A starter for fluorescent lamps is included in packaging electromagnetic puskoregulyatora (EMPRA) and is intended for ignition of a mercury lamp.
Each model released certain developer has different specifications, but It is used for lighting, feeding solely by AC, with maximum frequency not exceeding 65 Hz.
Offer to find out how the starter for fluorescent lamps, its role in the lighting device. Furthermore, we denote the characteristics of different starting devices and explain how to choose the right mechanism.
The content of the article:
- How does the device?
- Principle of operation unit
Types starters for fluorescent devices
- Electronic type starter
- Heat views starter
- Glow discharge mechanism
- The role of the capacitor in the circuit
- The main disadvantages of starters
- Decoding of marking values
- What to look for when choosing?
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
How does the device?
Optional starter (starter) is quite simple. Element is represented by a small discharge lamp capable of forming a gas at low pressure and low current, the glow discharge.
This small glass bottle filled with inert gas - helium or neon mixture. It soldered movable and stationary metal electrodes.
All electrode spiral light bulbs are equipped with two terminal blocks. One of the terminals of each contact is involved in the chain electromagnetic ballast. Others - are connected to the cathodes starter.
The distance between electrodes does not substantially starter, however by voltage it can easily break. This produces a current and heat elements included in the electric circuit with a certain resistance lobes. It was the starter and is one of those elements.
Design starters for fluorescent lamps are virtually identical to the unit: 1 - throttle; 2 - glass bulb; 3 - mercury vapor; 4 - terminal; 5 - electrodes; 6 - a housing; 7 - a bimetallic contact; 8 - inert gas substance; 9 - LDS tungsten filament yarn; 10 - a drop of mercury; 11 - arc discharge in the bulb (+)
The flask is placed inside a plastic or metal housing, acting in a protective casing. In some of the top cover further has a special inspection hole.
The most popular material for the manufacture of plastics is considered a block. Constant exposure to high temperature conditions to withstand the special structure of impregnation - phosphor.
Adaptations are issued with a pair of legs that act as contacts. They are made of different kinds of metal.
Depending on the design type of the electrodes may be symmetrical or asymmetrical with movable one movable element. Their findings go through the bulb holder.
In parallel flasks electrodes connected capacitor 0,003-0,1 microfarads capacitance. This is an important element that reduces the interference level and also involved in the process of tanning lamps
Mandatory part is a capacitor apparatus capable of smooth extracurrents and at the same time break the device electrodes, carrying the extinguishing arc generated between the conductive elements.
Without this mechanism, there is a high probability of adhesion contacts when the arc occurs, which significantly reduces the service life of the starter.
In everyday life, the most popular examples of ballasts with symmetric contacts and starting system wiring diagram. These samples are subjected to smaller influence of the voltage drop in the electrical network
Correct operation of the starter due to a voltage supply. By reducing the nominal values up to 70-80%, the fluorescent lamp can not light up because It will not produce sufficient heating of the electrodes.
In the process of selecting the right actuator, given the particular model Fluorescent Lights (Fluorescent or M), it is necessary to examine further specifications of each kind, as well as to determine the manufacturer.
Principle of operation unit
Submitting the mains supply to a lighting device, the voltage passes through the windings inductor LL and a filament made of tungsten single crystals.
Further fed to the terminals and the starter form a glow discharge therebetween, wherein the gaseous medium is reproduced by illumination of its heating.
Since the device has another contact - bimetal, it also reacts to changes and begins to bend, altering the shape. Thus this electrode closes the electrical circuit between the contacts.
The amount of current generated by the glow discharge varies from 20 to 50 mA, which is enough to heat a bimetal electrode, which is responsible for the chain circuit (+)
Wiring formed in a closed loop luminescent device conducts current through itself and It heats the tungsten filament, which, in turn, begin to emit electrons from its heated surface.
Thus formed thermionic emission. At the same time playing warming mercury vapor, are in the tank.
Formed by the flow of electrons contributes to reduce the voltage applied to the terminals of the network starter approximately doubled. The degree of the glow discharge begins to fall together with the heating temperature.
Bimetal plate reduces its degree of deformation thereby opening the chain between the anode and the cathode. Current flow through this area ceases.
Changing it provokes indicators within the choke, in the conductive circuit, the occurrence of the induction electromotive force.
Bimetallic contact product instantly reacts in a short term discharge circuit connected thereto: LL between the tungsten filaments.
Its value reaches several kilovolts, which is sufficient for piercing an inert gas environment with the heated mercury vapor. Between the ends of the lamp electric arc is formed, producing ultraviolet radiation.
Since such a range of light is not visible to humans, there is a phosphor that absorbs in the ultraviolet lamp design. As a result, the standard is rendered luminous flux.
When the current in the circuit or a complete cessation of the magnetic proportional changes occur flow across the surface of the plate, which limits the contour and results in the excitation of this circuit EMF self-inductance
However, the voltage on the starter connected parallel to the lamp, is insufficient to form glow discharge, respectively, the electrodes remain in the open position during the glow lamp daylight. Further, the starter is not used in the working circuit.
Since after the production of luminescence indicators need to limit the current, the electromagnetic ballast is introduced into the circuit. Due to its inductive reactance, he serves as a limiting device to prevent lamp failure.
Types starters for fluorescent devices
Depending on the algorithm work, starters are divided into three main types: electronic, thermal, and glow discharge. Despite the fact that the mechanisms have differences in design elements and principles of work they perform identical options.
Electronic type starter
Processes reproduced in contact system starters, are not controlled. In addition, a significant impact on their functioning has a temperature environment mode.
For example, at a temperature below 0 ° C the heating rate is slowed electrodes, respectively, the unit will spend more time in the ignition light.
Also during heating can soldered contacts with each other, which leads to overheating and destruction of the lamp coils, i.e. its damage.
Most of the models of electronic ballasts for the LDS issued on the basis of chip UBA 2000T. This type of apparatus allows to eliminate overheating of the electrodes, thereby significantly increasing the operational life of the lamp contacts, respectively, and the period of its operation
Even properly functioning devices with the passage of time have worn out property. They retain the heat longer lamp contacts, thereby reducing its production resources.
It is to address this kind of flaws in semiconductor microelectronics starters were involved complex designs with ICs. They make it possible to limit the number of cycles of simulation process starter circuit electrodes.
In most presented on samples schematic markets electronic starter device is composed of two functional units:
- management scheme;
- high-voltage switching unit.
As an example, a chip electronic ignitor UBA2000T firm PHILIPS and a high-voltage thyristor TN22 production STMicroelectronics.
The principle of operation is based on an electronic starter circuit opening by heating. Some samples have a significant advantage - option standby switch.
Thus opening the electrodes produced in the necessary voltage phase character and provided optimal heating temperature indicators contacts.
Semiconductor components of the electronic ballast must be suitable for key workers characteristics, namely, the relation of power and voltage values of the connected lighting device
It is important that the lamp failure and unsuccessful attempts to start it off mechanism of this type, if the number (attempts) reaches 7. Therefore, on the early failure of the electronic starter, and can not be considered.
As soon as a replacement bulb on serviceable, the device will be able to resume the startup process LL. The only disadvantage of this modification - the high price.
The starter circuit as an additional interference reduction method can be used symmetrized choke coil divided into identical sections, with an equal number of turns, wound on a common device - core.
To date, produced ballasts have a ready-bar construction. Cutting wire is made of magnetic steel sheets. Typically, such reactors have two symmetrical windings
All field coil connected in sequential order with one of the lamp contacts. When the two electrodes it will work under the same technical conditions, thereby reducing the degree of interference.
Heat views starter
A key distinguishing feature of thermal igniters is a long start-up period of LL. Such a mechanism in the operation uses a lot of electricity, which has a negative effect on its energy-intensive characteristics.
Heat starter also called termobimetallicheskim. contact heating will occur with delay, which effectively affects the work of the lighting device in a low temperature environment
Typically, this kind is used under low temperature conditions. the algorithm is significantly different from other types of analogues.
In case of power failure the device electrodes are in a closed state when applying - generated pulse with a high voltage.
Glow discharge mechanism
Triggers based on the principle of a glow discharge, have in their design bimetallic electrodes.
They are made of metal alloys with different coefficients of linear expansion during heating plate.
Minus ignitor glow discharge is a low voltage pulse level, because of which no sufficient reliability deck LL
Ability lamp ignition duration is determined by prior heating of the cathodes and current indicators, flowing through a lighting device at the time of opening the circuit contacts of a starter.
If the starter does not snatch the first lights a lamp, it will automatically attempt to play up to the moment when the lamp does not light up.
Therefore such devices are not used at low temperature conditions or unfavorable climates, e.g., at high humidity.
If there is not provided the optimal level of the contact system heating lamp will spend a lot of time in the ignition, or is disabled. In accordance with the GOST standards spent starter ignition time should not exceed 10 seconds.
Actuating devices performing their functions by thermal principle or glow discharge compulsorily fitted with an additional device - condenser.
The role of the capacitor in the circuit
As has been noted previously, the capacitor is in parallel to the device housing the cathodes.
This element solves two key challenges:
- Decreases the degree of electromagnetic interference in the radio wave range. They result from the contact system and starter electrodes formed lamp.
- It affects the process of ignition of the fluorescent lamp.
Such additional mechanism reduces the amount of pulse voltage generated by the opening of the starter cathodes and increases its duration.
The capacitor reduces the likelihood of sticking contacts. If the device does not provide a capacitor, the voltage across the lamp increases quite quickly and can be up to several thousand volts. Such conditions reduce the degree of reliability of the ignition of lamps
As the use of overwhelming the device does not achieve a complete leveling EMI inlet circuit administered two capacitors, the total capacity of which is not less than 0.016 microfarads. They are connected in sequential order grounding the middle point.
The main disadvantages of starters
The main disadvantage is the unreliability of the design starters. Failure triggering mechanism triggers a false start - visualized several flashes of light prior to full light output. Such problems reduce resource tungsten filament lamp.
Starting apparatus form impressive energy losses and lower efficiency lamp apparatus. The disadvantages also relates dependence on the voltage electrodes, and a considerable scatter response time
In fluorescent lamps with time there is an increase of operating voltage, while the starter, on the contrary, the higher the lifetime, the lower the ignition voltage of the glow discharge. Thus it appears that the inclusion of light can trigger its operation, which is why the lights are out.
Razomknuvshiesya contacts starter again lit the light. All these processes are carried out in a split second and the user can only watch flicker.
The pulsating effect causes retinal stimulation, and also leads to overheating of the throttle, reducing its life and failure of the lamp.
The same negative effects expected from the great spread of the contact time of the system. It is often not enough to fully preheat the lamp cathodes.
As a result, the unit lights up when playing a number of attempts that are accompanied by an increased duration of the transition process.
If the starter circuit connected in single-lamp circuit in this case is not possible to reduce the light surge.
Since it is recommended to use this type of scheme only in order to reduce the negative effect indoor lamps where applied group (sample 2-3), which must include at different phases three-phase circuit.
Decoding of marking values
Conventional abbreviations for starters models of domestic and foreign production does not exist. Therefore, we consider the basics of notation separately.
Decoding the values of 90S-220 is as follows: a starter, operating with fluorescent samples, the strength of which is 90 W and the rated voltage of 220V (+)
According STATE, decoding of alphanumerical values [XX] [C] - [XXX] supported on the housing, as follows:
- [XX] - figures indicating mechanism svetovosproizvodyaschego power: 60 W, 90 W or 120 W;
- [FROM] - starter;
- [XXX] - the voltage applied for 127 V or 220 V.
To implement the ignition foreign developers lamps produce devices with different symbols.
Electronic form factor produced by many firms.
The most well-known in the domestic market - PhilipsProducing these types of starters:
- S2 calculated on power W 4-22;
- S10 - 4-65 watts.
Firm OSRAM It focused on the production of starters for single connection of lighting fixtures, as well as for serial. In the first case it S11 marking limited power of 4-80 W, ST111 - 4-65 watts. A second, e.g., ST151 - 4-22 watts.
Produced models of starters in a wide range. Key parameters to be considered when selecting - commensurate with the value of the characteristics of the type of fluorescent lamps.
What to look for when choosing?
In the process of selecting the trigger is not enough based on the name of the developer and the price range, although these factors should be taken into account, as indicate the quality of the device.
In this case, the gain reliable machines, positively proven in practice. It is worth paying attention to such companies: Philips, Sylvania and OSRAM.
FS-11 starter Sylvania brand. Gets to fluorescent lights, power 4-65 watts. It can be used in AC power. It works on the principle of a glow discharge
The most basic operating parameters are considered to be the starter the following technical features:
- Current ignition. This figure should be above the operating lamp voltage, but not below the power supply.
- The base voltage. When connecting a single-lamp circuit apparatus is applied in 220 V, dual lamp - 127 V.
- The power level.
- The quality of housing and its fire resistance.
- Operational life. Under normal conditions of use, the starter must withstand at least 6,000 inclusions.
- The duration of the cathode heating.
- The type of capacitor.
It is also necessary to take into account the inductive resistance of the coil and rectification factor responsible for resistance to reverse ratio at a constant direct voltage.
Additional information about the device, and the connecting mechanism fluorescent lamp ballast shown in this article.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Help in the selection of necessary ballast for fluorescent lamps:
Starter for fluorescent devices: basics of marking and constructive device system:
Theoretically, while the starter is equivalent to lamp life, which he lights. Nevertheless, it is worth considering that, over time, the intensity of the glow discharge voltage drop, which is reflected in the work of the luminescent device.
However, the manufacturers recommend changing the starter and at the same time, and a lamp. For the acquisition of the necessary modifications initially worth exploring the main indicators of the instrument.
Share your experience with the readers choice starter for fluorescent lamps. Please leave comments, ask questions on the subject of the article and participate in the discussions - the feedback form located below.