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Cherry cocycosis is one of the newest and most dangerous diseases of stone fruit. The first cases of infection of gardens in the USSR were identified in Latvia. This happened in 1956.Then, from 1960 to 1962, signs of the disease appeared in the neighboring republics: in Ukraine, in Belarus and Estonia. A few years later, a previously unknown disease was described by gardeners of the Central Black Soil Region. Here, cherries from coccomycosis suffered plantings in the Tambov and Lipetsk regions.
Kokkomikoz cherries: what is it?
More than half a century has passed. The infection that came to our country from Scandinavia has spread throughout many regions of Russia. Today, it is well known that coccomycosis of cherry is a disease of stone fruit cultures of fungal origin.
The disease affects the foliage of trees, leads to premature leaf fall and seriously weakens fruit-bearing plantings.
Gardeners are well aware of the signs and effects of infection with coccomycosis, but scientists have still not decided on what type of fungi causes severe illness of fruit trees. Today, two malicious microorganisms claim for the title of the causative agent of cherry coccomycosis:
- Blumeriella jaapii, described and introduced into the international classification in 1961;
- Coccomyces hiemalis, known since 1847.
Whatever fungus is responsible for the disease, it acts massively and cunningly. In favorable conditions, for example, in warm, wet summers, coccomycosis can affect large areas. But in the first year the gardener will not notice the loss of the harvest, but will be surprised that the foliage from the trees will begin to fall off already in the middle of summer.
In August, infected trees with bare fungi are infected with harmful fungi. This is the picture that is observed today by most gardeners throughout the central part of Russia. Because of the violation of the biological cycle, cherries ill with coccomycosis do not have time to prepare for wintering. Frosts cause:
- death of young shoots;
- cracking bark;
- damage to flower and growth buds.
Over the course of several years, gardens affected by coccomycosis significantly thin out and lose their former yields. To this is added the reduction in the quality of fruits, which are much worse and slower poured and accumulate sugar.
By the time of harvesting, the fruits on the branches are more like covered bones than the beloved cherries.
The old, most beloved varieties in Russia were not ready for the action of the causative agent of coccomycosis. For example, Lubskaya and Vladimirskaya cherry almost naturally disappeared from industrial and amateur plantings. And this circumstance made the breeders begin to develop new varieties of coccomycosis resistant cherries. Such work is underway, but scientists cannot yet achieve full immunity. Better than others, the following varieties of Chokoladnitsa, Turgenevka, Rovesnitsa, Kharitonovskaya, Student some other grapes are opposed to fungi.
Unfortunately, the late detection of the infection, its accumulation and rapid spread were the reason that fungicides became an indispensable tool for the gardener.
The fungus spores are most actively spreading:
- at an air temperature on the order of 19–23 ° C;
- in wet weather, accompanied not only by rain, but also by fog or dew;
- during strong winds, helping to spread the infection.
Cherry plantings in the northwestern region, the Non-Black Earth region, the northern regions of the Black Earth region and its neighboring regions are at the greatest risk. Here, garden treatments with fungicides and copper-containing preparations have become a routine annual affair.
The farther to the south, where the summer is hotter and drier, the less frequent the manifestations of the disease are, therefore spraying with chemicals and other measures for treating cherry coccomycosis are necessary. True, the task is complicated by the fact that the fungus affects not only cherry orchards, but also close cultures. Suffers from a dangerous disease:
- sweet cherry;
- bird cherry;
At the first signs of illness, the related crops will use all control measures against coccomicosis and cherries.
The life cycle of the causative agent of cherry coccomycosis
Spores of the fungus are well tolerated by Russian winters, waiting for the cold:
- on the remaining fruits and leaves on the branches;
- in cracks in the cortex, especially prone to cicatrization;
- on plant debris under a tree;
- on the ground surface.
With the arrival of heat, spores are released into the air and spread by drops of moisture and wind. This usually happens before budding, and when they fall on young, wet foliage, they quickly germinate and take root in the plant tissue.
The first manifestation of cherry coccomycosis looks like yellowing or redness of part of the leaves unexpected for the beginning of summer. Then on the surface of the sheet plates appear small round points of a dark or brown color. Over time, the spots become more, they merge and occupy most of the sheet. Gradually, the fabric of the sheet plate dries and crumbles.
Having turned the fallen sick leaf over, it is possible to consider whitish or pinkish pads with new ripening spores.
The causative agent of cherry coccomycosis per season can reproduce up to eight generations; therefore, without urgent and decisive measures, the chances of saving the garden are minimal.
Measures to combat cherry coccomycosis and disease prevention
Cherry coccomycosis control measures begin with the laying of a garden. Today it is extremely important to choose not only fruitful, but also zoned cherries resistant to moniliosis and coccomycosis. Planting them does not guarantee success, but will allow less time to spend treating trees with chemical preparations.
In relation to coccomycosis, both old, proven copper-containing agents, such as Bordeaux liquid, and modern systemic fungicides are active. Treatment of coccomycosis cherries is carried out in several stages:
- in early spring, for not yet opened buds at the green cone stage;
- before flowering or in its first days;
- immediately after the petals fall;
- in a month if the selected drug allows such a procedure;
- before leaf fall.
When the foliage is already fallen and the grower is preparing to end the season, it is useful to process the crown and tree trunk with a 5% urea solution. This will fertilize the plants and destroy the pathogens and pests that have been prepared for wintering.
Treatment of coccomycosis of the cherry by folk remedies is not carried out, but preventive measures will be very helpful. They will help protect the garden not only from this fungal disease, but from moniliosis, other diseases of fruit crops and their pests:
- The foliage must be collected and burned as it falls. Similarly, do with uncollected fruits remaining on the branches.
- Under the trees during the summer weed is regularly weed out and loosen the soil.
- In winter, they dig and cover trees, protecting them from wind, frost and springtime.
- Sanitary pruning of the garden is done in the spring and autumn, all remote shoots are destroyed.
- Cut-off areas, areas affected by lichens or signs of acacia are cleaned and treated with garden pitch.
Only compliance with the rules of agricultural engineering and constant attention to the condition of fruit trees ensures good yields and longevity of the garden.