Chestnuts are very useful for humans. Some varieties produce edible nuts, which are used for cooking .It is possible to grow chestnut at home from a nut and how to plant it will be discussed further.
. Contents:Formation of crown
Is it possible to grow chestnut at home
To get your chestnut alley, it is not necessary to purchase expensive seedlings. It is possible to grow trees from a nutlet.
More than 30 types of chestnut trees are known, but not everything will be grown at home:
- The chestnut of sowing campaign is a long-lived tree. With proper care, the tree will live more than 500 years. The height of the chestnut reaches 35 meters, the leaves are large. The inflorescences of chestnut cream-colored, lush. Nuts are good for food, large. The shell is soft.
- Chinese softest - fruits have high taste qualities, are highly valued among gourmets. The tree is up to 15 meters high, the leaves are small, pubescent. Candles upright, different color.
- Japanese Chestnut - distinguished by its growth rate. In fruiting enters the third year of cultivation. Edible fruits, weighing up to 100 grams.
When planting chestnut in the garden, note that it gives a dense shade, and its roots are superficial. Under the tree, absolutely nothing will grow , but nobody forbids equipping a recreation area under its branches.
In addition, it is necessary to grow edible varieties of chestnuts away from roads, factories and plants. Better solution - a country house. The fact is that the chestnut absorbs heavy metals and all toxic emissions, the fruit from the urban tree is completely unsuitable for food.
During the flowering period, the chestnut trees are excellent honey plants. Honey has a slight bitterness, but is very useful.
Which nut to choose for planting
In order to avoid making mistakes in growing chestnut, we advise you to listen to the opinion of experts and select only fallen nuts. They are used for further germination.
The fruits should be smooth and beautiful in appearance, free from damage and soft spots .For planting select solid chestnuts.
Start planting better in the fall, after picking the fruit. It is not always possible to save nuts until spring without loss. They dry out and lose their germination .If this is not possible, then chestnuts should be stored until spring in a bag of wet sand.
Conditions for planting and growing chestnut
The secret of successful cultivation of chestnut is seed stratification. If you collect nuts in the late autumn and plant it in open ground, nature itself will do everything. But in the indoor environment will have to expose the seeds of stratification.
For this, immediately after harvesting, nuts are placed in a container with sand and cleaned in a cool place .This may be a refrigerator shelf or a basement. Experienced gardeners recommend dropping a container of nuts in the garden under the snow. There nuts are stored until spring. A week before disembarking, they get it.
It is better to start planting nuts in late February or early March .Before sowing, they are soaked in water for five days. Water is regularly changed so that it does not spoil. Nut shells should soften well. This process activates the embryo and helps the sprout to germinate faster. Planted nuts when white sprout naklyunutsya.
Virtually any soil can be used to germinate chestnuts. Nuts are planted immediately in separate containers, with a volume of 300-500 ml .The substrate is well moistened and placed in it a seed to a depth of 3-5 cm. The first shoots appear after 15-20 days.
Spring planting chestnut at home is preferable :
- Seedlings grow quickly and by the winter is quite strong.
- Saplings well tolerate the winter .
- Percentage rate is greater.
This way of growing chestnuts is less labor intensive.
When replanting seedlings in open ground
Replant young seedlings in open ground after the threat of night frost has passed. As a rule, this is the end of May.
When planting in the garden, keep in mind that chestnuts are large trees. The distance between seedlings must be at least 3 meters .Only under this condition the tree will be pleased with a dense crown, beautiful and long flowering and tasty fruits. The soil for planting fit any, but the best chernozem.
The landing pit should correspond to the seedling root system. The ground from the hole is mixed with humus and sand in the ratio 2: 1: 1 and added 500 g hydrated lime .Phosphate-potassium fertilizers are gradually added to each well. The bottom of the wells is well drained by pebbles, rubble or sand. The height of the drainage layer 10 cm.
Planting seedlings carefully, trying not to damage the taproot of the plant:
- Pour the prepared soil into the hole, moisturize well.
- Establish a sapling and sprinkle with soil.
- Rammed the ground and watered chestnut.
For better rooting of the chestnut, cover the plant for a few days with the paper bag.
Caring for chestnuts in the garden in spring and autumn
Growing a chestnut tree out of a nut is not as difficult as it seems. The main thing is to properly care for him and fence the young sapling from the winds and animals.
A young chestnut is surrounded with pegs and tied with a red ribbon .In the season of winds, the plant is tied to a support in order not to damage the fragile trunk.
Chestnut walnut grows slowly, so you should gain a lot of patience. In the second year of growing, the tree will add only 20-25 cm to .But in the fifth year, with good care, the can grow to 1.5 meters .The formation of a violent crown begins in the tenth year of life. Cropping will help stimulate the formation of a crown.
Watering a Young Chestnut
Young seedlings are watered regularly, as they have a weak root system. In the future, chestnut watered rarely. After watering, the soil must be mulched with humus or sawdust. Young trees require especially careful care.
For full fruiting the chestnut needs top dressing. They are held twice a year. :
- In the spring, the seedling is fed with a solution of urea( 15g per 10 liters of water) or mullein.
- In the fall, applied nitroammofosku( 15 g per 10 liters of water).
In addition, is regularly added to the soil by .
In the fall, young plants need shelter for the period of cold weather. With the onset of the first frost, seedlings are mulched with a thick layer of humus or dry leaves of .This will prevent the root system from freezing. Adult chestnuts do not need mulching. They are more hardy and unpretentious.
Formation of the crown
From the age of three they begin to form a beautiful crown of chestnut. In spring, the sapling is pruned to ¼ heights of .At the same time, the center conductor is shortened, and the side branches are slightly trimmed.
In the future, chestnut pruning is carried out regularly .
Difficulties in growing
Even with good care, chestnut trees are attacked by pests and diseases. This greatly complicates the cultivation of trees and can destroy all the work done.
The most commonly affected plants are :
- with mites;
- chestnut moth;
- powdery mildew.
As a preventive measure, the tree is sprayed with disinfectants twice a month.
Recognizing powdery mildew on chestnuts is easy .It manifests characteristic dark or white spots on the leaves. Phosphate fertilizers can significantly reduce the risk of infection.
Chestnut trees with edible fruits deserve attention. They are not only beautiful, but also useful. With good care, seedlings will begin to bear fruit on 7-8 year planting .To avoid mistakes when planting chestnut walnut, carefully follow the instructions and advice of experienced gardeners. Remember that at a young age chestnuts need special care.