity as possible, which is approximately 1 kcal. This means that the heat transfer fluid heated to 75 ° C during the cooling in the radiator 60 ° C to give room for about 15 kcal of heat.
Water available. If filters provide reliable water supply system, you can use a free version - the water from their own wells. It does not contain hazardous chemicals, and the accident will not cause poisoning.
The downside is the water content of some mineral salts corrosive. The problem is solved using a simple boiling or rainwater instead of well water (or melt).
There are complex of water treatment systems for private homes: in addition to universal atonement water passes through several stages to become fit for drinking or pouring into the heating circuit (+)
Water is not recommended to be used in homes for periodic residence.
Selection of pipes for wiring
On the quality of each system depends on the details of the final result, which is to preserve and saving heat, so most extended elements - pipes - must also pay a share attention.
From a technological point of view, pipes and fittings You must possess the following qualities:
- suitable for renovation;
- low noise.
Low cost is also an important component in choosing, because the heating system equipment requires a large number of products for different purposes.
Polypropylene tubes - the best option for self-assembly of the heating system. Use the soldering machine for stitching of pipes can be learned in 10 minutes
Now hardly anyone will undertake the installation of wiring made of metal pipes. Steel, copper and galvanized items are disappearing, giving way to a cheaper and functional analogues.
The best alternative is plastic products. which can be divided into three groups:
- metal and plastic.
pros Polypropylene tubes - inexpensive cost, ease of welding, long service life. Negatives - lack of elasticity. When the replacement pipe is necessary to change a fragment from compound to compound.
On the long line segment polypropylene tubes sag, as they have an extension of 6 mm / 5 m. A solid provide fixation by means of staples or clips, mounted in the wall at intervals of 1-1.1 m
Robust plastic pipes resistant to sudden temperature changes. Able to serve without major repairs to 30 years. The weak point is the connecting elements - fittings unnecessarily narrowed passage section. In the case of the coolant freezing probable breakthrough.
Choosing the pipe, be guided by the main technical parameters of equipment and the type of coolant.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The video provides useful information about the circuits, parts, mounting fluid heating systems, as well as the installation of a personal experience.
Video # 1. Features one-pipe heating system:
Video # 2. Overview of two-pipe heating system circuits:
Video # 3. Practical application of radiation scheme:
Video # 4. Detailed instructions for installation of the heating system:
Advice to all who want to equip their own sophisticated heating system in a country house: in the preparation of Project should consult with an expert, so that after the installation does not face unforeseen circumstances. Plumbers help you choose a reliable equipment, prompt a more efficient circuit wiring, make exact calculations, but the result will be the comfort and warmth of home.
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