Solid, stubbornly looking upward “scepters”, shoals of mullein, richly covered with “jewels” of large bright flowers, it is simply impossible not to notice.
And the man noticed: first - the elegant appearance of the plant, and then - the benefits they bring. And considerable, for the bees it supplies with good-quality, high-quality pollen. The health and joy of life returns to the person, the milk at the sudden disappearance of the cows( hence the traditional Russian name).
- Description and flower characteristics mullein
- main types of plants
- Useful properties and possible harm
- Influence mullein human
Description and flower characteristics mullein
as king by virtue of the majestic posture is not lost even in the thick crowd, and mullein are always on the headabove your surroundings. When it is found everywhere in the wild, it simply protrudes from the thickest grass thickets in a meadow, the edge of a forest, or in a clearing above a precipice.
Species name: the scepter is given to a plant not by chance. In view of short stalks like flower buds, the flowers appear embedded in the body of the stem. And thanks to the blunt-conical form of the flowering ear, the similarity is further enhanced. It is wider at the top, in the zone of ongoing flowering, and significantly already at the bottom, where the ovaries have already formed.
Bracts of a long-pointed form either protrude significantly above the level of buds or are equal in length to the petals.
The flowers from the mullein are large, with a diameter of 35 to 50 mm, five-petal, growing in groups of bunches, with a brilliant metallic sheen. And also with all the properties of the flowers of the Norichnikov family: with two front bare stamens, while the rear stamens have dense pubescence.
In addition to the elements of the flower( corolla, pistil and stamens), the pubescence of soft felt grayish-yellow or grayish color is characteristic of all green parts of the plant. Especially - the leaves, due to the shape and "shaggy" which plant is also called by the people "bear ear" and the fur coat.
If there are several stems, a real Taj Mahal appears with a higher( up to 120 cm) solid central stem “minaret” and slightly distant, arranged in a circle with similar “structures”.But of lesser height, with stems, the bases lying on the ground, and then rising upward smooth arc.
Stem leaves are also sessile, oval, with a tendency to increasingly sharpen the shape when approaching the top. The upper leaf blades have an edge crenated-serrate, the lower ones - with a large-toothed-serrated edge.
The main species of the plant
In addition to the mullein, a scepter( or common, or densely flowered, or tall) there are other species. On the territory of Russia grow at least 46 species, of which the most widespread:
- paniculata, or mealy.
On the same meadow you can easily find 3 or 4 species of mullein at once. And due to the unpretentiousness of the growing conditions, all of these herbaceous perennials can be successfully planted in the garden.
Blooming from July to September mullein Olympic is distinguished by its large capacity of densely branched, upright stems with numerous branches that give the plant a candelabra look.
Radical rosette - very high density due to the large number of leaves, gradually thinning higher, where they smoothly pass into the zone of bracts - "wrapper" for bright golden-yellow, medium-sized( diameter of no more than 2-3 cm) flowers.
The variety is drought tolerant, high( up to -23 ° C) frost resistance, which does not require shelter for the winter.
Kovovyak powdery type( biennial, blooming in July-August) with a height of 50-150 cm differs from the scepter with greater lightness and delicacy of the structure, relatively modest dimensions, strong branching of the stem with smaller flowers( also yellow) and due to pale gray-green pubescence strongly resembles wormwood.
For black mullein ( height 50-100-120 cm) with a general similarity of the structure, the arrow-shaped shoots are characteristic( stems are thin, straight, directed vertically upwards) with a blackish-reddish shade( hence the name) with an abundance of yellow flowerswith violet-pink pubescence of stamens. The flowering is almost uniform from top to bottom, but with the traditional “topping” of the stem from the area of compact unopened buds.
The appearance of the mullein purple differs dramatically from the previous species in the color of the whole plant in a black and violet range, single flowers, collected in a very rare brush on a not too high( not more than 1 m), almost leafless stalk.
In culture - an annual, appreciated by gardeners for their high decorative effect. Artificially derived varieties of the most diverse colors - from pure white to intense pink and violet.
Useful properties and possible harm
In order to use this kind of plants with benefit, you do not need to plant them on the site: for beekeepers to collect a high "harvest" of pollen and honey, it is enough to take out the apiary on a flowering meadow, and in case of disease cattle("Opoya" in a horse, loss of milk in a cow, cough in sheep) is enough and collected in the nature of raw materials.
The therapeutic effect of the flower is also wide. For the preparation of teas, decoctions, tinctures, the above-ground parts of the plants( mostly tops of the stems with flowers) are quickly dried in a warm shade, collected in clear dry weather.
Raw materials containing mucus-forming substances, carbohydrates, essential oils, rich in vitamin C and organic acids, are used to treat both animals and humans.
This is an area:
- cold diseases with a dry cough and difficult sputum discharge;
- inflammatory conditions of the stomach and intestines, due to their sluggish motility and motility, as well as an insufficient amount of mucus;
- cardiac pathology - alkaloids of this group of plants stimulate the activity of the heart muscle and contribute to an increase in blood pressure;
- conditions caused by an excess of water and salts in the body( edematous syndrome in case of kidney diseases and other pathologies).
Veterinary uses galenic preparations of mullein, Oriental and Violet mullein with cardiotonic effect, and in order to obtain the effects of the diuretic, cardiotonic and stimulating motility of the stomach and intestines - extracts from purple mullein.
The influence of mullein per person
The influence of mullein on human life is great and diverse. This will help his own body, and ill livestock, and create a supply of high-grade food for bee families for the whole long winter.
And this is also an incomparable aesthetic pleasure from the contemplation of beauty and the variety of shades and forms of this absolutely unpretentious kind of plants. So let them always be with the person.