Planting, growing and caring for chokeberry

The significance of the black chokeberry is the healing property of the fruit, which occupy a leading position in terms of the content of antioxidants.

Culture has a special genetics that contributes to high and stable yields, even with minimal care.

Table of contents

  • Crop requirements for growing conditions
  • Selection of seedling and varieties of chokeberry
  • When to plant: in autumn or spring?
  • How to plant: stages of work
  • Care after landing
    • Shelter for the winter
    • Do I need to trim the shoots?
    • Top dressing
    • Watering and loosening the soil
    • Prevention of diseases and pests

Cultural requirements for growing conditions

Black chokeberry is the result of crossing chokeberry and black chokeberry and rowan.

The area of ​​natural chokeberry species is marshes, sandy plains and mountain slopes of North America. This is an unsightly and undersized shrub, which is radically different from the well-known black fruit rowan.

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The shrubs owe their cultivation and popularity in Russia to the Russian breeder I. V. Michurin. As a result of numerous experiments and practical tests of the , a completely new culture was obtained - the black-fruited rowan .

Thanks to its high winter hardiness, disease resistance, and unpretentiousness to climatic and soil conditions, the shrub quickly spread over large areas.

For the cultivation of chokeberry you need to choose a well-lit areas. The shrub will smoothly grow in the shade, but the yield and quality of the fruit will decrease significantly.

The lowlands of the are well suited, where groundwater is located less than 2 m. This is isolated by a relatively shallow bedding of the roots of the plant, the bulk of which is located up to 60 cm, and the taproot rarely reaches a depth of 2 meters.

With a lack of moisture in the root zone, winter hardiness and shrub productivity decrease.

Black chokeberry grows well on different types of soil : chernozem, gray-forest, drained peatlands, sod-podzolic. Stony, marshy and saline soils are absolutely unsuitable for its cultivation.

Chokeberry can be planted in a combined hedge or as a soliter, to decorate a spacious plot.

This is a good version of for strengthening the ravines or the perimeter of the backyard, located along a cliff or river mouth.

For growing chokeberry you need to choose well-lit areas with enough moisture in the soil.

Choosing a seedling and a variety of chokeberry

Scientists and breeders have introduced many varieties and hybrids of chokeberry. Popular varieties :

  • Hakkiya;
  • Black;
  • Rubin;
  • Kutno;
  • Viking.

Their signs are almost similar, there are minor differences in taste and fruiting periods.

Therefore, the main criterion when choosing a seedling should be the purchase of planting material adapted to the conditions of the region.

This means that you need to purchase a seedling in local nurseries or consider shrubs growing in neighboring areas as a mother plant.

For planting, you need to purchase one- or two-year-old sapling , while it is important to pay attention to the quality indicators.

These are: height up to 1.3 m, healthy bark without traces of damage, developed tap roots not less than 25 cm with a mass of fouling roots.

For planting, you need to purchase in the nursery one or two-year-old sapling

The productive period of black chokeberry in the middle zone of 25-30 years .All this time it is characterized by stable and high yield.

Therefore, in order to provide one family with fruits, it is enough to plant 1-2 shrubs, which will start fruiting in 2-3 years.

When to plant: fall or spring?

Chokeberry can be planted in spring or autumn .The most preferred for the development of seedlings and gardeners - autumn planting. At this time, you can buy planting material with fresh roots at a bargain price.

In the middle lane, plant black chokeberry is planted from mid-September to the third decade of October, .During this period, the shrub gradually enters a state of relative rest, but its roots will develop until the soil temperature drops to -4 ° C.

Therefore, in the spring, the plant will immediately begin to grow the vegetative mass. This gives a great advantage to saplings of autumn planting, which are ahead in the development of plants, planted in the spring for more than 20 days.

Autumn planting can be considered a relatively minor violation of the natural development of the shrub, so they are more winter-hardy. What can not be said about spring seedlings, which are a long stage of storage.

Benefit from the autumn planting for the grower - saving time, the plant does not need additional care, except for shelter for the winter.

During the spring planting of the , it will be necessary to control the probability of recurring frosts, exposure to dry winds and temperature drops.

Regardless of the general recommendations, when planting a seedling, you need to focus on the average temperature indicators of the region. You can plant at least 20 days before the first frost of .If deadlines are missed, the seedling should be prikopat in the ridge until spring.

In spring, the plant is planted before budding , when the air temperature warms up to + 15 ° C.

You can plant at least 20 days before the first frost. If deadlines are missed, the seedling should be prikopat in the ridge until spring.

How to plant:

stages of work An is prepared in advance of the seed pit and substrate for the seedling, preferably 1-2 months. During this time, the soil mixture is structured, and the nutrients will take the forms that are easily absorbed by the roots of the plant. The optimal size of the pit 60x60x50( cm), landing scheme - 2.5x4( m).

To prepare the substrate, you will need topsoil removed during the excavation of the pit. It is supplemented with components:

  • with humus or compost 2 buckets;
  • superphosphate 120 g;
  • with potassium sulphate of 60 g.

A drainage layer of broken brick or crushed stone is laid at the bottom of the pit no more than 15-20% of the total volume.

Before planting, the seedling needs to be inspected once again by .When damaged roots are found, the problem areas are cut to healthy skin, and dried ones are placed in water for 10 hours.

For better survival, the roots are dipped in a mash made of greasy clay, mullein and water.

In order for black chokeberry to grow well and grow, it must be planted deeper than it grew in a nursery. This is necessary for deepening basal shoots( awl), growing from the root collar.

In light soils, the seedling is buried by 6 cm, in heavy soils by 2-3 cm .Thus, the root collar of the shrub after shrinking the soil should remain 1-3 cm below the ground level.

I focus on the recommended criteria, at the bottom of the pit they form a mound of the prepared substrate. On its surface evenly spread the roots of the seedling. It is important to ensure that there are no unnatural bends.

In light soils, the seedling is buried by 6 cm, in heavy soils by 2-3 cm, the root collar should remain 1-3 cm below the ground level. After compaction of the stem and watering of the seedling, you need to form a layer of mulch. For this well suited: peat, sawdust, mowed grass or wood chips.

After planting, the above-ground part of the seedling is cut, leaving only 20 cm of length. When autumn planting procedure is postponed until spring and carried out before bud break.

Care after planting

Shrub care requirements are minimal. Besides , it is rarely affected by pests and diseases .This makes it particularly attractive for growing in the country, where the presence of a gardener is not constant.

Shelter for the winter

A seedling planted in autumn needs to be prepared for the first winter season. To do this, it is bent to the ground and pressed with boards .This is important to do until the air temperature drops to -1 ° C — 2 ° C.

Otherwise, the shrub stalk will lose elasticity and may break. During the bending of the bush it is important to ensure that the height of the arc does not exceed 20 -30 cm .

Additionally, sapling is covered with spruce leaves, and the layer of mulch is made higher. In winters with little snow shrub spud snow.

In the spring, with the establishment of a stable temperature, the plant needs to be straightened. If it is kept in a low state for a long time, the apical shoots can support it.

Arony sapling bend down to the ground and pressed, covered with spruce leaves

Do I need to prune shoots?

A feature of chokeberry is the rapid formation of shoots, which leads to a strong crown thickening. Therefore, young bushes annually remove basal shoots, leaving only 5-6 stronger and growing in the right direction.

For the right balance of stability and quantity of harvest, an adult shrub should have 30-50 strong stems.

Sanitary pruning is the in the removal of old, rotten and bare branches. Shrub lays fruit buds on annual shoots, so they should not be shortened.

In order to increase the productivity and longevity of the shrub, needs an anti-aging pruning every 3-4 years. During the procedure, the shoots of chokeberry are shortened to half the height.

Top dressing

Black chokeberry responds well to top dressing, which should be carried out twice a year with .To do this, in the near-stem circle per 1 m2, the following must be sealed:

  • ammonium nitrate 20 g( in spring);
  • potassium salt 20 g, superphosphate 30 g( autumn).

gives good results of foliar top dressing of the shrub after flowering, when the fruits begin to tie. To do this, it is sprayed with an aqueous solution of urea( 20g / 10l).

Chokeberry responds well to supplements that need to be carried out twice a year.

With the accumulation of an excessive amount of nitrogen, the growth and the formation of basal shoots increases. In young shoots, the bark does not have time to woody, and the apical bud to form.

This leads to a strong freezing even with the most favorable winter. Therefore, in the second half of the growing season, nitrogen fertilizing should not be done .

Watering and loosening the soil

Aronia rowan - moisture-loving culture .Watering is especially important for her at the beginning of the growing season and during fruit formation.

In case of steady hot weather, the shrub is watered every week. The water rate for an adult bush is 30 liters .

To do this, you can make watering furrows at a distance of 30-40 cm from the shrub trunks. With this method, water will penetrate to all the roots of the plant.

Twice in a season it is necessary to loosen the soil in the stop wheel, while removing weeds. Especially important is the autumn procedure.

Excessive compaction of the soil contributes to the strong freezing of the soil in the root layers, which significantly reduces the bush's winter hardiness.

Prevention of diseases and pests

After harvesting and in the spring before bud break, the shrub needs to be treated with fungicides. To do this, it is sprayed with 1% Bordeaux fluid .

Shrub resistant to pest control .The reason for the spread of insects on the aronia can be a massive destruction of the site by pests.

In these cases it is necessary to apply a cardinal measure - spraying with chemical preparations.

Black chokeberry is resistant to pests, it is sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid

to prevent it. Black chokeberry fruits are good for culinary preparations and are especially valuable for their healing properties. Attractive shrub and its decorative.

The hedge from the plant will transform the backyard background three times a year, ranging from white during flowering and ending with the purple color of the leaves in late autumn.

Planting and maintenance of black chokeberry:

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