Called drainage pipe system intended to remove excess fluid from the plot. It is necessary to develop, if underground aquifers too close to the surface or there is a risk of flooding the area during the spring floods.
Let us examine the construction technology of the system: as it should be laid drainage pipe with his hands, what tools and materials will be needed.
The content of the article:
- When land needs drainage?
- How does the drainage system?
- Types and selection parameters culverts
- Technology laying drainage pipeline
- Useful videos on the topic
When land needs drainage?
Drainage - expensive system, even if you do not have to pay for the services of specialists and the owner of the site is ready to perform all the work yourself. Therefore it is necessary to understand how it is generally necessary.
The need for a system device can not be determined "by eye", as close to the surface can overlain by groundwater, which becomes a real problem only during floods or heavy rains.
Many of the sites are located in the lowlands. Waterlogged soil causes rotting of the roots, which creates a lot of difficulties in the care of a vegetable garden and a garden.
Plants often affect fungal diseases, "eats" mold. Some cultures do not survive in the wet ground and the harvest rots on the vine.
Dense clay soils absorb water poorly. This leads to frequent flooding of underground parts of buildings. Due to the high degree of mineralization of groundwater and atmospheric water adversely affect the structure: destroy the Materials, provoke corrosion.
Even quality waterproofing is not capable of 100% to prevent wetting of basements, foundations, plinths. As a result, buildings are much less than they could.
Determine whether the drainage at the site of need, can be on several grounds:
- topography. The sites located in the lowlands and on steep slopes, in need of drainage system. Otherwise, the fertile soil can be washed away or inundated during the rains and floods.
- puddles. Flat terrain is suitable for construction, but it can come and stay for a long time puddles. This is a clear indication that the water is poorly absorbed into the ground. Across the land territory should arrange drainage system.
- Podgnivanie root system. If the gardens, flower beds and lawns is excess fluid, plants vyprevayut and sick.
- moisture-loving plants. If the site is growing one or more kinds of water-loving plants, it clearly indicates the waterlogged soil.
- Flooding of basements and cellars. The obvious "symptom" necessary drainage pads - the flooding of basements and underground structures construction.
- Hydrogeological investigations and surveillance. If the experts have determined that in a high groundwater table, or to similar conclusions can be reached during excavation, should take care of the soil drainage.
Proper laying of drainage pipes in the area - the only way to inexpensively and effectively get rid of excess water.
If we turn to a specialist company, the system will cost considerably more expensive. Better understand the features of the drainage and everything to do everything yourself.
How does the drainage system?
Soil drainage can be deep and superficial.
In the first case, the system is designed to remove groundwater, if they flood the land. In the second drainage reduces soil moisture in a season of floods and rains.
Both types of systems can be developed and install on their own.
Depending upon whether moisture is necessary to collect from all or only a portion of the individual zones equip line or point drainage.
the first type of systems require careful design, with their arrangement must be strictly observed stacking technology and the slope angle of drainage pipes.
AT linear systems there is a necessity if you want to drain the area around the buildings, sidewalks, entrances, ennoble local area or take the excess moisture from the garden.
Such drains are shallow ditch, where the water flows down, and then moved to the special reception tanks, drains or to a place outside the discharge portion.
point headers not necessarily accurate calculation and design in advance. They serve for the local drainage and located on flat areas, in recesses. Therefore there is no need for a large amount of earthwork, and everything for the point system requires much less material than linear.
There is also a division of indoor and outdoor drainage.
open systems It is very simple to perform and inexpensive, but they spoil the landscape unaesthetic appearance. Another negative - the walls of the ditches have to constantly correct, because they crumble under the influence of moisture, the system does not function (standing water at the bottom of the trenches and does not move to a place resetting).
To solve the problem of fraying of the channel walls can be used with gravel backfill method: the material deposited at the bottom of the coarse fraction, and top - small, then all the drain pad sod.
This option allows you to trim or not to strengthen the walls of the trenches, but it is suitable for areas with relatively low humidity, because bandwidth gutter is greatly reduced.
everything for closed system using special trays, cisterns made of concrete or plastics. Their top is covered with grates for drainage.
Such a device makes it possible to prevent the shedding of the soil, and dirt and debris do not get inside the structure. In most cases, site owners prefer lightweight polymer tanks, because they are easy to install and durable.
Determining how to properly lay the drain pipe to protect plants from excess moisture, you can use the average values. Typically, the optimum depth - 0.6-1.5 m.
And for flower beds, lawns, flower beds does not exceed 0.9 m, and to protect the roots of the trees have to dig deep trenches as much as possible, especially if the site is located on peat soils.
Types and selection parameters culverts
Of all the materials for the manufacture of pipes the most popular polymers. Their indisputable advantages - durability, chemical resistance and smooth internal walls, which are not adhered dirt. Stormwater and groundwater flow into the pipeline and seamlessly moved to the sump by gravity.
Drainage system, collected from modern materials, is able to serve up to half a century. The main thing - to mount it properly, in time to carry out technical inspections and ignore the need for repairs.
Another advantage of the polymers - relatively low cost, since ready drainage obtained inexpensive, practical and durable.
Perfect solution - pipe sheathed with a geotextile. Exterior material filters the water, holding dirt. Through this pipeline is not silted.
Alternative drain pipes - conventional sewerage. Of these, you can easily make drainage own hands - it is enough just to drill holes in the product, and on top of the geotextile fabric wrap.
If you want the local drainage system, you can do the pipes of 100-200 mm diameter, and if necessary to remove moisture from a large area of water or too much, it is better to choose products with a diameter 300-400 mm. The optimal choice - special drainage pipe with filter shell.
Technology laying drainage pipeline
When constructing drainage of fundamental importance to the relief area. The system should be constructed so that no problems with fluid outflow in the ditch. If there are no results geodetic studies, should make their own scheme, noting her place, where drained rainwater.
When creating a scheme need to be attentive, because mistakes will lead to the fact that drainage will be effective. A ready drawing outline how to build and tilt the drainpipe and where to install the cisterns. After checking the data produced markings on the ground and start to work.
Piping output to drain the well. If it is long and is located on the flat portion equip manholes at each interval of 50 m. Also, they are needed in the field of turns and bends of the pipeline, where the slope changes.
Drain well, too, can build their own hands. It consists of a bottom, with the neck and shaft door. The dimensions of the well should be large enough that it can go down a man, and clean of silt. If you can not arrange the marker well, it should be arranged so that it was possible to wash the walls with a hose and empty the dirt.
In concrete, plastic, brick can be used as materials for the production wells.
The most robust and durable construction - reinforced concrete manhole rings. They are characterized by a large diameter, it is convenient to maintain. Minus - difficulties with the installation of the large mass. As a rule, it is necessary to attract mates or to use special equipment.
Useful videos on the topic
When developing the scheme, and in the process of construction of drainage may have some difficulty. So they do not become a barrier to divert water quality of the site, check out the helpful videos.
Features of arrangement of drainage system on the site:
How to equip a drain in the country, using the means at hand:
Features drainage arrangement in the garden:
The construction of drainage wells made of polymers:
How to lay drainage pipes:
To lay drainage pipe with his own hands, will require time and effort, but the costs will be only for materials. Do not skimp on them: purchase pipes and wells of good quality. An effective drainage system to protect from moisture planting crops, house, farm building, and will last for many years. Importantly, do not forget to timely inspect, clean wells and drains.