On sale there are a variety of wires, which differ in material, cross-section, labeling, design and color.
When routing electrical systems need to solve the primary question - what cable to use for wiring in the apartment to ensure the safety and reliability of electrical laid communications.
Agree, the choice of a suitable conductor - not an easy task. We will try to help you, and offer to get acquainted with the detailed classification of cables and electrical connections specifics.
The content of the article:
- Reasons for cable replacement
- Differences cables from wires
The most important characteristics of cable products
- Material and cable construction
- For more information about the cable section
- The thickness of the vein isolation
- The thickness of the cable sheath
- Rules read cable labeling
- cable core colors
- Packaging and conformity certificates
- The apparent condition of the cable production
- There are varieties of products
Popular varieties wiring
- Option # 1 - cable VVG
- Option # 1 - cable NYM
- Subtleties connecting electrical systems
Which wires are not suitable?
- Product # 1 - PVA wire
- The product # 2 - SHVVP wire VDPV
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Reasons for cable replacement
Full or partial replacement of electricity is usually necessary to carry out in two cases:
- Age wiring. Overhaul is recommended after 15-20 years after the entry into a new apartment. During this time, the established communication wear, becoming a source of potential danger to residents.
- Remodeling and renovation of premises (Especially with the addition of a powerful home appliances). Modern cookers, washing machines, dishwashers make high demands on the wiring. It is undesirable to connect them to the old power grids due to the cycle characteristics. When planning the purchase of such units is better to upgrade communications in separate rooms, like the kitchen or bathroom.
Regardless of the reasons for the replacement of electric systems, work should begin with preparation electrical circuit wiring and selection of cable products.
Differences cables from wires
Novice Master often asked what to buy for laying electrocommunications - cables or wires.
To solve this problem, you need to find the difference between these products:
- According to the adopted in the USSR State Standard 15845-80, the cable comprises one or more conductors (conductors) coated with insulating material. Such elements are in turn encased in a plastic, polyethylene, metal or rubber shell, over which a further protective cover may be mounted, including armored.
- Thanks to the double insulated cable is securely protected from moisture, light, exposure to aggressive substances and mechanical damage. Increased strength and reliability characteristics allow the use of similar products in the most demanding environments, such as underwater and underground.
- The wire also consists of one or more twisted strands that can be both alone and naked. Typically, they are enclosed in a non-metallic sheath (PVC, cross-linked polyethylene) or a braid / coil of textile or wire. Security wire is much less than cable, so the scope of its use is quite limited.
According to experts, for the construction of stationary power in the apartment use only the cables.
The wires may be used for a portable electric equipment, as well as in low-voltage systems, with a voltage not greater than 24V.
Wires cables differ from the presence of exposed veins and lighter protective sheath. They can be used to create electrical systems, which are not increased requirements
When selecting materials for the construction of power grids in residential areas should be given preference for high-quality products seamlessly.
Only in this case, you can establish a secure, fire-resistant and reliable wiring, which will ensure the delivery of electrical current to every corner of the apartment.
The most important characteristics of cable products
When you purchase products that are used for laying electrocommunications, it is important to consider the following features.
Material and cable construction
The range can be found wiring elements using copper and aluminum conductors.
Although the latter are cheaper copper products are more reliable: they have a higher current conductivity and indicator below - resistance, moreover, of the metal conductors are heated slowly.
Copper is also more ductile and is not subject to rapid oxidation, whereby the strands of her serve for a long time.
Based on these characteristics, the existing documents (PUE 7.1.34 and SP 31-110-2003, n. 14.3) Prescribe for wiring devices in apartments only use copper cables and wires.
Although aluminum products are widely used in the industry, their use for the wiring of electricity in residential areas is prohibited Electrical Installation Regulations
By design, the wire may have one or more strands. Single-wire element is a monolithic conductor surrounded by an insulating sheath. This product is convenient and easy to install, besides it is cheaper stranded.
At the same time, the cable of this design, a particularly large cross-section, a tough and often broken by kinks or bends. Because of these features experts prefer plastic multicore products.
Such models are well tolerated by twisting, bending, turning, so that they are suitable for the construction of any power grids.
To connect the wires having stranded conductors, to the board (terminals, switches, sockets) requires Prefabricating or more crimping ferrules
However, with the urgent need for wiring under the plaster is allowed to use a single-core copper products as a finishing material provides additional protection.
For more information about the cable section
This indicator, measured in square millimeters, reflects current throughput capacity. In a cable of copper, one mm2 is capable of passing a current of 8-10 amperes, whereas the maximum rate of aluminum is only 8A.
cable cross-section should not be confused with its diameter. If the final response can be measured by a caliper or ruler, the sectional area is calculated by a special formula, wherein one of the variables is the diameter
To ensure the safe operation of the power supply, it is best to select conductors with higher capacity.
Through this live is not heated above the permissible norm that protects the insulation from melting. The stock section is also important, because the wiring hidden under plaster slightly cooled.
At the same time it is not recommended to take the cable, which is much higher than the face value of the design (eg, 4 instead of 2.5 mm2). In this case, you must use calculated on the basis of this indicator harness protection that is automatic and requires more power RCD.
usually used several variations of cables for wiring of electricity in the apartment. The most subtle used for lighting organization, medium suitable for sockets and the fattest for connecting electric cookers
Ideally section must correspond to the identification of said tag to a cable product, but the actual display is often minimal value.
Small differences are acceptable, as for the certification of drawing attention to the resistance, and not on the section. Significant differences in the figures of the marriage certificate.
When selecting and calculating section electric cables should be guided PUE 7.1.34, Each wiring line is required to calculate separately, taking into account the expected load.
The thickness of the vein isolation
Any conductor, applied in a stranded or solid conductors, surrounded by insulation, for which used PVC or other plastics (which may be normal or have a reduced flammability and smoke formation).
Insulation Thickness governed by the respective guests: for domestic cables designed for voltages up to 660 As with section 1.5 and 2.5 square millimeters specification provides for the use of the insulating layer in 0.6 mm.
To avoid mistakes, it is better to buy the cables known brands offered by reputable dealers.
The thickness of the cable sheath
The outer shell forms an integral cable, fixing and protecting inside the insulated conductors.
As vein isolation, it is usually made of different types of plastic (PVC, polyethylene, crosslinked polymer with reduced flammability), but has a large thickness.
By accepted rules, the containment layer is of single-core cables is 1.4 mm, and stranded - 1.8 mm thickness in practice such products may vary slightly downwards.
All components of the residential wiring, even if they are intended to be used for areas with a minimum capacity must be made of cables, wires and protected with a complete shell.
Double insulation maximizes protect the grid from damage and ensures the safety of people, helping to avoid electric shock.
Rules read cable labeling
On sheathed cable used for wiring in the living room, contains all the necessary information to select the product. The inscription, which should be clear and easy to read, print, or squeezed out in the process of manufacturing products.
Basic information about a certain kind of cable products are applied along their whole length, a short distance from each other
Here is some notation.
The first letter used in the labeling indicates the material for the insulating shell:
- P - a wire or polyethylene insulation;
- AT - polyvinylchloride (PVC) insulation;
- TO - control cable;
- R - rubber insulation.
The second letter denotes the material of which the sheath wires made:
- AT - PVC insulation;
- R - rubber sheath;
- P - polyethylene insulation.
In addition, the marking may contain other letters that reflect the characteristics of other electric cables:
- ng - the cable insulation has a reduced flammability;
- Swiss - a sealed protective wire; PVC hose;
- LS - when melting wire stands little smoke;
- bb - a protective shell consisting of two steel belts;
- E - shielded cable;
- B - armored cable;
- s - cable to fill the gaps between the conductors;
- P - a flat wire;
- D - a cable having enhanced flexibility;
- OJ - solid conductor.
The letter designation for the material of which the cable is made to be present only for aluminum products (BUT). the letter is not indicated for copper wires, as this metal is used by default.
Marking may also contain the following important information:
- manufacturer's name;
- year of issue;
- number of wires;
- voltage (nominal).
In catalogs and price lists are not usually specified by the manufacturer and the date of manufacture. In this case the marking is of the form VVGng (standby) -0.66 kV 3h1.5.
With the three-wire stands incombustible (ng) of a flexible (G) the copper single-wire cable with three conductors (standby), the cross section of which is 1.5 mm square. The cable designed for a rated voltage of 660 V, and has insulation and sheath of PVC plastic (BB).
Additional information on the Marking of cables and wires is presented in this article.
cable core colors
The wires may be either uniformly colored or have odnomillimetrovuyu strip on the casing along the wiring.
The conductors in the cable are of different colors. This greatly simplifies the process of connecting elements, which is important for electrical maintenance
transcript wire color:
- Red, brown, white wires are generally used as a phase (in the diagrams referred to as L).
- The blue wire is zero (N).
- Green or green-yellow veins, which are applied to the letters of the plan PEAlways correspond to ground.
Such color specificity greatly facilitates electrical work.
Packaging and conformity certificates
There are two types of standard packaging for electrical wiring. Intended for retail sale in the building and other specialized shops cables are wound onto the bay.
Products offered by wholesalers, construction companies and other large consumers, is packed in drums.
For any package of cable products in the mandatory tag is attached, which can have a different color, shape and mounting option
Regardless of packagings for products attached tag description, which includes:
- name of a plant or corporate trademark;
- brand cable products;
- date of manufacture;
- GOST or W, according to which the cable released product;
- the number of segments with a designation of the length;
- drum room;
- Conductor weight;
- mark of conformity;
- mark the Comptroller.
When buying an entire cable bay size of 100 m tag is presented together with the products. When you purchase a piece of wiring - a label provided by the seller to view.
Cable quality is confirmed by special documents. Products must have fire safety certificate and a certificate of compliance confirming the possibility of using this type of cable for certain electrical work.
The documents relating to a particular type of product must be specified to GOST or TU, as well as the registered expiration date. Sellers are required to present a certificate for examination by the first purchaser.
The apparent condition of the cable production
When buying electrical wiring should also pay attention to the appearance of products. Best to avoid products having external damage: severe excesses, oppression, bruising.
Such failure may indicate internal problems: defects with external conductors can be open or be closed on each other. Not to be mistaken with the choice, it is desirable to carefully examine the electricity cable in the shop, and then to pay for the purchase.
There are varieties of products
It is difficult to clearly answer the question of which wires and cables necessary for wiring in residential apartment buildings, as required for the various types of such work similar products.
According to the current safety regulations, all domestic appliances and sockets must be grounded. Therefore, the flats extends throughout a three-core cable having a "phase", "zero" and "earth"
For contour lighting, which falls smallest load power grids, suitable cable with a diameter of 1.5 mm2. For it is sufficient to provide a circuit breaker of 10 A (2.3 kW).
For sockets, the load which can reach up to 3-4 kW, it is necessary to take the product section of 2.5 sq. mm to withstand the current to 27 A, and power is 5.9 kW.
However, do not load the line to such limits: for correct operation is required reserve, is a third of the planned load. In this case, the need to switch for up to 16 A (3.6 kW).
If you plan to installing power outlets for electric stoves (Cooking surface), it is necessary to lay cable section 6 sq. mm to 10.1 kW power.
In this case, it is important to choose the appropriate machineAdapted for electric current of 32 A (voltage of 7.3 kW).
If you selected input cable into the apartment it is important to take into account the power allocated to the apartment. As a rule, in this case it is necessary to use the product section of 6-10 square meters. mm.
Popular varieties wiring
Among the commonly used products for electrical installation can be divided into two common models: VVG and NYM.
Option # 1 - cable VVG
The most popular product of domestic production, which is often used to perform in the apartment electrical work. The cable refers to unarmored flexible power lines.
It may consist of copper conductors 1-5, the cross sections of which vary from 1.5 to 240 sq. mm. Guides, which can be circular, triangular and flat shape, surrounded by PVC insulation and a common envelope.
Cable VVG has several modifications:
- VVG - the basic type, the characteristics of which are given above.
- VVGng - a power cable having an outer sheath and insulation of conductors, made of fire-retardant polyvinylchloride.
- VVGng-LS - wiring, which wires have a self-extinguishing fireproof insulation and the shell has a low smoke emissions.
- VVGng FR-LS - a non-combustible cigarette smoke with a small cable having additional fire protection, made of a mica tape.
Although conventional VVG is cheaper, its shell is not flame-retardant properties and allocates the combustion of a lot of smoke.
These products are not suitable for laying beam, whereas non-combustible products are installed in beams, so that in the corrugations, tubes or pits can be simultaneously routed several cable lines.
One and the same product type (e.g., cable VVGng) manufactured by different companies may have slight differences appearance and Performance
Based on the above reasons for the wiring of electricity in an apartment is better to take the safe and practical products VVGng / VVGng-LS marks relating to professional products.
Option # 1 - cable NYM
This copper products, manufactured at the Russian factories on a German license. The cable meets both domestic guests and norms of the European standard.
According to the basic characteristics of the model coincides with indicators VVGng cable; It is also designed for a rated voltage of 0.66 kW.
For sale is a single-wire multi-core NYM cable cross-section 1.5-10 mm2 and stranded, the cross section of which exceeds 16 mm2.
For incombustibility product between polyvinyl chloride insulated and sheathed product in the same plastic strands (1-5) is placed a rubber filler.
Wires NYM VVGng and have a shell made of a bad burning polymer, whereby insulation is prone to self-extinguishing. Another advantage: during the combustion casing is released a small amount of smoke containing no hazardous components
Cables NYM VVGng and have similar characteristics.
Among these advantages are:
- quality performance. All wiring components (insulation, wires, shell) conform to GOST, whereby the products are of reliability and durability.
- High fire resistance and safety. Meet all the requirements of the cables flawlessly work under prescribed load and rugged insulation allows the beam-pad without the risk of fire in the interaction of living.
- Easy cutting and convenient installation. Packing cord round shape makes it comfortable to make installation, preventing twists in paving networks. In this case, the wiring can be sealed at the output.
Another plus is the large range of similar models that differ in both technical characteristics and price.
Subtleties connecting electrical systems
The owners of the apartments is often necessary to connect to the power outlet of large aggregates of household appliances, such as electric stoves or washing machine.
For these purposes, intended flexible wire, it should be taken into account paragraph 2.1.48 PUE 7, According to which only you can take the products, the purpose of which is indicated in the standards and technical specifications.
For example, to connect the hob should be selected wire in the certificate which has reference to such usage of the product.
Which wires are not suitable?
There are variants of the product, which is strictly forbidden to use for the construction of electricity even in the most extreme cases. These include the following types of products.
Product # 1 - PVA wire
Copper connecting element having a sheath and insulation of PVC. It has a structure with a multiwire conductors 2-5 0.75-10 square section. mm.
Wire, calculated on the nominal voltage to 0.38 kW, can be used for the connection of household electrical appliances to the mains and for the manufacture of extension cords.
For laying wiring PVA is not suitable for the following reasons:
- It has a multiwire vein structure, so it is necessary to connect the ends tinning and soldering, which requires a lot of time and a great experience.
- The product is a fire hazard: because of the wire strands cable heated more, because of which the insulation wear quickly, which could cause a short circuit.
- PVA is impossible to lay the beam, whereas it suitable for almost all cable models. Due to the fact that the wiring lines must be at a certain distance from each other, will have to perform in the wall Grooves in each of them.
Thus, the high costs of installation will not be able to compensate for even the low price of these wires to the same quality of paved power will not be too high.
The product # 2 - SHVVP wire VDPV
The cords or cables having one or multiwire strands of copper, may be used to connect home appliances, electrical systems.
However, they are not suitable for stationary electrocommunications, since these products there is no non-combustible insulation.
Although flat cord with polvinilhloridnymi shells (SHVVP) and is not recommended for the construction of power grids, it is quite suitable for organizing security systems up to 24V lighting, namely for the field wiring from the transformer to LEDs
In addition, the service life and SHVVP VPPV quite short and stranded design requires handling terminations and solder mounting.
It is worth mentioning also SPAP (universal flat wire), which was banned for laying of electricity in the apartment in 2007.
This is an outdated product has poor insulation and low power, which is why it can not withstand loads of modern
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The proposed video presents detailed information on the selection of products for the organization of wiring in residential areas:
Despite the large variety of products to pick up the necessary material for the construction of electrical communications quite easily. You need to carefully read the label, tag and certificate products, pay attention to the technical characteristics and quality cable.
Share your experience with the readers of the wiring in the apartment, tell me which cable you use. Please leave comments on the article and ask your questions. The feedback form located below.