Norms of illumination - a set of rules to ensure compliance with the locations the general requirements for the organization of human activity conditions for equipment places light sources. The main acts regulating the issue under consideration in the home and at work, and began to snip 23-05-95 SanPiN 2.2.1 / 220.127.116.118.
Terms and Definitions
This region refers to the section of sanitary conditions and defined as the state of the environment in the area of human activity. Requirements vary and depend on the destination workstation. For example, in the archives of the muted light, and in the workplace should be the resolution of the eye is not experiencing difficulties due to lack of photons. Norms of illumination described is not every textbook, but are present in the common requirements for the organization of working conditions. Such an approach is due to the inability of the transactions in total darkness.
Lighting called measures taken by the people to convert various types of energy into photons of visible light spectrum.
Sometimes the term is called the lighting equipment in the complex and individual components. Retrofitting buildings made with the aim of reducing accidents and preventing occupational diseases. According to forming the necessary conditions sources of coverage is divided into:
- Natural. It creates a natural source, the Sun:
- Skylights in the roof.
Natural sources of light fade as glass contamination. Every six months the windows and lights should be cleaned. Floors and ceilings recommended white to provide better reflects the capacity of the surface.
The main feature of the Sun is considered to be the fact: the level of illumination produced by them is highly dependent on the weather, time of year, day, and so forth. The use of some windows is not possible to achieve uniform conditions throughout the area of the premises.
Because of the variability of conditions it is difficult to measure the result of a photometer, which depends on these factors. Therefore, the efficiency of windows characterize the coefficient of natural illumination, showing how many times illumination horizontal plane outside higher than specifically taken on section premises. The value is expressed in percentage.
Techniques for calculating given in the standards mentioned above. In a side-lighting settings are for points separated by 1 meter from the farthest wall. Parameter is computed at the intersection of an imaginary vertical plane and the surface of a workplace. If the windows are located on both sides of the room, taken a point on the central axis.
Electrical energy is used without any restrictions. These include fire and photoluminescence. Artificial lighting can be divided (additional fixtures are placed according to the location of jobs) to the total (whole territory) and combined. Use only local coverage is allowed.
Lamp - electric (usually) the unit consisting of the armature and the light source.
Devices are placed according to the rational use of electricity. In this regard, the general lighting is able to evenly cover the entire ceiling or localized by region. The first is used in the high density of jobs, it is not possible to allocate a major portion of the hall (the shop). Localized lighting presented table lamps and so on.
90% of the flow is created by local illumination. The natural and common components accounted for 10%. In addition, the artificial lighting to classify as intended:
- Working. Directly involved in the creation of the product.
- House. Present on the ground only for the purposes of movement of personnel on the premises after hours.
- Security. The need for videofiksatsii happening and direct control of the territory allocated for this services.
- Emergency. Used in case of failure of the primary system detects an autonomous power supply system.
- Escape. It differs from the emergency requirements for minimum luminance - more than 0.5 lux on the floor level, 0.2 lux - street space.
Emergency and evacuation lighting is different in color from the desktop if the following signaling requirement of the danger or the need to perform certain actions. Lamps to classify by design:
- Headlamps direct light for more than 80% of the flow is directed downwards. This is achieved by installing reflectors.
- Scattered light fixtures are often used in bars, restaurants. This lamp emitting upward, downward, but not laterally, or having turbid lampshade.
- Fixtures reflected light the entire stream is directed at the ceiling. It requires a good reflectivity, which is rare, as, indeed, and devices.
The lighting in the workroom
Sources of light
Incandescent lamps go out of fashion, as Edison had warned as early as the end of XIX century: the light is too dim, too hot and too red. To date, in many countries, such sources are prohibited, while others put a limit on the maximum power. This is due to energy-saving requirements, is up to 10 times at the time of the tenth years of the XXI century.
Good energy performance achieved discharge lamps in the 30-ies of XX century. But the colors are so disgusting that decided not to introduce the product into use. Over the years, range adjusted using a specific phosphor. Sometimes at the same time it managed to increase efficiency. For example, a fluorescent mercury discharge lamps emit in the invisible ultraviolet region of the spectrum, which is then converted to the familiar "day" light. It is clear that the first would be used only in artificial tanning.
Discharge lamps are different in construction. Rarely where now using pure plasma glow. There are lamps with color correction, totally fluorescent. In both cases, the spectrum correcting means are phosphors. In Western countries by the beginning of the XXI century discharge lamps the lion's share of the segment.
LED lamps appeared in the second decade of the XXI century, and quickly began to displace other sources. This is caused not only unpretentiousness products and more profitable from an economic point of view, but also durability.
LED and gas-discharge lamps are characterized by a negative trait. We are talking about the flicker caused by the stroboscopic effect: the duality of moving, in particular rotating, objects. This is due to substandard work drivers: in order to maintain the supply voltage special wiring diagrams are used. From the current ripple occurs inhomogeneity factors energy supply source, leading to a similar result.
Flicker unhealthy. However, the luminosity and color in the latest excellent light sources, achieved high performance.
Physical and performance characteristics
It is believed that the light does not hit in the eye, so the devices have a shade or reflector is a special form. cutoff angle under the horizontal plane ranges between 15 - 30 degrees. The smaller the value, the lower will be installed at the plan developer. In addition, some lamps have a protective version, up to an insulated explosion proof enclosure.
Usually you need to pay attention to the isolation from the atmosphere premises LED lamps. To successfully run the cooling in the housing small hole leading directly into the flask. It turns out the avalanche effect: the night light is needed, flying insects at night. Turn on the light - the insects are stuffed inside. Vicious circle. Scrub bulb LED bulbs do not have opportunities.
Loopholes for insects
The filament is not for nothing called hot. Already after a few minutes of work before the bulb can not be touched by hand. A similar states of discharge devices. LED distinguishes the fact that even after hours of operation of the product temperature is not very different from the environment. It seems incredible, but the hand is easy to tolerate touching the bulb.
photometric parameters used for calculating the quality of the equipment. In this branch of science, as a rule, it operates with a point source, which often closely matches the reality. It is assumed that the radiation is carried out in all directions. But transferred unevenly. Selected portions are illuminated to a greater extent. Therefore, the light output is characterized watt-borne surface.
It turns out that the value is inconvenient, because the spherical shape of the front. Then agreed to enter the solid angle. This abstract value, equals the ratio of the area cut off by the cone to the square of the ball radius. Unit formula dimensionless out, it is denoted by sr (steradian). With the same aperture angle of view solid angle is the same for all the balls of arbitrary diameter. According to the definition given by the formula:
"1 steradian - a solid angle that cuts on the surface area of the sphere, equal to its radius, the second elevated degree".
According to this interpretation, any sphere indicates an area of 4 pi sr. To make the directional characteristics of power used by the luminous intensity. It shows the power of the radiation, enclosed within the unit solid angle. Light intensity is measured in candelas (as usual - candles). Characteristic for most people does not mean anything, because the spherical segment area covered by the solid angle curved.
Light intensity was one of six units in the SI system, through which the other expressed. Determination of a point source is also given through the power of light - expected the same in all directions. Sometimes finding the average value - full power of the source, divided into 4 Pi.
The power flow is expressed in lumens and the luminous intensity is calculated by multiplying the magnitude of the solid angle under consideration. For lighting often provides full luminous flux contained inside the sphere. Typically, the light bulb radiation is strongly differentiated, with emphasis on the lower hemisphere. The technical data are added by the cutoff angle of the light flux measured in degrees. Translate it in steradians is not difficult. Possible use to speed up the process of online calculators.
Determination of illumination
Expressed in lumens light output can not be used directly by all standards operate it with illumination. To find this value divided in lumens per surface area. It is more difficult to find the first.
Lighting norm defines the table of standards and expressed in lux. Recommendation is acceptable to find the numbers that are held without excessive rigor. To control settings using special equipment - photometers. The resulting value is compared with the standard.
light Standards are set, based on the physiological requirements of the human body simultaneously with the due quality of the work. During the execution of regulations should state authorities. If illumination is too small, come from more powerful sources.