The most popular among fruits in our country are apples, , due to its taste and high content of substances beneficial to the body, as well as the presence of various varieties( both summer and winter).One of the favorite for many winter varieties is the Golden Golden Apple Tree. About her and tell in our article.
- grade Description apples Golden
- Advantages and disadvantages
- trees and fruit characteristics
- tree Description
- fruits Description
- Secrets landing
- Care apple
- Diseases and pests
grade Description apples Golden
cultivar was bred by accident Accidentalcrossbreeding of Grimes Golden and Golden Reinette varieties in 1905, .This happened in the garden of the farmer Mullins( Clay district in West Virginia), so the original apple tree was called Yellow Sapling Mullins. Since 1914after the tree was sold by the breeder and the rights to distribute to the Nurseries and Gardens of the Stark Brothers, they started selling it as an addition to the variety Red Delicious.
Today it is the most popular variety of apples not only in the USA, but also in other European countries, where whole plantations of trees are created, allowing to grow these fruits on an industrial scale.
Advantages and disadvantages of
Like any apple plant in this variety, there are a number of advantages and disadvantages. The following characteristics can be attributed to the first characteristic:
- Fairly high frost resistance and drought resistance ;
- High yield and productivity of ( with proper care over 1 c from the tree);
- Skoroplodnost - the first crops can be harvested from 2-3-year-old trees;
- The full ratio of quality and taste indicators of fruit with international standards, as a result, their widespread use in the food industry, cooking and preservation;
- Long-term storage capacity of the under the right conditions, otherwise the fruit will begin to fade;
- High resistance of to the effects of a large number of various pests and diseases;
- Frequent use of in breeding with other varieties of to produce hybrids. Examples of selections are such hybrid varieties as Priam, Freiberg, Korea, etc.
The second is characterized by the following indicators:
- Tendency to be affected by diseases such as powdery mildew and scab ;
- With a large crop overload, is observed to decrease in size in fruits;
- Availability of frequency in obtaining high yield ;
- Requirements for the care of and soil fertility;
- Reducing the yield of with the "aging" of the tree.
Characteristic of trees and fruits
Description of the tree
As for the trees themselves, they belong to the category of medium-sized plants with a crown varying in shape, depending on their age. So, young apples have a cone-shaped, and fruit-bearing - the most rounded with interlaced branches and foliage .A bountiful harvest can lead to sagging of branches, which makes trees look like willow. Shoots are distinguished by their brownish color with green veins from the color of the trunk, which has a dark gray color. They are not very thick, slightly pubescent and weakly stiff and have oval lentils, rather large and densely scattered.
Golden has wide oval leaves, whose base is rounded, and the tips are slightly elongated .They are smooth to the touch with edges, having notches, slightly pubescent, have long petioles and lanceolate stipules. The color of the foliage is bright green.
As mentioned earlier, first yields can be obtained as early as 2-3 years after budding .During the first few years, abundant yields are guaranteed, then they will depend on the climatic conditions, the quality of care and the use of fertilizers.
Description of fruits
They are characterized by such indicators as:
- Size - apples are both medium and large, depending on weather conditions( for example, Kuban often reach 170 g);
- The form is round-conical, turned, with dense, dry skin that, under favorable growing conditions, becomes slightly rough;
- Color - from golden light green to yellow, in places a slightly pinkish tint may appear due to exposure to sunlight;
- Taste - sweet and gentle;
- Structure - has a closed cup with openings at the bottom of the sepals. Fruits are distinguished by long stems, of medium thickness and prominent above a deep funnel. The apples are equipped with a narrow, deep and even saucer and a small axial cavity that does not communicate with the seed chambers. The flesh is very juicy, dense, greenish hue, which eventually becomes creamy.
It is recommended to harvest the crop at the end of September .Fruits are able to be stored until mid-spring, subject to proper conditions. For example, in low humidity rooms, apples will begin to wither.
Although experiments were conducted by breeders, such Golden apples are grown in the southern regions of Russia, as strong frosts can freeze the plant even with proper warming. However, it is possible to meet the apple trees of this variety in the gardens of the Moscow region and the middle zone of our country.
Secrets of planting
Planting trees produced using semi-dwarf rootstock scheme 4 * 4m. Pre-determine the indicators of the groundwater level, as the recommended depth should be 2.5m. In the southern regions, the best time to land is October, for the northern - mid-April .The best soil for apple trees is chernozem.
The process begins with the preparation of an planting pit, the size of which must be at least 1 * 1m and 0.7m deep. It is dug up 1 month before planting to ensure high-quality precipitation of the earth and fertilized with superphosphate, ash and potassium. In the middle of the pit, a stake is set, protruding 0.4m above its surface. It should be noted that the lower part of the stake is burned with fire in order to prevent rotting.
After the allotted time, a hole is made in the pit, at the bottom of which chernozem is poured. Next, is planted with a seedling so that the peg is on the south side, and the root neck of the tree trunk rises at a height of 5 cm above the ground .So that it does not settle down with the soil, it is tied to a peg. Then the landing site is plentifully watered( 3-4 buckets of water) and covered with earth.
Apple tree care
The main care for plants consists in pruning, which is done every year. This ensures earlier fruiting and high yields, longer service life, protection from frostbite. The time of the process alternate, that is, first it is carried out in early spring before the formation of buds, then in autumn. To limit the growth of trees up and the active formation of lateral shoots, the vertical escape of is mandatory cut. Also, the growth is trimmed annually, and 1/3 of their length is removed from it. This stimulates the formation and growth of fruit branches.
The next step in the process of care is to thinning the ovaries and fruits of the , necessary to prevent underdeveloped apples with low palatability. To do this, during the formation of ovaries or fruits, the one in the middle is removed, as well as apples with some defects. The intervals from one to the other beam must be not less than 0.1 m.
As for irrigation, it is that is needed 3-4 times per summer in the first year , since excessive moisture can cause the fruits to crack. Water consumption - 3-4 buckets on the tree. After wetting the soil cover is mulched with humus. In dry summer, the trees are watered until the buds open, 20 days after the end of flowering and the same period before harvest.
For proper development of apple trees and getting a good harvest, fertilization is required. Thus, nitrogenous substances affect the growth, pollination of flowers, the formation of ovaries, phosphate - the formation of fruit buds and the color of fruits, potash - the growth of young shoots, etc. The ideal option for feeding is the alternation of organic and mineral fertilizers.
dressing is needed. The most popular organic fertilizer is manure, which is applied every year in the autumn period. Nitrogen substances are used 2 times a year - in early spring and in the first half of the growing season, phosphate and potash are introduced during the same periods, but not directly, but by sealing them into excavated grooves around the trunk circle and having a depth of up to 0.4m.
Before frost, the trunk circle is mulched with the help of humus, peat and compost. Apple trees are subjected to hilling and strapping with spruce or cane, and they are also whitened with a solution of chalk or lime.
Diseases and pests
Golden, like other varieties of apples, is susceptible to various diseases, but is most often found on them as scab and powdery mildew .For destruction use sprays such preparations as Skor, Topaz, Ridomil-Gold.
Apples are also affected by apple buds, aphids, and moths and leafworms. They are also controlled by spraying with chemical preparations .
In summing up to the above, I wanted to say that Golden stands out among other apple varieties with its beautiful appearance and excellent taste, so we recommend having this variety in any garden.