Content of the article:
There is a lot of making varieties of making sweets. All of them differ not only in color, shape, thickness of the walls of the fruit and its size. Sweet pepper, which varieties also differ in purpose and taste, is a thermophilic culture of the Solanaceae family. In the conditions of our country it is grown by seedling method. Many novice gardeners are wondering how to grow sweet peppers in the country?
The basis for success in the cultivation of this vegetable is the correct selection of its varieties and compliance with the requirements of agricultural technology. The best grades of sweet pepper with a photo and the description are provided below.
Sweet pepper varieties with photographs
Breeders developed many varieties of this crop. Its fruits, which are a multi-seeded false berry, have a varied shape: from the trunk to the tomato-shaped( round).The color of the fruit can be: yellow, orange, green, red, purple and even almost white.
Sweet peppers produce the following varieties:
- Early, which allow in a short time to get a good harvest. These varieties are suitable for cultivation in northern latitudes. The most popular among them are:
- Swallow - medium early variety for greenhouses and film shelters. Fruits are cone-shaped up to 80 g. Wall thickness is 5-6 mm. In biological ripeness, the fruits are red.
- Snow White is an early ripe variety intended for film shelters. Fruits are cone-shaped, weighing up to 90 g. Wall thickness - 6-7 mm. In technical ripeness, the fruits have a characteristic whitish color, and in the biological - red.
- Madonna F1 - an early hybrid with cuboid fruits. Their mass reaches 200 g. The wall thickness is 6-7 mm. In biological maturity, the fruits are yellow.
- Dwarf - an early variety with a short stalk( up to 40 cm) and cone-shaped thick-walled fruits( up to 80 g).In technical ripeness has a yellowish color.
- Winnie the Pooh is an early variety with a small stem of 30 cm. Designed for open ground and film shelters. Its medium-sized fruits( up to 50 g) are distinguished by ripening.
- Mid-season, which is recommended to grow in central Russia in greenhouses, and in the south - in the open. On country sites use the following varieties:
- Maria F1 is a high-yielding hybrid, whose stem reaches 85 cm in height. Fruits are flat-round, ribbed. Ripe peppers are red in color. Fruit weight is about 100 g, wall thickness - 6-7 mm.
- Othello F1, a hybrid up to 80 cm high with cone-shaped fruits, whose weight reaches 110 g and the wall thickness is 7 mm. It has a beautiful violet color, which becomes brown at the stage of biological ripeness.
- Tenderness - a fruitful grade for film shelters. Its stem grows to 120-140 cm. The weight of the truncated-conic fruits of red color reaches 70-80 g. The thickness of their walls is 4-6 mm.
- Novogogashary - medium early variety. Its standard plants grow to 50-60 cm. Fruits of red color have a characteristic rounded flat shape. The mass of juicy, thick-walled fruits( 8-11 mm) with proper agricultural technology reaches 120-140 g. The fruiting period of Novogoshars is 1.5 months.
Among the most common and popular varieties of sweet peppers, such as Victoria, Podarova Moldova, Kristall, Ruby, Novocherkassky 35, Kolobok, Gogoshary, Yubileiny 307, Meaty 7, Swallow, Donetsk Early, Large yellow, Bulgarian 79, Rotunda should be highlighted.
Cultivation of sweet pepper
In the southern regions it grows well in the open field, but in more northern latitudes, the greatest yield from pepper is obtained in greenhouse conditions. Sweet pepper has a grassy stem, which eventually stiffens at the base. In places of branching plants appear single flowers.
Sweet pepper is a self-pollinating crop, but sometimes it is replete with insects. Planting of bell peppers should be located away from the hot pepper beds, since they can inter-pollinate each other, resulting in a bitter aftertaste in the fruit.
Sweet pepper differs from other crops in a rather long growing season. The best varieties of sweet pepper( according to gardeners) are early-maturing varieties, in which technical ripeness in protected ground occurs approximately 100 days after germination. That is why this culture, both in the middle latitudes and in the south, is grown through seedlings. At the same time, seeds of sweet early thick-walled pepper are sown in boxes with fertile soil substrate in early February.
Sweet pepper is a rather demanding and heat-loving culture. Its seeds germinate most quickly at a temperature of 25–27 ° C.These plants develop best at 20–23 ° C.It is noteworthy that when the ambient air temperature drops to 13 ° C, sweet peppers seedlings and even adult plants stop growing.
When the first leaves appear, the seedlings dive according to the 6x6 or 7x7 cm scheme in boxes or 1 plant in peat pots or plastic cups. Before planting in the open ground, pepper seedlings are hardened for 7-10 days. It is best to plant the plants with 7-9 leaflets on a permanent place. Seedlings are planted in open ground only when the threat of spring frost has passed, since it is already dying at 0 ° C.Planted in rows, the distance between which is 40-45 cm. The interval between peppers should be 30-40 cm. It can be reduced when planting compact, short-growing varieties.
The beds under the sweet pepper are fertilized in the fall. To this end, 4-5 kg of rotted humus or vegetable compost per 1 sq. M are introduced into the soil.plot or greenhouse. In the soil make 20-30 g of complex mineral fertilizers per 1 sq. M.This soil fertilization can be carried out a few days before transplanting in spring.
To obtain the highest possible yield, timely care for the plants and the creation of the most favorable conditions are required. Sweet peppers are planted in well-lit areas, protected from the wind. With a lack of light, plants are drawn and shed flowers and ovaries. The soil for this type of pepper must be fertile, light and neutral in acidity. It should be constantly hydrated. Lack of moisture greatly inhibits the growth of plants, so without regular watering, they become dwarf, and the fruits - small and ugly.
Sweet pepper is sensitive to excess nitrogen. At the same time, plants grow green mass rapidly, but at the same time the number of flowers and ovaries decreases.
In early August, they nip the tops of the stems and remove all the buds and flowers that no longer have time to ripen before the onset of autumn. After 10-15 days, the operation is repeated. During the growing season, tall peppers are tied to stakes or trellis 2-3 times.
in country cottages For feeding of sweet pepper, use diluted bird droppings or mullein mixture with superphosphate. You can also feed phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
During the growing season it is necessary to regularly remove weeds and loosen the soil. Fruits of sweet pepper can be picked unripe( in the stage of technical ripeness).In the phase of biological ripeness, they contain more sugar, but if you wait for the full ripening of the fruits on the bush, then the total yield will be much lower.
Sweet Pepper Varieties for the Moscow Region
Many gardeners want to start growing sweet peppers in their summer cottages, but they do not know which varieties to choose for a particular region.
There are many varieties of this crop that are successfully grown in the Moscow region. Moreover, some early ripe hybrids and traditional varieties have time to mature even when grown in open ground.
According to many summer residents, the following varieties of Bulgarian pepper are most suitable for this region:
- Red: Rhapsody, Winnie-the-Pooh, Agapovsky, Bogatyr, Viking, Merchant, Swallow, Kakadu F1, Kolobok, Atlas, Red shovel, California miracle, Claudio F1,Chardash, Funtik, Pinocchio F1.
- Yellow: Apricot favorite, Spooky, Yellow Bell, Gemini F1, Gold reserve.
- Violet: Big Dad, Bagheera.
- Orange: Orange Miracle, Siberian Bonus, Cowhide.
All the varieties listed above are distinguished by the color and shape of the fruits, the size of the bush, but all of them are characterized by rapid ripening.
Sweet pepper varieties for Siberia
Since sweet pepper is a heat-loving crop, hybrid varieties are grown in the Siberian climate that are most adapted to the conditions existing there. The best results are obtained by cultivating it in protected ground in greenhouses and greenhouses. For obtaining good yields in Siberia, only early varieties are used:
- Red: Siberian Firstborn, Winnie the Pooh, Early Miracle, Agapovsky, Alyosha Popovich, Viking, Kupets, Lastochka, Korenovsky, Kolobok, Atlant, Novosibirsk, Red Shovel, Chardash, Belozerka, Funtik, Topolyn, Red giant.
- Orange: Siberian Bonus, Orange Miracle.
All of the above varieties are suitable for growing under film cover. They have time to ripen in just 70-80 days.