- №1. The construction of a film warm floor
- №2. Pros and cons of warm film floors
- No. 3. Types of infrared film floor
- №4. What to look for when choosing?
- №5. Large manufacturers of film infrared flooring
- №6. Mounting of the floor heating film + video
Install a warm floor for one day and do without screed work from a decade ago seemed fantastic. Today, warm film floors are widely used all over the world and conquer the domestic spaces, but with their proliferation appeared a lot of poor-quality products. In order to take advantage of all the advantages of the technology, it is necessary to make the right choice and installation of the infrared film warm floor, and for it would be nice to know what to pay special attention to when buying, which manufacturers can be trusted, and what the specifics are connection.
№1. The construction of a film warm floor
The film warm floor gives infrared radiation and heats not air, like other systems of warm floors, but surrounding objects. The heat obtained in this way can be compared with solar heat, therefore it is called as harmless and even beneficial for human health. Infrared rays are emitted by carbon strips with a width of 16 mm, and electric energy is suitable for them on copper busbars with silver coating, due to which the heating is carried out. The film is laminated on both sides with a polymer that protects the elements of the heating structure from moisture and mechanical influences and prevents possible fires.
Due to the design features and the dense location of the heating elementsheating is much more evenly distributed, than when using a water or ordinary electric underfloor heating. Moreover, since the film consists of separate independent from each other elements, the failure of one of the parts does not entail breakage of the entire system - it will be enough to replace the damaged area, and even before its replacement, the rest of the film will continue to radiate heat.
In addition to the film panels themselves, infrared warm floors also includetemperature sensors and temperature controller. The purpose of these elements is clear from the title: sensors fix the temperature of the floor, and regulators that There are a variety of modifications, allow you to monitor the readings of sensors and adjust the degree of their heating. The thermostat is installed on the wall, and near the switch or outlet, so that it is easier to power up. If the power of the heated floor is higher than 2 kW, it will be necessary to connect the system via a separate circuit breaker.
Carbon elements can boastThe efficiency at 98%,they effectively convert electrical energy into thermal energy. When organizing normal thermal insulation, the electricity consumption will be at the level of 35-50 W / m2 * h.
№2. Pros and cons of warm film floors
Features of the construction of a film warm floor allow you to talk about the mass of itadvantages:
- simplicity and high speed of installation, the lack of the need for the installation of cement screed, which allows a minimum time to install a warm floor, even after all the repair work is completed;
- producers say that removing a film is as easy as installing it, so when you move it you can literally take it with you;
- minimum film thickness and no screed allowskeep the height of the room;
- the floor heats up almost instantly;
- uniform heatingfloor and room surfaces;
- The possibility of using any floor decorative coating, incl. linoleum and laminate. Complexities arise only when laying the tiles, but more on this later;
- universality. The film can be mounted not only on the floor, but also on walls and ceiling. Moreover, the features of the material allow it to be used in rooms with heavy loads on the floor covering, incl. in gyms, shopping centers, offices. The film can heat garages, greenhouses, sheds, and also use to prevent icing of the porch;
- complete harmlessness (and even usefulness) for the health of all the inhabitants of the house.
disadvantagestechnology also has:
- this is still quite an expensive system;
- susceptibility to mechanical damage, so when installing it should be especially careful;
- improper installation and operation may cause the film to ignite.
Heating elements can not be stacked in places where large-sized furniture will always be standing. This recommendation applies to absolutely all systems of warm floors, but in the case of infrared film We can deal with the failure of a whole fragment as a result of overheating due to insufficient heat transfer.
The film is heated to a temperature of 330 ° C, which makes it possible to use it together with a "gentle" coating, like linoleum, but this imposes restrictions on the operation as amain heat source: in this case, the film must cover not less than 70% of the floor area. Comfortable temperatures can be achieved only in regions with mild winters - otherwise such a warm floor can be usedas an auxiliary heat source, providing comfortable movement barefoot on the floor and allowing the room to warm up in the autumn-spring period, when the central heating is already or not working.
No. 3. Types of infrared film floor
According to the type of carbon coating, modern film floors are divided into two types:
- Those on which the coating is applied with strips;
- those that have continuous sputtering.
The former were most widely used and well demonstrated in operation, but films with a continuous layer of carbon are more perfect. In striped films, individual bands are grouped together, and cuts can be made between these groups. Since the strips are connected in parallel, if one of the parts is damaged, the others continue to work. Disadvantages can arise if the damage area is large enough.
The film with a solid carbon coating is also divided into separate blocks, but if the individual section is damaged, the temperature heating will be lower only near the cut or hole - in the remaining zones the figures will remain unchanged, and this is already large a plus. Moreover, since the carbon sputtering is continuous, the heating is carried out even more uniformly than when using a striped film; dead zones. The lifetime of such a film is about 50 years, but the price is several times higher. Tests and comparisons on the video below.
№4. What to look for when choosing?
When buying film infrared warm floors it is important to pay attention to the name of the manufacturer, the claimed characteristics and appearance of the film. What should a quality film look like, and what are the operational qualities to possess? When selecting, pay attention to the following parameters:
- power, which directly depends on what kind of floor covering you can use the film. The power consumption of the system varies between 130-450 W / m2. For laying under linoleum, carpet and other light floor coverings, there will be enough film with a power of up to 160 W / m2, under the tile and porcelain stoneware is better to take a film more powerful - up to 220 W / m2, and everything that is more intended for use in industrial conditions and infrared saunas;
- film thicknessdepends on the thickness of the polymer and carbon layers, it ranges from a few microns to several millimeters. The minimum permissible thickness mm, is generally considered to be a thickness of 38 mm. The larger the thickness, the more protective the shell will be more durable and resistant to deformation. Some manufacturers insist that the film should be as thin as possible, so as not to take the height room, but the difference in height when installing the film in, and 3 mm will be imperceptible, and the longevity of the last - at times higher;
- film width. The material is available in rolls with a width of 50, 60, 80 and 100 cm. During installation, the film is mounted so that adjacent areas are as close as possible to each other, but not overlapping one another. Based on this rule and the parameters of the room, the most suitable width of the roll is chosen to ensure the fastest installation and minimization of waste;
- bands of silver and copper alloys should have clear contours, do not show through, do not have damage and traces of oxidation. The higher the silver content, the more reliable and less sparkling the film will be. The silver part can be wider than copper by -2 mm;
- should be preferred to those films where copper and silver tires are connected by "dry" contact, which allows to minimize the thickness of the air layer and prolong the life of the product;
- width of copper busshould be not less than 13-15 mm, otherwise it can be said about the low quality of the film. Through the copper, the carbon bands will not appear and be felt;
- The carbon layer should be applied evenly and not be inspected. The thicker its layer, the longer the film will last;
- some manufacturers add silver to the carbon paste to minimize their current resistance and improve contact with the tire. Over time, the cold tire can peel off from the permanently heated carbon part, and the result can be sparks and reduced heating power. Large companies that constantly improve their products, come up with different ways to avoid arcing. The most effective development is the arrangement of a grid of silver bands on the border of the carbon coating and the copper bus. Such a configuration is called an antisuke grid;
- the intervals between the carbon strips can be transparent or unclear - the difference in the features of production. The first option is obtained by applyingadhesive technology, the second -with lamination. After a few months of use, the adhesive strips become brittle, and the laminated ones serve for years, so give preference to them;
- The heating speed of a high-quality infrared film is 5-10 seconds.
№5. Large manufacturers of film infrared flooring
The quality and the correspondence of the actual technical properties indicated on the package depends on the name of the manufacturer. Today, different companies producing warm film floors, more and more, but many of them, unfortunately, offer not the most durable products. When buying, pay attention to the products of reputable manufacturers:
- Caleo- the largest company in the industry, it owns numerous innovations and developments. The manufacturer from South Korea has been producing hot film floors since 2006, and has since become a real leader in the field. It is this company that owns the development of floors with anti-spark mesh. Today the range includes several modifications of warm floors: from budget to elite options. Quality in any case at altitude, warranty from 7 to 15 years, there are also thermoregulators, cable warm floors and roof heating systems, pipes and gutters;
- Heat Plus- Another Korean company, which for several years of activity in Russia was able to make the brand recognizable, to establish sales and service in many large cities. The company produces striped and continuous infrared film with a power of 80 to 450 watts;
- TEPLOTEX- Korean company producing only striped film, minimum thickness, 7 mm. If properly installed, the film can be used for 30 years. Width of rolls from 50 to 100 cm;
- Rexva- a large Korean manufacturer, whose share in the home market is about 60%. The domestic buyer recently got acquainted with the brand's products, but has already managed to assess its highest quality. The company is also one of the leaders in terms of innovation. Due to two-sided lamination, electrical polyester provides full moisture resistance. In addition, the products withstand high temperatures, it is difficult to ignite, does not emit acrid smoke. The width of the film is 50, 80 and 100 cm, thickness, 38 mm;
- Eastec- the company is all from the same South Korea, where the technology of infrared warm floors was invented and where today most of these products are produced. The company offers a film with a width of 30 cm and a power of 65 watts, so its products will be interesting in those cases when the offers of other manufacturers are not satisfied;
- Monocrystal- Ukrainian company, which positions itself as the only manufacturer of film infrared floors in Europe and CIS countries. In its activities the company combines the best Korean developments and achievements of Russian scientists. The manufacturer has a lot of its own solutions, including a film without a silver paste, but with an increased carbon fiber layer, which allows talking about a more stable electrical contact. There is also a special tile film in the assortment, which is distinguished by the presence of a plurality of holes, which improves the adhesion of the glue to the rough floor during tile laying. The company produces a striped and continuous coating of 60 and 34 cm with a power of 135-600 watts. There is a film where the graphite coating is applied by a snake, as well as products with a width of 24, 20 and even 10 cm, which can be used on balconies, for mounting on the contour of doors, windows, etc.
№6. Mounting of the floor heating film + video
The process of laying the film warm floor is simple, all the work takes one working day. Some people prefer to lay the film on their own, and connect it to the network with a professional. To assess your own strength, you need to know what you will have to face, and for this we will studysequencing:
- installation of the thermostat in a convenient place;
- cleaning the base floor from dust and dirt, leveling if necessary, layingthermal insulation, so that the heat does not go down. As a heat insulator, foam foam, isolone or roll plug can be used. The latter option is most convenient from the point of view that it is easy to cut out grooves for laying cables in the plug. When laying on concrete, some masters advise as a waterproofing to lay polyethylene film;
- cutting and unfolding the film. Before installation, it is necessary to clearly know where the overall furniture items (sofas, cabinets, beds, etc.) will be located, so as not to lay the film in these places. Strictly under the wall, the film can not be stacked in any case - it should be 15-20 cm to retreat. The length of one piece of film should not be more than 10 m, you can cut it in strictly designated places (these are white lines that do not have a graphite coating). Specialists use a film of different widths when working, but one can do with a roll of only one width - correctly compose, for which it is sometimes better to depict everything in advance on paper, so as not to spoil the road material;
- The cut pieces of the film are laid with a matte side up, with copper tires down, taking into account the distance from the walls. Each fragment is fixed with an ordinary tape, so that the film does not move from its place during the installation;
- the next fragment is laidbut to the previous, not allowing overlapping of one part on another. The joint is also glued with adhesive tape to secure it. This is done until all the fragments have been decomposed. Do not forget that near the temperature controller it will be necessary to install a temperature sensor, so at this stage part of the film, where the sensor will be later mounted, is not fixed with adhesive tape. So the edges of the film are not fixed, to which the wires will be later connected;
- When the film is decomposed, the most crucial moment comes -connection to electricity.Do not overestimate your opportunities - if there is any doubt in the performance of at least some stage of work, it is better to call a specialist. The easiest way is to use special contact clamps to connect the wires to the film, which are included in the kit. The clamp is inserted into the cavity between the film and the silver strip, after which it can be pressed with its pliers;
- The location of the clips on the film will depend on the connection scheme of the warm floor.Standard schemeinvolves connecting wires on one side of the film, with the upper bus connected to the upper, lower - to the lower. there iswiring diagram without crossover. In this case, the upper buses are connected by a wire from one side, the lower ones on the other side (seen in the diagram);
- from the wire, which will be used to connect the films with each other and with the thermostat, remove Isolate it, insert it into the already installed clamp, and carefully fasten the latter with pliers. Above and below, this connection is closed by insulation. To the surface of the warm floor was flat, and in the future, no elements were damaged by the floor covering, plugs and clamps are cut in the plug (see Fig. video);
- The connection of the lower and upper bus bars is conveniently carried out with wires of different colors. Cables and film are fixed to the plug with insulation. Wires are connected according to a pre-selected scheme, it is better for them to make shtroby and then fix bitumen insulation. It is also recommended to close unused sections of tires. It only remains to get the wires to the thermal unit;
- mounting the temperature sensor near the location of the thermostat. From the edge of the film, it can be located at a distance of 15 cm. To fix it it is necessary to a graphite strip, using an aluminum scotch. It remains to connect the power supply to the sensor and check the operability of the entire system. If nothing sparks and does not smell, it evenly heats up, you can start installing the floor covering.
If asfinish coatThe laminate will be used, its elements can damage carbon strips as a result of friction. To prevent this, some advise to lay a hard bottom (plywood or gypsum plaster) on top, but it will have to be fastened screws or nails, damaging the coating, so it's better to lay on top of the film ondulin, and fix the joints scotch tape. The situation with tiles is somewhat more complicated. For her choose either a special film with perforation, or use a reinforcing mesh on top of the film, which will strengthen the structure. Include the warm floor can only be after the glue has completely dried, and this is about 1 month.
Now it remains only to evaluate objectively our strengths, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of film infrared warm floor and decide whether it is worth using, and who entrust the installation - yourself or professionals.