Kohlrabi cabbage is particularly popular with modern gardeners. This happened due to the fact that the benefits from the use of this vegetable crop are much higher than from ordinary cabbage. On top of this, this variety can grow even inexperienced summer resident.
Table of contents
- What is kohlrabi?
- Historical FactsProtection against pests and diseases
- Harvesting and storing crops
What is kohlrabi? Kohlrabi
is a biennial food plant of the cruciferous family. Refers to the botanical variety of cabbage garden. The large leaves of the stemmer have a dark green color. The lower root part resembles a turnip. The color of the fruit depends on the variety, and may be light green and purple. This is a valuable diet product with a pleasant taste of cabbage stalk.
The first mention of Kohlrabi dates back to 1554.Homeland plants consider the eastern Mediterranean. Later, cabbage appeared in Western Europe. Delivered to Russia from Germany, from German it is translated - cabbage turnips. The Italian name is consonant - calvole rapa.
Resistance to adverse environmental conditions was a pre-determining factor for its spread throughout the world. Kohlrabi is grown in the Far East and the Far North of our country, in America, Canada, and Europe. It is popular in Asia - China, India.
Useful properties of cabbage
The unique composition of kohlrabi is determined by a record number of microelements and vitamins:
- Magnesium is necessary for nourishing heart muscles and blood vessels;
- Phosphorus stimulates the blood circulation of the brain;
- Potassium regulates the water balance in the body, normalizes the muscles and the nervous system;
- Selenium - antioxidant, strengthens the body's defenses;
- Calcium is involved in blood formation, metabolism, necessary for teeth, nails, bones;
- Iron is responsible for the level of hemoglobin in the blood, prevents the occurrence of anemia, signs of fatigue;
- Group B vitamins are considered to be a close-knit team of energy drinks, their deficiency has extremely negative consequences;
- Vitamin E - a vitamin of youth and beauty;
- Vitamin C plays an important biological role in all body systems.
In addition, this vegetable culture is rich in mineral salts and enzymes. In its composition of plant proteins, fiber, glucose, fructose. Along with this, a low calorie content of 41.8 Kcal per 100 g explains the dietary value of cabbage. Tartronic acid is present in the composition of Kohlrabi, it breaks down carbohydrates, preventing them from becoming fat.
Regular use of Kohlrabi is recommended for such problems as:
- appearance of edema;
- high cholesterol;
- pulmonary tuberculosis;
- diseases of the upper respiratory tract - asthma, bronchitis and others;
- diseases of the gastrointestinal tract associated with low acidity of gastric juice.
. Cultivation from
seeds. Kohlrabi is grown by sowing seeds in open ground and seedlings. In the middle zone of the Russian Federation, the latter method is recommended for obtaining early harvest. Grow seedlings at home in boxes or in greenhouses.
Dates for sowing seeds
Experts recommend three terms for sowing seeds. For early harvest, sowing of seeds for seedlings is carried out in the second decade of March. Crop harvested in the first decade of June. For the crop to ripen at the end of July, seeds are sown in seedlings in early May. The third term - at the end of June, sowing seeds in open ground, harvesting in early October.
Sowing seeds and caring for seedlings
To obtain high-quality seedlings, they are prepared for seed sowing. The first stage consists in heat treatment in hot water for 10–15 minutes, followed by immersion in cold water. The second stage is soaking the seeds overnight in a solution with microelements. The third - after washing the seeds are placed in the refrigerator for 24 hours. You need to wait until the seeds are covered in a damp cloth.
Next, individual containers or cassettes are filled with garden soil. Seeds are sown one per pot. This method allows you to do without picks, which damages the root system of the seedlings. Crops are covered with a film. Temperature should be within + 20-22 degrees. After the emergence of shoots, the film should be removed, and the temperature should be lowered to +10 degrees. After 12-14 days, the temperature set + 16-20 degrees.
Seedlings care consists of the following measures:
- maintain the necessary temperature in the room so that the seedlings do not stretch out;
- to carry out the prevention of the "black leg" pink solution of potassium permanganate;
- to feed the plants in the phase of two leaves with microelements and complex mineral fertilizer.
Pike is needed if the seeds have been sown in a common container. Then it is necessary to plant the plants in the phase of one true leaf in peat pots.
For deciduous seedlings, they maintain a temperature of + 18 degrees during the day and + 10 at night. Hardening of the plants should be carried out several days before disembarking to a permanent place. Since the cold trigger the appearance of arrows, no need to rush to plant seedlings.
How and when to plant seedlings in open ground
Solar patches are selected for the beds. Culture can be grown as a compactor with other vegetables, herbs.
Soil for planting
Kohlrabi is not demanding on the composition of the soil, but hard fruits grow on acidic, non-fertilized beds. In the autumn, the site should be prepared for digging by adding organic matter, ash, urea and superphosphate.
The amount of fertilizer applied will depend on the composition of the soil. If necessary, lime is added. Early spring, the soil is dug, loosened. When digging, ammonium nitrate is added at 15 g per 1 m2.
Rules and time of landing
For work, choose gloomy day or evening. Planting seedlings in open ground is possible when the plant has 5-6 leaves possible. To plant bushes need to respect the distance between the rows of 60 cm, between seedlings of 25 cm. The distance is adjusted depending on the variety. It may be somewhat less in early-ripening varieties. Most of the Kohlrabi varieties are early maturing, maturing 65 - 70 days. Late growing season has 120 days or more.
When planting seedlings can not be deeply buried in the ground because the formation of stebleplod can be disturbed. After planting, the plants should be well watered and mulched.
In parallel, they are sowing seeds for seedlings of the second crop; they will need to be planted in the second decade of June.
Kohlrabi seeds can be sown in open ground in early May. In order to harvest the fresh fruits of the cabbage for the entire season, seeds are sown twice more with an interval of 20-30 days.
Sowing is done to a depth of 15-20 mm according to the scheme 4 * 50 cm. After the appearance of this leaf, thin the seedlings. Ultimately, the distance between plants should be at least 20 cm.
Care for kohlrabi in open ground
Fruits form when the plant has 7-8 leaves. They quickly gain mass. Care in the beds is the timely weeding, loosening between the rows and hilling stelplod.
During the growing season, root-feeding with complex fertilizer with microelements should be carried out twice. If necessary, do foliar spraying of a solution at the rate of 20 g of urea and potassium sulfate in a bucket of water.
Protection against pests and diseases
Cruciferous are susceptible to diseases and are affected by pests. Kohlrabi suffers from them somewhat less, but can be affected by bacteriosis, kilo, powdery mildew, dry rot, mosaic, black leg. This will not happen if preventive measures are taken on time:
- comply with the agrotechnical rules of care;
- use tested and prepared seeds, with heating and disinfection with special preparations or potassium permanganate solution;
- clean and burn crop residues after harvesting with deep digging of the soil;
- systematically remove weeds;
- choose varieties with disease resistance.
There are quite a lot of insects, cabbage pests: cruciferous fleas, wireworms, shovels, slugs, bear, cabbage whitefish, aphid and others.
Prophylaxis is also important here. In addition to the above measures, one of the main ones is the implementation of the rule on crop rotation.
In the event of disease and insect damage, treatment of plants with fungicides and insecticides is necessary. Their range is quite wide in the current market. However, the harm of chemical drugs is not questioned. It is best to comply with agricultural practices and use harmless folk methods.
Harvesting and storage of the crop
Kohlrabi is quite cold-resistant culture. For winter storage, it is removed in late September, early October, when the temperature begins to drop to zero degrees. Harvesting is carried out on a sunny day.
As already known, three crops can be harvested for the garden season. The first two are harvested selectively, avoiding overgrowth of cabbage over 8 cm. With a larger diameter and weight over 100 g, it coarsens, loses its taste. Shelf life 3 days under normal conditions, up to one month in the refrigerator.
In order to competently ensure the winter storage of cabbage, we recall the following rules:
- purple fruit colors are most suitable for storage;
- roots are pulled out, shaken off the ground or wiped with a rag, do not wash;
- leaves are pruned, leaving 15 mm tips;
- choose to store healthy, whole fruits;
- placed in a cellar in boxes, sprinkled with sand.
The optimum storage conditions are to maintain a humidity of 95% and a temperature between 0 degrees and +5.
Many gardeners are biased towards kohlrabi, considering it an overseas culture. However, when performing simple agrotechnical rules, this type of cabbage grows well in the Russian dacha. Due to its composition and beneficial properties, Kohlrabi will provide your family with essential vitamins and trace elements for the whole winter!