Water leakage (leakage) sensor: types, how to choose, do-it-yourself installation

Breakage of plumbing equipment is one of the most common causes of leakage. Agree to be the culprit of the flood and its victim at the same time unpleasant, and it is expensive from the financial side.

A timely mounted “anti-flood” system will help to avoid a catastrophe even in case of damage to the pipes and the integrity of the water circuit. Before you install a water leakage sensor yourself, you need to understand the mechanism of the mechanism and the features of the work of different models.

We will talk about the design features and principle of operation of the device. We will explain the procedure for assembling the protection system and connecting the controller. Visual photo instructions, themed videos will help you choose the device and install it yourself.

The content of the article:

  • The principle of operation of the system against leakage
  • Leakage classification systems
    • Types of models by alert method
    • Wired and wireless sensors
  • Typical equipment protection system
  • Rules for installing the anti-flood system
    • Insert ball valve
    • Installing water leak sensors
    • Controller Installation Rules
    • System operation check
  • How to choose a flood defense
  • Conclusions and useful video on the topic

The principle of operation of the system against leakage

The principle of operation of any stationary anti-leakage system is based on the difference between the electrical conductivity of water and air. The basis of any sensor is a regular pair of electrodes.

If water gets on them, then the resistance decreases and the electrical circuit closes. Information about the closure of the circuit goes to the controller, where the pulse is decoded and information is processed.

After that, the controller gives its signal to close solenoid valvelocated on the riser, directly on the input itself.

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Appearance and dimensions of the water leakage sensor

The water leakage sensor is a small device designed to record and transmit information about an emergency.

System of protection against leakage of water heating

The sensors included in the system to protect the house / apartment from leakage are installed on all circuits along which water moves, in particular, on water heating devices

Leak detection device near equipment

Devices for fixing water leaks are placed near equipment that actively consumes water: washing machines, dishwashers, boilers, etc.

Breakthrough of a plumbing pipe against overpressure

Sensors registering the fact of water leakage, equip water lines, plumbing fixtures and tap points

Standard components for leakage protection

The leakage sensor is one of the components of the flood protection system. His duty is to detect the accident and transfer information to the controller, which notifies the owners of the premises

The spherical electric drive for water overlapping

In addition to the sensor and the controller, a spherical electric drive is included in the system for protection against accidental leaks.

Protection of own property and finishes from damage

The leakage protection system should be installed in order to prevent irretrievable damage to its own property and decoration.

Prevent flooding of neighbors' apartments

Installing a system with water leakage sensors will help avoid a host of unpleasant situations involving payment for damaged property of neighbors.

Appearance and dimensions of the water leakage sensor

Appearance and dimensions of the water leakage sensor

System of protection against leakage of water heating

System of protection against leakage of water heating

Leak detection device near equipment

Leak detection device near equipment

Breakthrough of a plumbing pipe against overpressure

Breakthrough of a plumbing pipe against overpressure

Standard components for leakage protection

Standard components for leakage protection

The spherical electric drive for water overlapping

The spherical electric drive for water overlapping

Protection of own property and finishes from damage

Protection of own property and finishes from damage

Prevent flooding of neighbors' apartments

Prevent flooding of neighbors' apartments

The inlet valve will be closed until the cause of the leak has been identified and completely eliminated. After performing simple manipulations with the controller, the system operation will be resumed.

The stationary system operates autonomously and only requires intervention in the event of leakage detection and repair.

Anti-leakage system diagram

After moisture gets on the electrode, the circuit is closed, the signal about which is transmitted to the controller. The closing time of the solenoid valve ranges from 2-30 seconds and is determined by the type of protection system selected (+)

Leakage classification systems

Anti-leakage systems are classified according to the following main features:

  1. By the number of electric cranes in the kit.
  2. By way of informing about leakage.
  3. By way of information exchange between sensors and control unit.

As a rule, the number of electric cranes in the kit should be at least two. This is due to the fact that the taps must be installed on the cold and hot water risers. The number of cranes, depending on the chosen system, can be increased.

Types of models by alert method

There are the following ways to report leaks:

  • indication on the controller display;
  • indication on the display, accompanied by noise signals;
  • noise alarm, indication and message sending.

Messaging is possible if the system is equipped with a GSM transmitter. In this case, an SMS message is sent to the phone number that is stored in the device’s memory.

Enter the phone number produced from the control panel. When connecting the system to the Internet, it is possible to send messages via GPRS connection.

Magnetocontact Sensor

The magnetic sensor is equipped with a GSM notification function for 6 telephone numbers. Due to this, all residents of a house or apartment will be notified almost simultaneously about a leak

The information displayed on the control panel depends on the model. The most common information is displayed on the presence of leaks, the status of sensors, the level of charge of batteries and batteries.

Wired and wireless sensors

Signals from water leakage sensors can be transmitted to the controller, both by wire and radio channels. In this regard, it is customary to distinguish between wired and wireless systems aimed at preventing flood.

In wired systems transmitting information to the sensor voltage up to 5 V. In the case of a dry surface, there is no current due to the large resistance between the contacts. As a result of exposure to moisture, the resistance decreases and the current increases.

Water leakage sensor - appearance

A small voltage is applied to the sensor electrodes through the wires, but there is no current due to the high resistance between the contacts. When exposed to moisture, the resistance drops and the circuit closes

To avoid false positives, you need to set a minimum current threshold at which the controller closes the solenoid valves.

This is due to the fact that the resistance between the contacts decreases when steam is generated or sprayed. water, but its value remains quite high and does not reach the minimum values, as a result of leakage.

Inside each wireless sensor There is a current comparison circuit that works when the set value is reached. A special transmitter constantly measures the contact resistance and, when flooded, immediately sends an alarm signal to the receiver. The receiver and transmitter tune to the same frequency.

Control block

A special transmitter detects the growth of resistance on the sensor contacts and sends a radio alarm signal, which is received by the radio control unit

The transmitter signal is modulated in order to avoid false alarms due to electromagnetic interference.

Each manufacturer applies its own modulation principles. In this regard, wireless sensors monitoring the leakage of water can not be used in other leak monitoring systems.

Typical equipment protection system

The following leakage alarm systems, which operate according to the same principle, have received the greatest popularity among consumers:

  • Neptune;
  • Aquastorozh;
  • Gidrolock.

In the presented systems are used Ball Valves with electromagnetic or electromechanical valve with a diameter of ½, ¾, 1 inch. The devices not only provide overlap of the crane, but also inform about the leakage.

System elements

Any typical leakage alarm system consists of the following standard components: controller - control unit (1), electric ball valve (2), sensors (3) (+)

Water leakage systems can be integrated with systems "Smart Home".

The leak protection complex includes:

  1. Ball Valvesequipped with electric drive. They are designed to completely or partially block the water or heating circuits in case of a leak. The device is mounted directly after the inlet valves.
  2. Controllerrepresenting the control unit. Designed to perform only one operation - the overlap of the valve with electric drive after receiving and processing the signal from one of the sensors. In addition, the controller is responsible for warning of leakage and sensor power. The controller can be installed in any convenient, but at the same time accessible place.
  3. Leakage sensors. When wet, a leak signal is given. They are connected exclusively to safe energy sources. Sensors are installed in places most often threatening leaks: under shower cabins and sinks, behind toilet bowls, near washing machines, in places where flexible hoses are connected, etc.

Sensors can be autonomous, as in the system Gidrolockand volatile, as in cheaper protection "Neptune".

Tap for water leakage sensor

Motorized ball valves are used in the leak alarm system. The only negative is that such devices are needed for hot and cold water, because the system does not respond to the temperature of the flowing fluid

In autonomous water supply systems, the function of an electrically operated tap can be performed by a pump, which is turned off after the signal from the sensor about leakage has been received. But in this case it is undesirable to neglect the installation of a ball valve equipped with an electric drive.

Even if the pump is turned off and the water supply from well or wellIn the absence of a shut-off ball valve, the system will not be fully protected against leakage.

This is due to the fact that water can flow into the faulty system from hydroaccumulator. Therefore, the installation of "controlled crane" is considered a necessity.

Rules for installing the anti-flood system

The main advantage of any modern leak protection system is the ease of assembly and the speed of installation work. By purchasing a flood warning system, you get a kind of constructor, the separate parts of which are connected using special connectors.

How to install and connect the water leakage sensor

A significant advantage of factory-made leakage and emergency bay alarm systems is the ease of assembly and installation of components (+)

Work on the installation of the system should begin with the preparation of a detailed scheme, which will clearly indicate the location of each of the components. After developing a plan, you need to check the length of the wires and determine whether it is enough to connect sensors and taps to the control unit.

Installation work is carried out in the following order:

  1. Marking areas where the installation of the controller, cranes and sensors.
  2. Laying and connecting wiring.
  3. Inset ball valves equipped with shut-off valves with electromechanical or electromagnetic actuators.
  4. Installation of leakage sensors.
  5. Installation of the control unit (controller).
  6. Connection and verification.

One of the most difficult moments of the installation of leak protection is the insertion of ball valves. Mistake when inserting cranes can negate all efforts.

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Preparation for installation of an anti-leakage system

Step 1: Installation of the flood protection system begins with the preparation of the water supply system at the hot and cold water supply lines

Installation of electric ball valves

Step 2: After the overlapping fittings and filters, we mount electrically operated ball valves to shut off the water supply when an accident is detected

Location of the safety controller

Step 3: We install the system controller either in the room where the signal will be heard anywhere in the house or in the switchboard

Fastening the holders to install leak sensors

Step 4: Choose the most vulnerable places for possible leakage in the house / apartment and fix the sensor holders to the floor

Installation of leakage protection system sensors

Step 5: Fix the leakage protection sensors on the holders, placing them with the contact side down

Mounting sealed sensor cap

Step 6: Devices that record the fact of leakage, close the airtight lid, eliminating the penetration of water into the electrical device

Connection to the system components controller

Step 7: We connect leakage sensors in the required quantity to the controller, electric ball valves and a power cable for power supply

Verification check of installation work

Step 8: After installing and connecting the devices we are testing the system. If triggered, the controller should emit a piercing signal, and electric taps should turn off the water

Preparation for installation of an anti-leakage system

Preparation for installation of an anti-leakage system

Installation of electric ball valves

Installation of electric ball valves

Location of the safety controller

Location of the safety controller

Fastening the holders to install leak sensors

Fastening the holders to install leak sensors

Installation of leakage protection system sensors

Installation of leakage protection system sensors

Mounting sealed sensor cap

Mounting sealed sensor cap

Connection to the system components controller

Connection to the system components controller

Verification check of installation work

Verification check of installation work

Insert ball valve

Before work, turn off the taps located at the inlets of the cold and hot water risers. Next, directly behind the tap, you should cut the pipeline and gently hot and cold water meters - Seals must remain intact.

After that, the valve of the system must be screwed on the crane or on the pre-installed valve. Now stays back set counter and connect previously removed pipes.

The complexity of the work depends on the type of pipe water or heating system. The easiest way to work with metal pipes is to simply connect the elements and press them with the help of a lock nut.

Inset Cranes

Ball valves can be positioned after metering stations, but then the section of the water supply from the inlet valve to the electric-powered valve is left without control

If the water supply system or the heating system is made of propylene pipes, it is possible to replace the complicated soldering using special detachable couplings used for repair purposes.

After installing the cranes, you need to connect them with a separate power line to the junction box of the controller that provides power to the shut-off node.

Installing water leak sensors

There should not be any difficulties with the installation of water leakage sensors with your own hands. Sensors should be located in places with a high risk of leakage:

  • under showers and bathrooms;
  • behind sinks and sinks;
  • near the toilet, washing and dishwashers.

If the floor has a slope, then the sensor must be installed in the lowest place.

There are two sensor layouts:

  • internal;
  • outdoor.

Manufacturers recommend to give preference to the internal placement of sensors, in which devices crash into tiles or other flooring.

Interior layout. The contact plates of the sensor must be brought out and placed 3-4 mm above the floor. Such an arrangement will prevent false triggering of the system in case of wet cleaning or accidental splashing of water. The wire to the sensors fail in waterproof corrugated pipe.

Exterior location. The sensors are laid directly on the floor with the contacts down. The sensor body can be fixed with construction glue or double-sided tape.

External arrangement of devices is most often used if the leakage monitoring system is installed after the completion of the installation and installation of plumbing.

Sensor installation

When the sensor is installed externally, it should be placed plates down and secured with construction glue or adhesive tape. Sensor should be easily removable for maintenance.

Installing a do-it-yourself water leakage sensor will cause even less difficulty if the system includes wireless sensors.

In this case, you don’t have to worry about the aesthetic side of the issue; you don’t need to make walls and floors or mask the wires into the baseboard. The wireless sensor can be easily mounted on any surface, as it is equipped with fasteners.

Controller Installation Rules

The controller should be located in a convenient place for maintenance. It is best to place the controller near the stop valves, it can be mounted on the wall with brackets or hidden in a niche.

Consider that the power supply of the control unit is provided by the power cabinet, therefore the phase and zero must be connected to the controller.

Controller installation

The controller can be installed in almost any convenient place, but it is best to place it near the electrical wiring and shut-off valves, so less will have to lay the wire

After fixing the controller, you can connect it to the electrical grid and connect the electrically controlled valves.

Wiring is performed through special terminal connectors, numbered and signed for ease of installation. On the controller and the instructions clearly indicate where and what wire should be connected.

It remains to be connected to the appropriate connectors of the sensors of water leakage and the assembly of the system can be considered complete. If the standard length of the wire is not enough, then they must be lengthened. Manufacturers guarantee the operation of the system even if the sensor is removed from the control unit at 100 m.

System operation check

After pressing the power button, the controller will diagnose and confirm that it is ready for operation with a green indicator light. Before you entrust the security of your home system, it will not be superfluous to carry out its diagnosis.

To do this, just put a plate of one of the sensors with water. If the system is working properly, you will hear a beep, the indicator light will turn on or blink red, and the electric valves will shut off the water supply.

System check

After water enters the sensor contacts, the controller gives a noise and sound signal, at the same time blocking the solenoid valves in seconds

To unlock the system, the sensor should be wiped dry and set in place. The power to the controller must be turned off and on again. After self-diagnostics, the water leakage control system is ready for operation again.

How to choose a flood defense

In terms of their efficiency, cheap and expensive devices are almost identical, with the exception of factory defects, which can be in any system. Each manufacturer presents its product, but this is just an advertisement and not more.

In the leak protection system with a logo Gidrolock The complete delivery provides for the presence of 3 sensors, while another 40 sensors can be connected without installing additional units.

Complexes of protection Aquastorozh initially equipped with 4 sensors and you can connect another 10. If you install additional blocks, then the number of sensors can be increased to 375.

Complete system Neptune There are only 2 sensors, the rest need to be purchased separately. At the same time, without installing additional units, the system can support no more than 10 water leakage sensors.

The wireless sensor system significantly increases the cost of the system, so if you are comfortable with a wired system, it is better to give preference to it. Also, the cost of the system increases with the possibility of installing additional cranes.

As we found out, for efficient operation, no more than 2 ball valves with solenoid valves, mounted on cold and hot water risers behind the inlet valves, are needed. Buying a system with 6-8 cranes, you overpay for what you will never use.

Some manufacturers speculate in advertising their products with such magnitude as the operating voltage. And it for protection systems ranges from 5-12 V.

At the same time, the current in the sensor wires is absolutely safe, and the current in the crane wires, although reaches 1 A, but only a few seconds, so the difference in operating voltages does irrelevant.

One of the main indicators of the efficiency of the system is the overlap time of the crane. In cheap systems Neptune this figure reaches 30 seconds, while the most advanced systems Aquastorozh able to turn off the taps in just 2-3 seconds.

Consider that if a heating pipe or water pipe breaks, 20-25 liters of water can pour out in 30 seconds.

Another important indicator is the presence of a battery in the kit, which ensures the autonomy of the system in the event of a power outage.

Conclusions and useful video on the topic

Overview of the anti-leakage system configuration Neptune and installation tips:

Aquastoroz set overview:

Most of the systems for protection against emergency water leaks are self-sufficient - they are able not only to control leaks, but they periodically monitor the sensors, determine the level of battery charge, clean the electromagnetic valves.

Modern anti-leakage systems are completely autonomous and require human intervention only to eliminate the accident.

Looking for an effective sensor to protect against leakage? Or have experience using such devices? Please leave comments on the article, ask questions and share your impressions about the use of anti-flood protection systems.

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