Some owners of private homes, gardens face the problem of soil flooding as a result of rainfall or groundwater impacts. To avoid such a situation, the whole area of the drainage system installed, absorbent and outputting excessive moisture.
Make the drainage of a garden site with your own hands can be anyone without the high cost.
The content of the article:
- Prerequisites for the construction of the drainage system
- The main types of drainage systems
- Livnevki in addition to drainage
- closed type drainage device
- Preparation of layout elements
- Technical installation requirement
- Progress at system construction
- Implementation of an open circuit
- Renewals drainage life
- Useful videos on the topic
Prerequisites for the construction of the drainage system
The drainage system that performs the collection and removal of excess soil water is needed in the following cases:
- Flat portion, i.e., There are no conditions for the spontaneous movement of water downhill.
- Ground waters are marked on the surface close to the ground level.
- The site is located in a valley, the valley of the river or marsh drained areas.
- Top soil develops on clay soils having low filtration properties.
- Hut built on a slope, not far from the foot, because of which during precipitation and the area around it accumulates and stagnant water.
Installation of drainage is almost always necessary in areas with underlying soil clay soil: sandy loam, loam. During periods of heavy rainfall, snow melt this type of rock too slowly passes through a thickness of the water or does not give her a pass.
Water stagnation at the level of the soil are associated with saturated soil. In humid environments actively proliferates fungus infections appear, pests (slugs, snails and so on), which leads to diseases of vegetables, root rot bushes, perennial flowers and trees.
If you do not solve the problem with waterlogged soil, the land erosion can occur over time. In frosty time ground layers containing water will become swollen, because of what can suffer foundation paved walkways and other objects improvement portion.
To check if the drainage is necessary, you need to know the capacity of soil layers at the site. For this purpose, a small hole dug 60 cm deep and the water poured into it at the limit.
If the water is absorbed per day, then the underlying soil soils acceptable filtration properties. In this case, there is no need for drainage. If after two days the water goes away, it means that under the soil and vegetation layer deposited argillaceous rocks, and there is a risk of waterlogging.
If time does not implement the drainage system, the suburban estates threatened by the following problems:
- flooded cellars, basements, outbuildings, which are located below ground level - it later It leads to deterioration of wall materials, mold and fungus, rotting furniture, and other wooden ladders structures;
- waterlogging of soil moisture due to its satiety which leads to a low yield, root rot vegetable crops, plants, trees and other plants death;
- the area may be formed gaps, crevices, holes, resulting in collapse paved walkways and tiles - all this has a negative impact on the landscape gardening area.
In the winter the freezing of CP and underlying heaving soil lying above the seasonal freezing contained in pores ground water will expand. Increasing the volume of soil threatens destruction of buried in it and resting on the ground constructions.
Consider the types of drainage systems and their characteristics.
The main types of drainage systems
Before you begin to engage in drawing up the work plan, the purchase of equipment and materials, you need to determine what kind of system it is advisable to introduce it to work as efficiently as possible.
There are three types of drainage systems:
- surface (open) - is a ditch on the surface, is used to remove excess moisture, formed due to partial melting of snow or rain;
- deep (closed) - drainage is carried out through a system of pipes, wells; system is applied in the case of the risk of flooding the garden precipitation and / or groundwater;
- Loose-fill - the principle of its construction is the same as the depth is only used exclusively drainage material without pipes; suitable for drying areas during precipitation.
Each of the above technologies has its advantages and disadvantages.
The surface drainage network is often combined with storm sewers, producing the collection and removal of atmospheric precipitation. Livnevki headers fitted with two types: point and linear.
Livnevki in addition to drainage
Storm sewer - a set of downpipes with a well for accumulation of moisture through which the transfer of a water receiver. Before entering the water in the well has a special siphon partition (lattice), designed for purification the incoming fluid from the garbage, resulting in the system does not clog, does not appear bad in it smell.
Rain sewerage system headers with linear type a series of trays is disposed at a slant toward the point of collection of moisture. Capacity installed in the ditch with a layer of gravel at the bottom. Technology is used when the slope daytime surface portion does not exceed 30 degrees relative to the horizon.
The main difference from the linear point system that is used in the point system pipes are located underground. collecting water takes place through the so-called "points" - specific storm drains, equipped with a water permeable grid. This solution makes the design almost invisible on the site.
Sometimes one type of site for the system is insufficient, so to maintain optimum moisture level can be combined.
Choose the type of system you need tailor made to suit the landscape, geological features. For example, if the house is located away from the reservoir, it is possible to limit the open drainage. If the house is on a slope opolzneopasom in the valley, it is better to use multiple systems simultaneously.
closed type drainage device
Gated System is a network of trenches, which are laid in the pipes and drainage material. Drainage can be laid both on the entire area, and in a certain area, in need of wastewater.
Deep drainage system consists of the following elements:
- drainage pipes;
- wells (drainage);
- a pump for pumping water.
To implement the system it is necessary to dig trenches, carry out installation of pipes, build drainage systems.
Everything for water pipe in the trench will need:
The system is effectively used in the case of flooding portion groundwater.
Preparation of layout elements
Before the implementation of the work necessary to create a site plan, noting the objects of housing, and household goods, as well as shrubs, trees, flower beds.
Next, you must determine the location for the well based on the location of drainage. As drainage can act drainage, well or any other natural source water.
Then you need to create a trench layout. There are four main types of schemes:
- the location of the snake;
- parallel device;
- inception of herringbone drains;
- location of a trapezoid.
Scheme can be selected independently, but is most commonly used markup "herringbone".
Ditches can be positioned on the perimeter of the area and the contour of the house. On the site, where they will grow vegetables, flowers, build a network to meet the requirements, which will be mentioned below.
Technical installation requirement
In the construction of the trench must take into account the following requirements:
- depth must be 1-1.2 meters and width - 35-40 cm;
- near trees trench dug to a depth of 1.2-1.5 m, near forest plantations - by 70-90 cm, near the flower beds - at 60-80 cm;
- if the CP site level Peaty soils prevail, given that she quickly sits down, the trench depth should not be less than one meter;
- if the embossed portion, the depth can be up to a meter if flat or slightly inclined, that digging a trench depth less than 1.5 m ineffective;
- on clay soil: sandy loam, loam trench dug at a distance of 7-10 m from each other, on well-drained sand, gravel and debris deposits - 15-20 m;
- drainage system should be located further 1 meter away from the house foundation, and the minimum distance to the fence - 50 cm.
For the construction of an open drainage system should pick up special tube with a grid. Their diameter can vary from 0.15 to 0.5 cm. The use of asbestos-cement or ceramic drains should be abandoned, because they are impractical, require prior training, frequent washing, quickly become clogged.
For the device closed drainage branches it is recommended to give preference to the perforated tube made of polymer or composite materials. Some modifications are equipped with a special filter shell (geotextile), which prevents clogging of the system.
The diameter of the collector must be greater than the pipe diameter. If equip section area greater than 0.5 m, the diameters may be equal.
The slope toward the collector system should be 2-3 mm per meter tube diameter of 5-10 cm. If the planned use of the larger diameter tube, the slope should be smaller.
Owners of land in a valley or on a steep hillside facing a problem when water stagnates in the lowest place, while the water inlet can be placed above. In this case, in the lower parts of the need to build a storage pit, which is necessary to implement a drainage pump. With it occurs upward pumping water from being discharged into the ditch, a gully or a water receiver.
Progress at system construction
The first thing that needs to be done before the digging of the trench - to build a drainage well. Its depth should be 2-3 m, and the diameter - 1 meter.
The most reliable well - concrete. However, set concrete rings by hand is not always possible, so you have to resort to the help of lifting equipment. In addition, the high cost and fragility are the disadvantages of concrete structures.
Plastic wells - special design, made of polyethylene, polypropylene or polyvinyl chloride, are practical and high quality, effectively withstand the soil pressure. The advantage of the formation of the well that it provides outlets for pipes and equipment are rubber sleeves, pressure-tight joints.
Also, you can pave your own house well, make the design of rubber and other materials at hand.
The well subsequently mounted drainage pump, which pumps water into drainage - sewer well or another natural receiving waters.
Then you can begin digging trenches under the scheme in accordance with technical requirements.
To protect against clogging of conventional plastic pipes are used so-called "external" filter, made of straw, peat fiber, weaving waste.
After digging trenches perform the following steps.
- The trench is filled with sand 10 cm, after which the layer of geotextile settle so that the web edges are above the recess.
- Poured on geotextile gravel 20 cm.
- Drainage pipes are laid.
- Pipes poured gravel or rubble sedimentary rocks at 30-40 cm height, then - close or gravelly sand 30 cm.
- Fold the geotextile - he will retain fine particles and allow the system to clog.
- Geotextile sprinkle a layer of earth fertile - soil.
- Pipes connected to the well.
Sediment drainage system design technology is different from the depth that does not provide a pipe in it. The trench is filled with a large gravel or broken bricks, poured over small stones or gravel.
Implementation of an open circuit
To create a surface systems use the same rules for the construction of the trench, as for the realization of the deep.
For an open system to build enough trench depth of 0.7 m and 0.5 m in thickness. The walls do to the slope, a chamfer angle of 30 degrees. Ditch outputted in the catch pit, which is common to portions or in any other water intake.
The walls of the open drainage ditches compacted sometimes strengthens cobblestones or rubble stone, concrete tiles spread.
Renewals drainage life
Drainage system Sediment type is able to function effectively 5-7 years, when the depth and an open drainage design with high-quality pipes allow to forget about the problem of waterlogging on 50 years. But this is possible subject to periodic service network.
Allocate 4 rules for a system of care.
- On the site, where the pipes should not pass the large appliances - the way for it to be installed separately.
- Regular hoeing the land will improve its water permeability, which will ensure a good operation of the system.
- Every 2-3 years should be to make washing pipes under strong pressure of water, clearing them from the particles of clay, rust.
- Earthworks Installation should be carried out on the wet ground.
Carrying out simple tips, you can prolong the life of the equipment and to avoid repairs.
Useful videos on the topic
The video explains all the nuances of the device private drainage system:
Installation of drainage into the ground relieves owners of land acres from many problems. Setting the drying system, there is no worry about the crop condition, generally as a portion with increasing humidity.