The significance of the black chokeberry is the healing property of the fruit, which occupy a leading position in terms of the content of antioxidants.
Culture has a special genetics that contributes to high and stable yields, even with minimal care.
Table of contents
- Crop requirements for growing conditions
- Selection of seedling and varieties of chokeberry
- When to plant: in autumn or spring?
- How to plant: stages of work
- Care after landing
- Shelter for the winter
- Do I need to trim the shoots?
- Top dressing
- Watering and loosening the soil
- Prevention of diseases and pests
Cultural requirements for growing conditions
Black chokeberry is the result of crossing chokeberry and black chokeberry and rowan.
The area of natural chokeberry species is marshes, sandy plains and mountain slopes of North America. This is an unsightly and undersized shrub, which is radically different from the well-known black fruit rowan.
The shrubs owe their cultivation and popularity in Russia to the Russian breeder I. V. Michurin. As a result of numerous experiments and practical tests of the , a completely new culture was obtained - the black-fruited rowan .
Thanks to its high winter hardiness, disease resistance, and unpretentiousness to climatic and soil conditions, the shrub quickly spread over large areas.
The lowlands of the are well suited, where groundwater is located less than 2 m. This is isolated by a relatively shallow bedding of the roots of the plant, the bulk of which is located up to 60 cm, and the taproot rarely reaches a depth of 2 meters.
With a lack of moisture in the root zone, winter hardiness and shrub productivity decrease.
Black chokeberry grows well on different types of soil : chernozem, gray-forest, drained peatlands, sod-podzolic. Stony, marshy and saline soils are absolutely unsuitable for its cultivation.
Chokeberry can be planted in a combined hedge or as a soliter, to decorate a spacious plot.
This is a good version of for strengthening the ravines or the perimeter of the backyard, located along a cliff or river mouth.
Choosing a seedling and a variety of chokeberry
Scientists and breeders have introduced many varieties and hybrids of chokeberry. Popular varieties :
Their signs are almost similar, there are minor differences in taste and fruiting periods.
Therefore, the main criterion when choosing a seedling should be the purchase of planting material adapted to the conditions of the region.
For planting, you need to purchase one- or two-year-old sapling , while it is important to pay attention to the quality indicators.
These are: height up to 1.3 m, healthy bark without traces of damage, developed tap roots not less than 25 cm with a mass of fouling roots.
The productive period of black chokeberry in the middle zone of 25-30 years .All this time it is characterized by stable and high yield.
Therefore, in order to provide one family with fruits, it is enough to plant 1-2 shrubs, which will start fruiting in 2-3 years.
When to plant: fall or spring?
Chokeberry can be planted in spring or autumn .The most preferred for the development of seedlings and gardeners - autumn planting. At this time, you can buy planting material with fresh roots at a bargain price.
In the middle lane, plant black chokeberry is planted from mid-September to the third decade of October, .During this period, the shrub gradually enters a state of relative rest, but its roots will develop until the soil temperature drops to -4 ° C.
Therefore, in the spring, the plant will immediately begin to grow the vegetative mass. This gives a great advantage to saplings of autumn planting, which are ahead in the development of plants, planted in the spring for more than 20 days.
Benefit from the autumn planting for the grower - saving time, the plant does not need additional care, except for shelter for the winter.
During the spring planting of the , it will be necessary to control the probability of recurring frosts, exposure to dry winds and temperature drops.
Regardless of the general recommendations, when planting a seedling, you need to focus on the average temperature indicators of the region. You can plant at least 20 days before the first frost of .If deadlines are missed, the seedling should be prikopat in the ridge until spring.
In spring, the plant is planted before budding , when the air temperature warms up to + 15 ° C.
How to plant:
stages of work An is prepared in advance of the seed pit and substrate for the seedling, preferably 1-2 months. During this time, the soil mixture is structured, and the nutrients will take the forms that are easily absorbed by the roots of the plant. The optimal size of the pit 60x60x50( cm), landing scheme - 2.5x4( m).
To prepare the substrate, you will need topsoil removed during the excavation of the pit. It is supplemented with components:
- with humus or compost 2 buckets;
- superphosphate 120 g;
- with potassium sulphate of 60 g.
A drainage layer of broken brick or crushed stone is laid at the bottom of the pit no more than 15-20% of the total volume.
Before planting, the seedling needs to be inspected once again by .When damaged roots are found, the problem areas are cut to healthy skin, and dried ones are placed in water for 10 hours.
For better survival, the roots are dipped in a mash made of greasy clay, mullein and water.
In light soils, the seedling is buried by 6 cm, in heavy soils by 2-3 cm .Thus, the root collar of the shrub after shrinking the soil should remain 1-3 cm below the ground level.
I focus on the recommended criteria, at the bottom of the pit they form a mound of the prepared substrate. On its surface evenly spread the roots of the seedling. It is important to ensure that there are no unnatural bends.