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Acquaintance of the person with the majority of spicy-flavoring herbs took place in ancient times. Coriandrum sativum belongs to this number, but the inhabitants of modern Europe, the countries of Asia and America, engaged in the cultivation of cilantro, may imply different plants. And Russians do not always know that cilantro and coriander are different names related to the same culture.
The cilantro presented in the photo is grass that has a straight and branched stem, as well as whole three-lobed leaves of the root rosette and pinnately dissected on the stem, that is, cilantro has two types of leaves: the lower root with jagged edges and upper, which are divided into segmentsdifferent segments.
The name adopted in the international classification goes back to the Greek word koriannon or according to other data koros, which means beetle, bug.
This version has the right to exist, since cilantro grass, in the photo, is famous for its bright aroma, reminiscent of the smell of these odorous insects.
It is interesting that the decanal and decylic acid, which determines the specific aroma and constitutes up to 80% of the essential oil, practically disappear when it is time to harvest the mature seeds. Loses these flavors and dried cilantro.
One plant and two names: cilantro green, coriander seeds
Not surprisingly, in cooking, coriander leaves, cilantro, and plant seeds are used in completely different ways and exhibit dissimilar properties. Moreover, in national cuisines leaves and grains are not equally popular:
- Greens, which has a refreshing sharp aroma and a bitter aftertaste, is good in salads, meats and sauces. Fresh leaves of cilantro, as in the photo of the plant, are mainly used in the cuisine of southern nations, which is probably related to the plant's ability to excrete substances that prevent rotting and the development of harmful bacteria.
- Cilantro seeds bearing the name “coriander” have a sweeter, softer and oily flavor. Therefore, they are used to flavor sausages and vegetable dishes, beverages, soups and baked goods.
use and growing cilantro in countries
the world in different countries and parts of the plant world, it is not only the cilantro and coriander, but kashnich, cilantro and kishnishi, chatra, kushtumburu, Kolyandr andhamemExternally, plants of the umbrella family have many similarities. What cilantro looks like is clearly seen in the photo. Because of the similarity with parsley leaves, green cilantro is called Chinese, Arabic, Chinese, and Mexican parsley.
In Indonesian cuisine, coriander is known as ketumbar, while Indians call spice dhania and grow cilantro to make a mixture of curry and masala spices. In India, coriander is part of traditional cuisine, and its mention is found in the oldest texts in Sanskrit.
History of cilantro cultivation from ancient times
Cilantro is mentioned in the Iberian papyrus dedicated to the description of natural medicinal plants and poisons dating back to 1550 BC.The fossilized seeds of coriander, paleobotanists, were found in the tombs of the 21st dynasty of Egyptian pharaohs. There is an opinion that the manna in verse 16:31 of the biblical book of Exodus is white coriander seeds.
During the heyday of Hellenic and Roman civilization, cilantro seeds called coriander, and perhaps green, were widely used as a medicine and spice. Hippocrates writes about the plant in 400 BC, and under the ruins of Pompeii, buried under ashes in the 1st century BC, archaeologists also find round coriander seeds. The image of the cilantro plant has been preserved, in the photo, from the book of Dioscoride.
With cohorts of Roman soldiers, the plant fell into Gaul, and later into Britain. Ground coriander grains and spicy greens invaders flavored barley fresh porridge and preserved the freshness of meat.
In the south-east of Great Britain, you can still see wild coriander, which does not allow to forget about the distant history of the country.
How cilantro was grown on the territory of Russia
Feral coriander in Crimea, Central Asia and the North Caucasus is also a memory of how troops and caravans of Sarmatians, Greeks and Persians, Turks and other peoples who have long been engaged in the cultivation of cilantro passed through these lands. Information about the cultivated plantings in vegetable gardens in Russia dates back to the second half of the 18th century, and they mention the name “Kishnitsa”, which is close to the pronunciation “geshnes” in Farsi and Turkish “kişniş”, speaks of the plant’s eastern route to Russia.
Mass sowing of this culture began only in the XIX century, when Count PIApraxin brought seed of spice plants, including coriander, from Spain.
Kinze, which was then called the colundrum, liked the black soil of the Voronezh province so much that the plant began to displace the more demanded anise.
How to grow cilantro on greens and seeds?
Indeed, in Russian conditions, cilantro has proved itself to be an early maturing, unpretentious culture that easily tolerates frost. For the cultivation of cilantro on greens and full-grown seeds requires a fairly fertile soil and plenty of light, otherwise the stems will be elongated, with rare weak foliage and inflorescences, baskets, consisting of barren flowers. By the way, high temperatures also adversely affect seed formation. If the air warms up above 35 ° C, pollination does not occur, and the number of barren flowers increases dramatically.
Sow cilantro seeds, called coriander, better in spring, from March to early May, when the soil has not lost moisture from the melted snow. So that, later, the plant did not experience a lack of moisture, plantings are watered at least once every 8–10 days, when the soil under the plants becomes dry without natural precipitation. Coriander has the greatest need for water when stalks begin to rise above the rosettes of leaves and flower stalks form. At this time, cilantro grass, in the photo watered, and mulch the soil to retain moisture.
When to collect cilantro and coriander seeds?
If the gardener's goal is to obtain fragrant greenery, then the foliage should be cut off in the outlet phase, before the inflorescence appears. The basal leaves growing on long petioles are considered the most valuable. When cilantro is harvested, the height of the stalks does not exceed 15 - 20 cm.
The foliage growing higher along the stalk gradually loses its three-lobed shape, becoming feathery, elongated and shallow. After cutting the greens, coriander is fed. And then, from July to September, it is time to pick up the cilantro in the form of seeds.
Repeated sowing of cilantro is carried out only with the decline of the summer heat, from August to October.
In many regions of the world, for example, in the Middle East and North Africa, in Asia and the Mediterranean countries, in Eastern Europe, India and Russia, coriander is a seed crop, cilantro is grown on an industrial scale, and the spicy seeds are not the greens.
Coriander and its rivals in Asia and the Americas
In the 15th-16th centuries, coriander was brought to the lands of the American continent on the ships of the Portuguese and Spanish conquistadors.
Today, in the USA, and especially in Latin America, cilantro greens and seeds of this plant are extremely popular, as a seasoning for national dishes.
Interestingly, in the Americas, the plant Eryngium foetidum, which has similar cilantro taste and is native to Central America, can be called coriander or culantro. Consider the opponent cilantro can be in the photo of the plant. The young leaves of the fragnaceae fragrant or Eryngium foetidum are used as seasonings in the New World and in a number of Asian countries. Long or Mexican coriander cultivated by Costa Rica farmers has medicinal properties and can be used to neutralize inflammation and pain relief.
An interesting fact about cilantro is the existence of a plant in Vietnam and Malaysia, also called coriander. Local spice belongs to the Grechishny family. This is Polygonum odoratum or mountaineer odorous. Vietnamese coriander is grown along with rice and other traditional crops. The mountaineer evokes the constant interest of tourists who have not previously encountered an unknown spice. The plant is used for cooking national North Vietnamese soups and noodle dishes.