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There is no brighter spicy grass in the dacha than basil, whose photos of varieties strike with juicy green, purple and purple tones. No less rich is the aroma of fresh herbs. Depending on the variety, the fragrance of the leaves resembles the smell of pepper and vanilla, cinnamon, camphor, lemon and cloves, caramel, and all sorts of combinations of these notes.
There are several dozens of basil species in the world, but for breeding and cultivation, only a few are used as garden and oil-bearing crops.
Basil species, photos and brief descriptions
Fragrant, noble or ordinary basil with peppery aroma and pungent taste became the basis for breeding plants with smooth, large and often wrinkled leaves. Thanks to the work of breeders, varieties obtained on the basis of this type of basil have acquired the smell of lemon, menthol, and vanilla.
Unlike fragrant basil, the leaves, buds and stems of the camphor or myatolidae species are covered with small hairs, some of which contain an odorous essential oil, which defines a recognizable fragrance. Thermophilic, like other types and varieties of basil, the plant has long been appreciated by pharmacists, perfumers. Before World War II, the grassy shrubs of the basil in the south of the country depicted in the photo were cultivated for the industrial production of camphor.
In the Crimea, in the Kuban and in the North Caucasus, eugenolic basil is grown, which is almost twice as large as its counterparts and, due to its high content of eugenol, has a bright clove odor. The plant is highly valued as an ether-oil culture and serves as a raw material for the production of vanillin substitute for perfume and cosmetic products.
In India, of all types and types of basil, especially revered basil is sacred or fine-colored. In warm climates, tulasi, as the plant is called, has the appearance of a perennial herbaceous shrub, smells of cloves, and the leaves can be either green or purple.
The aroma of basil is determined by the combination of the essential oils present in the green.
Modern varieties have an incredibly bizarre range of smells that are not available to any spicy-flavoring culture.
At the same time, all the varieties of basil grown in vegetable gardens, as in the photo, are thermophilic and can seriously freeze even at zero temperature. But this does not stop summer residents, who plant seedlings or sow basil in early summer, when it is time for frosts and cold nights.
Descriptions and photos of varieties of basil of domestic breeding
The industrial cultivation of basil in the USSR began in the 20s of the last century. Then the culture was recommended only for the southern regions, including the Crimea and the Caucasus. The Voronezh region was then recognized as the northern boundary of the comfort zone. Today, excellent varieties of green and purple basil are available for summer residents of other areas.
The variety of basil Aniseed Flavor with a fresh sweet-spicy aniseed smell is easily recognizable not only by its flavor, but also by the combination of green, fairly small leaves and reddish-brown or green-purple stems. Medium-sized bush willingly branches and throughout the warm season it supplies the gardener with excellent spicy greens.
The variety of basil, in the photo, the aroma of lemon for cooking six months after germination gives a juicy, bright green with an invigorating smell of lemon. The variety belongs to the large-leaved varieties with the characteristic, bubbly shape of leaf plates, and is also distinguished by a high concentration of essential oils, giving green foliage the ability to soften cough, soothe stomach cramps, facilitate the treatment of inflammatory diseases and wounds.
The variety of lemon aroma developed especially for spicy, spicy tea lovers forms a small bush, up to 35 cm high, with light green leaves and white-green spicate inflorescences.
The entire above-ground part of this early ripe lemon basil contains many essential oils and can be used fresh as well as for winter harvesting, drying and freezing.
Basil The aroma of vanilla is not distinguished by its large size. The bush grows only up to 35 - 40 centimeters, but the variety with purple toothed leaves and lilac flowers is still very interesting to gardeners. The reason is the sweetish smell of vanilla, which is unusual for spicy herbs, making basil indispensable in desserts and canned fruits and berries, in sweet pastries and fruit salads. A leaf with a spicy taste will give an oriental character to tea.
Varieties with this shade of leaves are often called purple or red basil. But in this case, do not confuse basil with perilloe, a less well-known spice with green, variegated or purple foliage, pointed-heart-shaped or curly.
Basil Green is fragrant after sowing and rapidly growing, forming a well-branching shrub from 40 to 50 centimeters high. Large foliage is painted in bright green color, has a smooth pressed surface and a spicy spicy scent. The variety of basil, in the photo, goes well with fresh tomatoes, cottage cheese and cheese, can be used in meat dishes and marinades.
Basil Variety A wonderful day will delight a gardener with a fresh anisy smell and a spicy, pleasant taste. The leaves of this variety are small, with dense purple streaks. The stems are anthocyanin in color, branch well and reach a height of 40–50 cm.
Cinnamon aroma of basil Fragrant handsome and its bright green-lilac leaves made the variety one of the leaders of the summer residents of Russia. An unusual additive to fruits, desserts, hot and cold drinks will delight both adults and young gourmets.
Variety Caramel is a mid-season variety. One and a half or two months after sowing, the plant forms a shrub 40–50 cm tall with smooth dark green foliage. The main feature of the culture is disclosed in the name of the variety. Greens have a pleasant caramel smell, which, undoubtedly, will add a spicy note to desserts, pastries, fruit salads and homemade preparations.
Basil Purple fragrant - an indispensable additive to roasted and baked meat, fresh salads and marinades. A shrub of basil with purple foliage, the same stems and pink-purple inflorescences for the season gives up to 230 grams of excellent fragrant greenery and quickly branches when you pinch the tops.
Basil Purple fragrant with large purple-red leaves and crimson or purple flowers has a rich aroma of pepper. To protect the smell, the leaves are recommended to be added fresh, as well as used in marinades, home preservation, for the preparation of flavored vegetable oils and vinegar.
Variety is a medium-early variety, and up to 250 grams of fresh foliage can be obtained from a plant over the summer.
Variety of basil Smuglyanka will please lovers of spicy purple foliage with a bright pepper smell and tart taste, indispensable in marinades and salads with ripe tomatoes or spaghetti.
One of the most famous and favorite varieties of basil, in the photo, is considered to be Ararat with purple flowers, purple-violet stems and green leaves, generously decorated with lilac, purple spraying and veins. Basil greens Ararat has a classic pepper aroma, pleasant taste, and the plants are fully valued for their yield, rapid growth and great taste.
Basil Basilisk with medium-sized green leaves and a bush only 20 centimeters in height will suit the crop lovers on the windowsill. At home, greens with pepper-clove odor grows without problems throughout the year. Even a plant grown for garden beds can be transplanted into a pot.
Early spicy greens will give the cottager basil Taste of Cinnamon. The leaves of this variety not only have an unusual cinnamon flavor for the culture, but also decorate any dish thanks to purple or purple streaks piercing the entire leaf plate.
Mid-season variety of green basil Gourmet Clove - a truly versatile plant, the tasty foliage of which is equally well combined with vegetables and meat, cheese and fish. Abundantly growing greens are suitable for fresh consumption and do not lose the clove odor after drying. For a season the bush up to 60 cm high gives about 800 grams of juicy elliptic form of leaves.
Well-known to Russian gardeners, purple Yerevan Basil of a variety quickly forms a sprawling, well-branched shrub up to 60 centimeters high. The leaves of this variety have the aroma of pepper with warm shades of tea and do not lose their properties in the field of drying or freezing.
The basil Tonus vegetable, which gives spicy clove aroma and flavor of home canned food, is one of the most popular among summer residents of the varieties, demanded due to high yield and bright clove smell of green. For the season, rapidly growing shrubs from a square meter give up to three kilograms of piquant foliage for universal use.
Even in the photo of basil variety, the Thai Queen clearly shows how original and bright this plant looks. By right, a royal title that has received a variety not only strikes with unusual buds of purple-lilac shade and elongated green foliage. The greens of this variety have a classic pepper smell and spicy taste. This variety of basil, blooming for two months, will be appreciated by lovers of ornamental plants, as well as those that hold pots of herbs at home, on a windowsill or balcony.