Organize heating and hot water supply of private homes can be a variety of ways, for example, to connect to the communications central gas supply or transfer of the heating system on consumption electricity. Do you agree?
And it is possible to collect the geothermal heat pump with his own hands, and efficient use of the earth's heat to create comfortable living conditions. Of course, it is quite time-consuming process, but for those who know something in the art, it does not take much.
In this article we will focus on the principles of operation and types of geothermal plants. We'll show you how out of scrap materials to build a heat pump alone. In addition, the article you will find expert advice on choosing geoagregatov. A featured video editing, and reveal the secrets of the principles of geothermal pumps.
The content of the article:
- How does heat geoagregat?
What are geothermal installations?
- Option 1. Reassembly "ground-water" technology
- Option # 2. Features heat pump "water-water"
- Option # 3. Arrangement systems 'air-water'
How to make the unit with your hands?
- Method # 1. Assembling of the refrigerator
- Method # 2. Heat pump from the air conditioner
- Tips for choosing the system
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
How does heat geoagregat?
The algorithm works geothermal heat pump is constructed to transfer heat from the source of low-potential thermal energy to the coolant. The land here plays the role of a radiator in the summer and is an active heat source in the winter season.
The difference of soil temperature helps to increase overall system efficiency and helps to reduce the actual operating costs.
The operation of the geothermal heat pump is the phenomenon of thermal inertia. The temperature of the earth at a depth of 6 meters and below almost exactly corresponds to the average annual air temperature in the region and very little changed during the calendar year
In practice, the conduit disposed in the ground, acting coolant enters and is heated there for a few degrees. Then the composition passes into the heat exchange unit (or evaporator) and throws the stored thermal energy to the internal circuit system.
The principle of operation of geothermal plants is similar to the operation of refrigeration systems. That is why some types of heat pumps in the summer successfully used as air conditioners and use them to cool the air in a residential area
Refrigerant working in the outer circuit, is warmed in the evaporator is transformed into gas and enters the compressor. There it is compressed under the influence of high pressure and becomes hotter.
Red-hot gas passes into the condensation device and the heat energy of the operating fluid inside of the system, is responsible for home heating. At the end of the refrigerant, who lost heat process returns to the starting point in the liquid state.
What are geothermal installations?
Geothermal heat pumps are distinguished from each other by the form of coolant in the internal and external contours of the structure. Energy device obtained from soil, water (groundwater or outdoor natural pond) or air.
Inside the dwelling heat resource is used for heating rooms, hot water and air conditioning. Depending on the combination of elements and functions occurs on the types of classification systems:. "Land-water", "water-water 'and' air-water '
Option 1. Reassembly "ground-water" technology
Pump "ground-water" - one of the most effective options for alternative heating premises. The principle of its action is reduced to the selection of using probes or reservoir of thermal energy from the ground and transferring it to the home water heating system.
Geothermal heat pumps "ground-water" - a high-tech advanced devices. They are extremely reliable and exhibit a high level of efficiency. Do not require constant intervention of the hosts in the work, but in need of a professional service
Technology helps to realize a special unit consisting of a geothermal heat exchanger located below the depth actual soil freezing and directly heat pump functioning as a refrigerator, only in reverse (reverse cycle Carnot).
How does the device
Setting the "ground-water", is heated living quarters at the expense of renewable heat produced by the soil, acting on the following algorithm:
- Working fluid (brine or antifreeze), moving on the geothermal loop receives soil temperature and transferred by a pump to a heat exchanger - evaporator. There it gives the collected heat freon, and itself becoming colder at 2-5 ° C, returns to the starting point.
- thermal energy Enriched freon evaporates and, by adopting a gaseous state flows into the compressor installation. There, the gas temperature rise due to compression and condensation.
- The thermal energy is transferred to the coolant in the home heating system, and Freon again takes a liquid form. Its pressure drops, after passing through the system expansion valve and the refrigerant returns to the evaporator to collect another portion of the resource.
As a result of this procedure, the amount of heat taken from the soil and transferred to the heating system of a residential building, more than 4 times exceeds the amount of electricity expended to ensure correct operation of a compressor installation, and a circulatory pump control unit.
Glycol mixture with good indicator of viscosity, water with alcohol or saline solution - these non-freezing liquids used in the system "ground-water." They are environmentally friendly, effectively take heat and transport it to the pumping station
An added bonus, you can call, and that the system has the ability to work in the opposite direction, that is cooling. However, the efficiency loss of up to 20%, but it is justified, given the high capacity of a heating equipment.
Accommodation options system "ground-water"
To create the outer contour of the "land-water" systems use plastic pipes of high strength having good performance. Place them horizontally laying on the bottom of the pit in a manner reminiscent communications arrangement for complexes "Heated floor".
Heat pump "ground-water" is reliable, efficient and quiet in operation, but its installation costs decent money and takes a lot of time (at least 1 month for construction and installation and commissioning Events). This time it is necessary to take into account before you stop your choice on the heating system of this type
Installation used area of 25-50 square calculation. m for each kilowatt of power mounted separate pump. The depth of the pit below the frost selected boundaries, and accurate dimensions and pitch pipe laying define additional calculations.
Owners of large estates, opt for home heating geothermal heat pump "ground-water", it is advisable to install horizontal collectors. Owners of small plots more appropriate mounting depth probes, since they go far back into the soil and does not "eat" a useful area near the house
Territory, which are equipped with communication systems geotremalnyh "ground-water" for agricultural purposes is not used. They can be divided into a beautiful grassy lawn or a flower bed with blooming annuals.
Vertical mounting is much more problematic and entails the use of professional equipment. On the plot using rig drill hole depth from 20 to 150 m, it is lowered special geothermal probe and connect it to the pump feeding oil to the homepage heating system.
Vertical probe geothermal system "ground-water" represents a head with a supply pipe. It is immersed into the well depth of 18 m or more. The exact number of wells and probes required depth of immersion and the actual diameter of the pipeline to calculate separately each particular case, held by experts on the basis of information obtained as a result of geological investigation on section
Probe tube extending from the drilled wells are within the collector well. From it to the heat pump 2 are trunk lines (feed and reverse resource) provided with insulation coating. The diameter of the line depends on the total volume of the system and the room you want to heat. Sometimes parameters reach 160 mm.
According to rough calculation, for heating an apartment house area of about 100 m2 need about 7.5 kW / h energy. Vertical probes to create a heating "ground-water" system in this case will have to drop to the ground to 110-115 meters, or take a horizontal communication 250 m2 adjacent plot (+)
Due to the fact that the depth of the soil temperature is always higher and more stable due to the effects of the earth's core, vertical laying method the heating system is recognized as effective. It shows a high level of efficiency and works reliably for years without letting failures and breakdowns.
Option # 2. Features heat pump "water-water"
Geothermal system 'water-water' utilizes the thermal energy of water resource. This is possible because in deep water temperature, as well as the soil remains relatively high and constant year-round maintains stable performance.
Everything for "water-water" system and produce low-grade thermal energy can be used open waters (Lakes, rivers), wells, boreholes, and even sewage technological cycles of industrial production (water return type)
The principal structural difference between the heat pump "ground-water" and "water-water" no. But most smaller financial and labor costs require complex, equipped on the basis of open water. For installation do not need large-scale drilling activities.
Tubular material with a coolant are fitted with a load, is immersed in water and by connecting communication connected to a home heating system.
However, such an option is possible only in the case where the land is flat against the water and all the communication part of the system are under the control hosts. If an open body of water do not have access, use of the potential of groundwater.
However, this entails major earth works and construction of complex structures, e.g., additional wells designed to reset the water passing through the heat exchanger assembly.
When installing the heat pump "water-water" equips not one, but two wells. After one working water is taken and, after passing a heat exchanger is redirected into the second, which is located in the direction of ground water flow. During the placement must take into account that the host of the well should be given away at a distance of not less than 6 meters and have to be downstream
Usually installation of the "water-water" mounted where there is no possibility to connect central communications or use other types of coolants.
Experts say that the alternative heating of this type is extremely effective in modern buildings, with a minimum rate of heat loss.
In the manufacture and laying his hands geothermal heating system "water-water" it is very important to use materials with high resistance to corrosion and other aggressive peremerzaniyu external manifestations environment. Then the equipment will last a long time and will not give the owner any trouble
If the house is well insulated, protected from drafts, moisture and penetration of cold air or built using modern insulating technology, the cost of heating is substantially reduced due to open up opportunities to buy pumps much less power.
Option # 3. Arrangement systems 'air-water'
Heat pump "air-water" used for the most affordable, unlimited and renewable natural energy source - the air. Functioning equipment by fans and evaporators combined into a single complex.
It exhibits the greatest efficiency at temperatures up to -15 ° C. A more aggressive performance loses a significant amount of power.
Heat pump "air-water" is much cheaper than the model of "water-water" and "earth-water." The module is suitable for regions with relatively warm winters. In the cold northern regions, where frosts exceed -20... 25 ° C air equipment installation is considered to be inappropriate
The unit is extremely convenient because it does not require the presence of a private house owners of specialized equipment for mounting and carrying out complicated installation work.
It does not require excavation of land, drilling, and other labor-intensive activities. It is easy to install and does not take up much space. It can function correctly, lying on the roof of the dwelling.
Install a geothermal pump "air-water" can be directly on the site near the residential buildings. He is quiet and has a modern attractive look without spoiling the overall design of the territory
Among the main advantages of equipment relates almost silent operation and reusability utilizing the heat released from the heated space in the form of exhaust air, water, gas, smoke and so on.
service system owners on their own:
- clean fan blades and protective grilles on the evaporating unit from dust, debris, and leaves;
- lubricated compressor special structure, specified by the manufacturer;
- change oil in power units (fan, compressor) with certain periodicity;
- check the integrity of the power cable supply and a copper pipe through which refrigerant is circulated in the system.
In addition to these actions of pumping equipment manufacturers strongly advise clients to monitor the status of thermal sensors, reflecting the operation of the control unit.
They should be cleaned by gently removing surface dust and oil stains. This will extend the "life" withair-to-air Istemi and make the operation easier and more comfortable.
How to make the unit with your hands?
Regardless of which version of the resource (land, air or water) for heating is selected, a pump is required for correct system functioning.
This device consists of such items as:
- compressor unit (An intermediate complex element);
- evaporatorTransmitting the low-potential energy of the coolant;
- throttle valveThrough which the refrigerant is a way back to the evaporator;
- capacitorWhere freon heat energy and is cooled to the original temperature.
You can buy a complete system from the manufacturer, but it will cost a decent amount. When the free money is not at hand, it is necessary to make a heat pump with his own hands from the disposal of parts and, if necessary, buy more missing parts.
When planning the installation of a private home geothermal heating system, we must first take care of reducing heat loss. To do this, you need to insulate the walls of a special material, door and window frames to provide the foam pads, and floor and ceiling to protect the foam panels. Then the heat pump dedicated to the greatest extent remain indoors
When the decision is their own production of the heat pump is accepted, it is necessary to check the condition of the existing house wiring and meter.
If these elements are worn out and old, you want to see all the sites, to detect potential problems and fix them before the start of work. Then the system immediately after starting will work perfectly and will not disturb the hosts short circuit, fire wire and knocking out traffic jams.
Method # 1. Assembling of the refrigerator
To assemble the heat pump with your hands to remove the old refrigerator placed behind the coil. This item is used as a condenser and placed in a high-strength container which is resistant to aggressive temperatures. It is fixed properly operating, the compressor and the evaporator is used as a simple plastic barrel.
If the pump is used to create a very old refrigerator, it is better to replace it with a new freon. Yourself do not work, so you'll need to invite the master with special equipment. He quickly replace the working fluid, and the system is running in the right mode
Completed elements are interconnected, and then the unit created by plastic pipes connected to a heating system and initiate operation of the equipment.
Stepwise assembly instruction from the refrigerator heat pump described in this article.
Method # 2. Heat pump from the air conditioner
In order to make the heat pump, air conditioning, modify and carry out alterations to some of the major sites. First, the outer and inner blocks are interchanged.
The evaporator is responsible for the transmission of low-grade heat, do not put extra as it there is a unit in the inner block, and transmits the heat energy in the external capacitor should block. As the coolant suitable both air and water.
If this option is not convenient mounting, a capacitor is installed in a separate container intended for correct heat exchange between the heating and resource coolant.
The system itself is provided with a four-way valve. For this work, usually invite specialist with the skills and experience of such events.
Modern split ineffective system at low temperatures, so professionals do not recommend using them for self-production of heat pumps
In the third embodiment, air conditioning is completely disassembled into its constituent parts, and then of these complement pump of traditional conventional scheme: an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser. Ready device is attached to the house is heated by the equipment and start to use.
The site has a series of articles for the manufacture of heat pumps with their own hands, we advise to read:
- How to make a heat pump for heating the house with his own hands: the principle of work and the assembly drawing
- How to make the heat pump water-air: scheme of the device and assembly
Tips for choosing the system
Installation of equipment such as "ground-water" is more expensive of all other options, because it requires deep excavation works in vertical stacking equipment or a large free area at the horizontal portion gasket communications.
These parameters limit the use of the system and significantly reduce its attractiveness.
Install the pump "water-water" also has some limitations. If there's an available body of water, the system can be placed in it. No open water will entail the drilling of wells and the diversion of wells, which also is not cheap.
The pump "air-water" does not pose problems to the installation, and can operate correctly even in apartment buildings, but harsh winters with low-temperature behavior and its efficiency drops to support it required a parallel source energy.
However, geothermal heating arrangement eventually recoups its costs and begins to produce a free resource, allowing the owners to live in the most convenient, pleasant and comfortable environment, without spending a lot of money for utilities services.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The video clearly shows how in a large building block of silicate undeveloped heating system based on the "air-to-water" heat geothermal equipment. Revealed some interesting nuances of the equipment installation and announced the real figures of communal payments per month.
How does the equipment "ground-water". Detailed description of the professional installation of geothermal heat boilers, recommendations and useful tips for home masters from a professional in their field.
His impressions of the heat pump geothermal equipment is divided into a real user.
Professional fitter tells how home produce heat pump based on a powerful compressor and tube heat exchange parts. Detailed instructions step by step.
Geothermal heat pump for private home ownership - a good way to create comfortable living conditions even there, where no centralized communication system and more conventional sources of energy resource.
The choice of system depends on the location of the real estate and financial capacity hosts.
You have experience of producing geothermal heat pump? Please share the information with our readers, offer its own version of the assembly. Comments and attach pictures of your homemade can be in the form below.