Irga Canadian is a very interesting fruit and decorative culture. Deciduous shrub in height from 1.5 to 8 meters is beautiful at any time of the year. In the spring, an irga looks attractive during bud break, when it seems to be shrouded in silver-white hoarfrost.
Later, during flowering, it is covered with bunches of fragrant white flowers surrounded by bees. Until mid-summer, shrubs adorn the brush of blue-purple berries. Until late autumn the foliage is the decoration of the shrub, which gradually changes its color from green to purple. Against the backdrop of a snowy winter garden, maroon-brown branches look spectacular.
Table of Contents
- Description of Canadian ASHI
- Useful Properties of
- Medicinal Matters Section
- D Harmfulness and Disease
- Climatelong-liverIn the fruiting culture enters after planting in the third year. Life expectancy irgi 40-50 years. Frost resistance is excellent, without losses, it tolerates frosts up to 40 degrees. In the conditions of the Moscow region for the winter does not need shelter. Feels good plant and in more northern areas. Well-growing bushes are very light-loving and when too densely planted they stretch strongly upwards and do not bear fruit well.
The root system of the shrub is superficial, , the bulk of the roots are located at a depth of 40 cm, some go deeper into 1 m. The radius of propagation of the root system reaches 2 m.
Irga flowers in late April - early May, for 10-15 days. Flowers withstand short-term spring frosts down to -7 ° C.
The shrub is not demanding, drought-resistant to soil quality. Irga grows rapidly - already in the third year after planting it begins to bear fruit, and at the age of 8-10 years, a period of full productivity begins. The period of productivity is 20-30 years with an average yield of 8-10 kg of berries from a bush.The advantages of a shrub are early and abundant fruiting, the plant self-fertility ensures annual fruiting. Irga is unpretentious to the growing conditions, it is very hardy and drought-resistant.
Useful properties of
Berry Berry is a good multivitamin remedy containing vitamins C, B2, carotene, pectins, anthocyanins and trace elements( cobalt, copper, lead).The fruits are useful in the treatment of hypo-and avitaminosis, for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, the cardiovascular system.
The healing properties of
- shadberry calms the nervous system, are useful for insomnia and restless sleep;
- increases the elasticity of the walls of blood vessels and strengthens them;
- is used to prevent myocardial infarction and varicose veins( prevents the formation of blood clots);
- have a tonic effect; lowers high blood pressure and normalizes cholesterol levels;
- is used for the prevention of peptic ulcer and as an anti-inflammatory agent in the disorder of the gastrointestinal tract;
- useful berry in the fight against sclerosis;
- juice from fresh berries has astringent properties, so it is used for gargling when it is inflamed.
Species and variety of varieties of
Irga from the Rosaceae family and includes more than 25 species. The most common of them are:
- Irga Canadian - shrub with drooping branches up to 6 meters high. It is appreciated for very sweet, tasty berries weighing up to 1 g. Productivity to 6 kg / bush. Green lush, very good in hedges when planting through 2 meters. This is a fast-growing shrub with an annual increase of up to 40 cm in height and width.
For the past 60 years, Canada has been the center of breeding for the best varieties of irgi. The most popular gardeners are:
- Pembina - the height and width of the shrub reach 5 meters. Crown spreading. The advantage of the variety is the formation of a small amount of root shoots.
- Smokey - shrub up to 4.5 m, crown as an open umbrella. A variety with a late flowering period, which makes it possible to avoid the loss of the ovary during late spring frosts. Smokey's berries have a large diameter of up to 14mm with a great aroma. The berries are the sweetest of all available varieties, fleshy and without astringency.
- Northline is a multi-trunk bush of medium size, vertical trunks. The berries are very large, up to 16 mm in diameter, blue-black with a waxy bloom. Maturation of non-cracking berries is harmonious. Variety forms a lot of root shoots. Needs a pollinator.
- Stardzhion is a multi-trunk sprawling shrub up to 3 m high. The variety is high-yielding, berry brushes are long, fruits are large and sweet.
- Thyssen is a shrub reaching a height of 5 m with a highly sprawling rounded crown. It is the earliest, skoroplodny grade. The size of the berries of excellent taste reaches 17 mm in diameter. The fruit is fragrant with a slight sourness. Due to the uneven ripening of berries, the harvest period is extended in time. Frost resistance to - 28 ° C.
- Irga Lamarck is a large shrub or small tree up to 8 meters high. The crown has a rounded shape. Unlike the Canadian irgi, it grows more slowly, the annual increment is no more than 25 cm in height. Irga Lamarck is very beautiful in the period of flowering and in the crimson decoration of foliage in the fall.
The trunks acquire a beautiful tortuous shape when performing regular shaping. Such trees look good in single plantings and alleys.Often in the gardens there is also an rickety and ryga round-leaved, they are decorative and their fruits are also eaten, but they are smaller in size and the taste is low.
Conditions of planting, growing and care
The conditions of growing irga undemanding, care is not capricious.
In the garden or on the plot, it can be planted on the north side, as its multi-trunk bushes trap snow and protect it from cold northerly winds. Next to her, it is good to plant raspberries, currants, gooseberries, for them it will serve as a good defense.
You can plant an irgu in both spring and autumn. Into a prepared pit, seedlings are planted 5-10 cm deeper than they grew before, this will contribute to the growth of a greater number of basal shoots. After planting and abundant watering, the soil around the seedlings is mulched, the plant is cut to about 1/3 of the height, leaving no more than 5 well-developed buds. Plants are planted after 2-3 m, and when creating a hedge, it is preferable to plant them in a checkerboard pattern through 0.5-0.7 m in rows and between plants.
Further care is watering during dry periods, loosening the soil around the bushes and dressing. Irga is responsive to fertilizers. During the season it is advisable to feed it monthly with liquid organic fertilizers( infusions of mullein or bird droppings) combining them with watering and making foliar feeding with micronutrient fertilizers. The plant will thank you.
If you decide to form a plant in the form of a multi-trunk bush, then in the first years after planting you need to remove all weak shoots leaving 2-3 strongest zero shoots from the root growth. A well-formed bush consists of 10 to 15 branches of different ages.
When the annual growth of shoots is no more than 10 cm, proceed to the rejuvenating pruning, which consists in removing all weak and highly elongated shoots. The rest is cut to a height of 2.5 meters. All places of large cuts must be treated with garden pitch.For a more decorative Irish Canadian, its crown should be oval-shaped when trimming. The result of this pruning will be a powerful growth of young shoots with the formation of fruit buds.
Irgu Lamarck form a tree with 3-5 trunks, the rest of all root shoots are removed throughout the season. The branches are shortened annually.
When using canadian irgi in creating a hedge, it is necessary to cut it annually, shortening the annual growth by 10-15 cm. The annual pruning will contribute to better branching.
Canadas can be propagated in several ways:
- Seeds. Seeds are harvested from large, ripe berries from the most productive bushes. Give the berries to lie down for a week, and then the seeds, when they are well separated from the pulp, are removed. Sowing of seeds is produced in the fall in the year of harvesting the seeds. Seeds are sown in furrows, well watered, covered with a film on top. When spring planting seeds, they must undergo stratification for 3 months in wet sand in the basement. With good care in the first year, seedlings can reach a height of 10-15 cm, for 2 years their height will be up to 40 cm, after 2 years the seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place.
- Root Scions .In this breeding method, basal shoots are used. It is separated from the parent bush and transplanted to a permanent place. Time transplant spring or autumn.
- pruning with green cuttings. Propagation of green cuttings in shadberry Canadian is quite successful.95% of the shoots are rooted. Green cuttings are cut during the intensive growth of shoots from late June to the first decade of July. The cuttings are cut from the top of 5-6 summer branches, the cuttings should be 12-15 cm long. From the cut cuttings, the lower leaves are removed, leaving only two pairs of the upper leaves. The lower cut of the cutting is processed in the root formers and planted obliquely at a distance of 5 cm from each other. The cuttings are planted in the greenhouse where it is necessary to maintain air humidity at a level of 70-80%.Rooting occurs within 20-25 days. After rooting, the film is removed, and the further growth of plants occurs in the open air. It is necessary to produce regular watering and fertilizing. In the spring of next year, the plants are ready for transplanting.
- Reproduction by layering. With this method of breeding take well-developed one or biennial branches. Layers are best done in early spring, as soon as the soil allows. Near the bush make grooves in which the selected branches are laid. Stacked shoots pin to the ground with metal clips, shoot tops shorten. After regrowth from the buds of the designated branches of green shoots to a height of 10-12 cm, they are sprinkled with earth at half the height, and after 20 days, the procedure of sprinkling with earth is repeated. In autumn, grown plants can be deposited in a permanent place.
- Reproduction division bush. This method is used when it is necessary to transplant an adult bush to another place. The plant is dug out, in early spring or late autumn, the roots are freed from excess earth, the old branches are removed. The iris root root is divided into parts, the roots are shortened and planted in prepared landing pits.
Pests and diseases
Irga Canadian resistant to the main fungal diseases and pests. It may be affected by the caterpillars of the currant leafworm, the caterpillar of the rosian leafworm. They harm the leaves and gnaw the tops of young shoots. For pest control in the processing of the garden you need to remember to spray the shad irgi.
During the ripening of berries, birds cause great harm to her, who also love to feast on her juicy and tasty berries. In order to avoid yield loss, young bushes can be covered with a net. When the plants are already large, then there will be enough berries for everyone.
Vitamins - for future use
Irrigation fruits annually and abundantly, but its berries ripen unevenly and therefore they are harvested in several stages.
The shelf life of the harvested berries is only 2–3 days if stored in a cool place( basement or fridge).
Compotes, juices, jams, jellies, and wine are made from the sweet berries of irgi, dried, and frozen. Berry irgi because of the low content of acid they do not have a bright taste, but they have a very bright color. In connection with what they are very good to add to compotes from apples, pears and other fruits that do not have a pronounced color.Special attention should be paid to the dried fruits of irgi, they may well replace expensive raisins. Dried berries retain their properties for a long time. They are stored in closed glass jars.
A characteristic feature of an irgi is the poor yield of juice from fresh berries. After 5-7 days of laying, the juice yield during processing will be up to 80%.
Juice of irgi berries is good for eyes, heart, throat, vessels. Prepared juice is used to make fruit drinks, drinks, jelly.
Juice with sugar
Wash berries in a cool place for a week to wash, squeeze the juice, mix it with sugar in a 1: 1 ratio. Heat the juice over low heat until the sugar is completely dissolved, not boiling. Heated juice is poured into glass jars or bottles, sealed and stored in a cool place.
From the prepared berries, squeeze the juice, pour it into liter jars, pasteurize for 15-20 minutes and roll up the lids.
Irga Canadian due to its healing, taste and decorative qualities deserves a place of honor in the garden or in the country. Leaving is minimal, but there is an abundance of benefits and pleasures.