Detailed description of Maak varicolla cherry

Prunus is an amazingly beautiful tree, with the flowering of which is associated with the perception of spring. However, many gardeners do not plant it on their plots, considering that this plant attracts all sorts of parasites , even contributes to their reproduction and resettlement in the garden. In this article, let's take a closer look at the description and rules of care for the Maak bird cherry.

In fact, quite the opposite, the leaves and inflorescences of the tree emit a large number of volatile production, which are a deadly poison for most harmful microorganisms and small insects, such as ticks, midges or mosquitoes. That is why, if you leave a large bunch of bird cherry in the room, people get a headache.

Also, do not forget about the delicious and healthy berries that gives to this tree. Of these, you can make jam, compotes, use as a filling for baking, or simply eat, provided that the planted variety is edible.

At the moment, about twenty varieties of this wonderful plant are available to gardeners, both with edible fruits and ornamental fruits, including Maak’s bird cherry.

Contents

  • Description bird cherry cultivar Maak
  • varieties Characteristics Maak
  • Advantages and disadvantages
  • planting rules
  • Trees care
  • Diseases and pests
    • fruit Diseases
    • Diseases of leaves and twigs
      • Rust leaves
      • Klyasterosporiozy or spotting
        • perforated spotting
        • Brown spot
        • Orangespotting
        • Violet spotting
      • Moniliasis, or monilial burn
    • Diseases of the trunk and bark
      • Cytosporosis or cytospore necrosiss
      • GUMMOSIS
      • Brown rot roots
    • Pests wild cherry
      • Sucking pests
      • Listopoedayuschie insects
      • Miners
      • gall
      • Stem pests

Description bird cherry cultivar Maak

Prunus known to gardeners as Maak, was first described in detail the world-famous botanist Franz Ivanovich Ruprecht,for the Austrian Botanical Society in 1857. received its name from this name from the name of the Russian naturalist and researcher Richard Karlovich Maak , who described it during her travels in the Far East, the Ussuri and Amur valleys in 1855-59.

Maaca Bird cherry

In nature, this is not at all similar to the bird cherry growing in Siberia, the tree is found along the banks of rivers and streams in China, Korea, and in Russia - in the Far East.

It is impossible not to notice such beauty - fluffy emerald leaves, light yellow shoots and white flowers scattered on the crown in the spring, or clusters of berries black with a purple tint at the end of summer. Particularly impressive is the bark - from golden-bronze to brown , brilliant in the rays of both the sun and the moon, exfoliated by transverse stripes, which creates the appearance of a shaggy, translucent fringe.

The height of a tree in the wild reaches 16-18 meters , and the trunk - 40 cm in diameter. This bird cherry blossoms at the end of spring, with small flowers gathered in elongated brushes.

During flowering, it is better not to approach the plant, because throughout the day there is a hum in the crown from the bees arriving for nectar. The bird cherry Maak is internationally recognized as one of the best honey plants, which is indirectly confirmed by the bees adoring it. Therefore, after planting this variety in the garden, it makes sense to think about your own hive.

By the middle of July, the drupes are ripening. The clusters are very beautiful, but the fruits themselves are inedible to humans, due to the strong bitterness and very painting flesh. However, if you still risk and swallow a couple of berries, except for the long purple color of the tongue, , you can get a good laxative effect of .

Bears are very fond of the fruits of the Maak cherry tree. Therefore, if the garden is located near the reserve or hunting grounds, it does not hurt to exercise caution in the middle of summer.

Birds and squirrels are very indifferent to ripe stone bruises, and fallen berries very quickly pull apart hedgehogs.

The tree is extremely interesting not only for its external originality, but also for its universal characteristics, which allow this species to feel wonderful in almost any summer cottage in the middle lane.

Bird-cherry Maak:

  • frost-resistant , easily tolerate sub-zero temperatures up to 40-45 degrees;
  • is not very demanding on soils, it grows on any land, but it looks most impressive where it is planted on well-moist sandy loams.
  • is not susceptible to droughts , only a sapling needs to be watered in the first year of planting, but not always;
  • calmly suffers temporary flooding and prolonged rains;
  • can grow in the shadow of the , but feels much better in an open sunny meadow;
  • care comes down to forming the desired crown shape ;
  • is indifferent to haircuts, transplants, tiled, iron or asphalt pavement over the root system;
  • has a very fast growth ;
  • is propagated by the seeds of , but it will not be against breeding with the help of cuttings.

Indeed, a completely universal variety.

Cerapadus - a hybrid of cherry and bird cherry

These qualities attracted the most famous breeder Michurin in Maak's bird cherry tree when he and his staff worked to improve the cherry characteristics. At the first crossings, many hybrids were obtained, of which only results of combining bird cherry with steppe cherries and the Ided garden variety previously cultivated were used in further work. Submitted to the botanical world and gardeners, the finalized species of hybrid trees are known under the general name cerapadusy, that is, cherry cherry.

varieties Characteristics Maak

Prunus maackii, or Padus maackii, as adopted in the botanical Latin, named this species of bird cherry, has the following characteristics interesting for the gardener :

  • height of the tree in the middle reaches the area 10-11 meters ;
  • shoots straight , "standing", pubescent with alternate leaf position;
  • oval leaves , simple, with jagged edges and a pointed tip;
  • inflorescences racemes;
  • flowers white , on average 1 cm , five-petal, with a rich aroma;
  • bears berries, which are inedible for humans, in the ripening state - red, in the ripened stage - violet-black, purple.
Ripened Maak cherry berries

Advantages and disadvantages of

The following can be distinguished among the indisputable advantages to planting bird cherry on your summer cottage;

  • does not require careful maintenance;
  • scares off midges, mosquitoes and ticks;
  • does not need watering , except for the first year of life;
  • has unlimited potential when creating landscape compositions;
  • rapid growth;
  • grows both in the bright sun and in the shade.
  • The fallen leaves of this tree are rich in nitrogen, lime and potassium. This allows the fox to be used to produce good humus and contributes to the improvement of litter.

    The minuses of planting this tree in the garden include such moments as :

    • light-loving nature of the tree , the minimum distance between the seedlings should be 5 meters, and if the bird cherry is determined to live in the shade, then more;
    • abundant root growth ;
    • inedibility of drupes, with which the Maacka variety bears fruit;
    • the opportunity to get headaches with a long stay next to a flowering tree;
    • attracting bees , bumblebees and wasps during the flowering period, which is extremely dangerous for allergies.

    Landing rules

    It’s easy to choose a place for the Maak cherry tree, it will look great and will work well in every corner of the garden. If there are wet places on the site, for example, due to the close approach of the soil here, then the tree will perfectly dry such an surface.

    From an aesthetic point of view, this plant is combined with almost everything, looks great both in the planting group, for example, alternating it with a shrub along the boundaries of the site, and independently, against the background of lawn grass, in a corner of household buildings.

    Bird-cherry Maak tolerates transplant well and quickly takes root in a new place.

    This variety is very uncapulous, tolerates transplant well, adapts quickly and takes root in a new place, therefore, there are no special tricks to plant a tree. General guidelines should be followed, such as :

    • prepare the landing pit , do not need much depth and be carried away with fertilizers, especially organic, their excess can destroy the seedling;
    • optimum height of a sapling 70-75 cm , if the planting material is higher, it is better to shorten it;
    • when planting two or more plants, which is good for cross-pollination, the distance between them should be 5-6 meters ;
    • in the pit need to distribute the roots of and fall asleep, watering abundantly;
    • soil around planting slightly mulch .
    Plant bird cherry in early spring or late autumn, the soil should thaw when spring planting.

    Tree care

    It is easy to care for the bird cherry - in the first year or two of its life on the site you need to water the tree periodically, just in the first years of plant growth it is important to pay attention to the formation of the future crown.

    When the first side shoots appear, it is advisable to leave 4-5 the most developed and opposite-looking .The same will have to do with the branches growing on them. The upper shoot must be cut in order to maximize the development of the side. Sections are better to process with garden pitch.

    Adult plant needs periodic thinning of the crown

    This will have to be done for several years. In an already mature tree, if desired, you can thin out the crown.

    As for all sorts of supplements, it does not make sense to make them more often than once in a couple of years. If there is a desire, then can be applied with a little mineral dressing before cherry blossom to bloom, in order to prolong its time and make it more abundant.

    Diseases and pests

    Any bird cherry, including Maak varieties, is resistant to various pests. But this does not mean that the tree can not get sick at all.

    The most frequent ills that overtake this plant are fungal diseases. The fungus infects :

    • fruit;
    • branches and leaves;
    • bark and trunk.

    Diseases of the fruits of

    Drugs( the common name for berries of the bird cherry of this variety) suffer from deformity , the so-called "pockets".The fungus infects the fruit, resulting in a proliferation of the ovary, that is, the fleshy part and almost no bone develops.

    Infected drupes take the form of brown, large, swollen formations with empty cavities inside - pockets. The development of infection leads to a loss of yield and a violation of the decorative attractiveness of the tree.

    In order to protect against this fungus , you need to destroy the damaged fruit, and the tree itself is treated with means containing copper. It will also require treatment of the damaged plant in the spring, before bud break.

    Leaf and Branch Diseases

    Leaf Rust

    This disease develops mainly in forests and parks, but it can also visit gardens. The fungus that causes this trouble lives in the fir cones. From where he moved to the leaves and branches of bird cherry.

    Rust on leaves of Maak bird cherry

    In June brown or purple spots are formed on the foliage, the same formations on the branches. By the end of summer, the tree completely loses its aesthetic appeal.

    As a fight against this disease, bird cherry is sprayed with vitriol , they look for the source of the fungus settlement - spruce and destroy all the bumps on it.

    Klyastersporiozy, or spotting

    Holey spot
    Holey spot of Maaca bird cherry

    Expressed in the fact that in June or in the first half of July leaves are covered with brownish-brown spots, in a bright red pattern, the pattern, shrilli eye is in place at the same level, –– –––– ––––––– –––Over the course of the disease, these spots fall out, and the tree gives the impression of being pitted with insects.

    Brown Spot

    Toward the end of summer, on the foliage of , brown round spots are formed with a yellow pad on the upper part of the .This yellowish formation - fungus sporulation. With a strong development of the disease covers the entire sheet.

    Orange spot
    Orange spot on leaves of Maak cherry

    In the middle of summer, orange angular spots appear on the leaves of , up to 10 mm with a diameter of .Flat, with bright colors. With the development of the fungus can merge, occupying a large area of ​​the leaf. This disease is often found in Siberia and the Far East.

    Violet spotting

    It is characterized by the appearance of round grayish-purple spots with fuzzy , edges marching into the color of the sheet. It may appear throughout the summer and very quickly cover most of the crown of the tree.

    In order to combat all types of spots, fallen leaves are destroyed, and the crowns of the trees are treated with Bordeaux mixture or foundationol several times during the summer season.

    Moniliasis, or monilial burn

    An unpleasant disease in which the fungus infects flowers, foliage, shoots and drupes. In the spring, the branches start to dry up, acquiring the bright brown color of , then the same thing happens with the leaves and shoots.

    Monilioz Maak’s Bird-Cherry

    The fungus develops very well in high humidity, resulting in a tree appearance similar to a victim in a fire.

    To prevent and protect against this disease, prune and destroy the damaged areas of the , and in the spring, before flowering, the tree is treated with Bordeaux liquid. Spray it again after flowering in the fall. Be sure to destroy the fallen leaves.

    Diseases of the trunk and bark of

    Cytosporosis or cytospore necrosis of

    If this fungal infection is affected, bark of the tree dies off rings on the trunk and branches of .Inside these areas there is a clearly visible cluster of small red cones tightly adjacent to each other - this is the sporulation of the fungus.

    Cytosporosis on the trunk of the Maak bird cherry

    This necrosis usually affects plants weakened by something and can cause the tree to die.

    There is no measure of effective control of this disease, gardeners usually cut off the damaged areas and destroy them , and clean the fungus on the trunk, clean it with soap and copper, disinfect and cover it with garden water.

    Surgery

    On the tree there are areas with released fluid - gum. It is a sticky, resin-like amber substance. It usually accompanies other diseases, such as spotting, moniliosis, cytosporoz necrosis, as well as mechanical damage to the trunk of the bird-cherry tree, frost-sunburn, which are very rare, but also occur. The disease leads to the death of shoots, branches, and sometimes the bark of the tree.

    Surgery on a bird cherry branch

    Fighting this infection involves curing the bird cherry from the underlying disease and pruning dead branches and shoots and then destroying them.

    Brown rot roots

    The disease begins because of the activity of tinder Shveynitsa, that is, simply rot. The fungus develops in the central part of the root system and directly the tree trunk. At the same time at the base of the bird cherry, velvety large mushrooms themselves grow on it.

    The presence of large mushrooms at the base of the bird cherry indicates the development of the brown rot of the roots of the tree.

    Most often, old and weak trees are affected. In the forests, forest parks, urban plantings. In the garden is extremely rare.

    From the rotting bird cherry, most common pathogens such as are:

    • plum tinder;
    • sulfur yellow tinder;
    • purple tinder;
    • false tinderbox.

    The danger of such a disease is that sooner or later the tree will fall. The counter method is only one :

    • saw cut;
    • uprooting;
    • burning hole.

    Pest of the bird cherry

    Bird cherry is very resistant to all kinds of pests , but some still make their way through its protection from phytoncids.

    :

    Sucking pests
  • The most common insects that feed on the sap of foliage, buds, macaque

    are all insects that feed on foliage juice, kidneys, crustaceans, macaque

    . The most frequent guests and residents of the tree are coccides, leaf floaters, vegetable bugs .Most of them hit other trees in the garden, for example, an apple tree or a plum, and then it gets to the bird cherry tree.

    Leaf insects

    These are:

    • butterfly caterpillar;
    • larvae of sawflies;
    • larvae of leaf beetles and beetles themselves;
    • hawthorn and bird cherry mole.

    Some caterpillars of the same hawthorn moth make distinctive nests from the leaves in which they live and feed.

    Miners

    The leaf of the bird cherry is struck by the larvae of the miners.

    The larvae of this species of pests feed and grow inside the leaf, leaving hollow veins in it, different in shape and color. Relocate to bird cherry from apple trees .

    Gall formers

    The gall mite on the leaves of the Maakak cherry tree

    Galls with white or pink horns up to 4 mm in length are made by the mites - gall and felt. On bird cherry are very rare, only in the presence of heavily infected trees nearby.

    Stem Insect Pests

    These are xylophagous insects, that is, bark beetles and tree moths. About twenty different species of dwell on the bird cherry, but they only affect old, dying or diseased trees.

    Bark beetles on the bird cherry

    The main way to combat all these pests is chemical. The affected tree must be treated twice with such means as:

    • karbofos;
    • film mix.

    With a very strong infection, a third spraying may be required, but, usually, after the second, all insects already die.

    A good way to cope with the tracks gives nature itself. Frosts in early May kill insects already activated by this time. Therefore, some gardeners do not even realize that a colony of caterpillars was supposed to live on their favorites.

    The preventive measures include thinning of the crown, pruning of old branches, whitewashing the trunk and the bases of the branches, and, of course, careful monitoring of the condition of the neighbors cherry trees in the garden plot.

    Maaca Bird-cherry is an amazingly beautiful tree with a variety of decorative and useful properties. Despite the fact that its fruits are inedible for humans, they are perfect for the manufacture of medicinal decoctions and tinctures , able to solve many problems of the intestine.

    Bird-cherry Maak will decorate your backyard

    When choosing a bird-cherry for your garden, you should pay attention to this completely unpretentious tree that will perfectly fit into any landscape composition, create a shadow over the rest area and scare mosquitoes from it, and also create a lyrical moodthe owners of the garden.

    It is rare that an tree can boast such disease resistance, ease of survival of , unpretentiousness to soil and weather, undemanding care, fast growth and unique external beauty, like Maakam bird cherry.

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