How to make a grounding in a private house
A growing number of different electrical appliances serve us to facilitate our work and life. The load on the electric network is almost always the maximum, even in the most impoverished village. A constantly turned on TV, a frequently used washing machine, a dishwasher every day works and does not turn off, not to mention various sources of lighting, irons, vacuum cleaners and computers. Safety in the operation of electrical appliances almost always suffers, and RCD protection devices fail to work on time due to the absence of a ground loop in the private house. How to make a grounding in a private house, this article will tell..
Competently and practically free to make grounding in a private home can any homeowner. Work on its design is quite simple and does not require special knowledge. The power supervision can check the earthing circuit once in a hundred years and practically does not pay attention to the safety of homeowners. It is enough that you will have a guarantee to avoid electric shock yourself.
So, what do we need to know first? This is what it must be done according to clearly regulated instructions. She tells us how to make the grounding of a private house according to the Rules of the device Electrical installations, Safety rules for electrical installations and Rules of operation technique electrical installations. According to these documents, the grounding loop of a private house must be checked for resistance immediately after manufacture, and its value should not exceed 4 ohms. And no one can forbid you to make a ground loop in your private house on your own, rather than overpay money to specialists from outside companies.
All pluses of the ground loop:
- absence of accidental voltage on the housings of household appliances;
- compliance with the norms of operation of electrical appliances, which increases their service life;
- safe human contact with the metal case of devices;
- significant reduction in the harmful effect on the human body of electromagnetic radiation;
- a reduction in the level of interference in the private house network, arising from voltage surges;
- reduction in the number of deaths from electric shock.
Making the ground loop
So, how to make a ground loop? The simplest earthing loop in a private house can be made of three or four metal rods of arbitrary diameter (10-45 mm). They are hammered into the ground in the form of an equilateral triangle or square with a side length of at least, m and a depth of 2 m. The details of the contour between themselves are usually connected by welding to a metal strip of 4x25 mm section, or larger. The upper edges of the contour connected to each other and a metal tire inserted into a private house are called metal bonding. Resistance of metal connection should not be more, Ohm. It is measured from the mechanical connection on the grounding bar to the last, farthest element of the ground loop.
The location for the installation of the ground loop is usually chosen based on the closest location to the shield accounting and most sources of increased danger - electrical appliances, that is, near the kitchen of private at home. Inside the private house, the earthing loop is wound up using a metal strip that fits the electricity billboard. With the registration board, the earthing circuit is connected by a copper wire 6-10 mm in diameter, having a yellow envelope with green longitudinal strip and bolted nut to the bolt welded to the metal bar, diameter more 10 mm.
Make a ground loop for your apartment is almost impossible, living in a multi-storey building. Many very literate people in all respects try to replace the ground with a zero wire. This is very dangerous for two reasons:
- if, as a result of an emergency, zero disappears in the house, all the buildings will be under high voltage;
- with uneven distribution of the load to the phases and when landing on the neutral wire instead of the ground, metal housings of household appliances there is potential, that is a life-threatening difference stresses.
Instead of a self-made grounding of a private house, you can purchase a ready-made ground loop made at the factory. It is worth a lot of money because of the quality production of metal rods, with a galvanic coating of a thin layer of copper.
We caution everyone against the desire to make a ground loop by connecting a metal wire with water pipes or pipes of the heating system - this is prohibited by paragraph 1.7.110 of the Device Regulations electrical installations. Often such experiments end in human victims - electricity does not like joking. In the event of breakdown of the insulation of the wires, instead of the earth, the current discharge falls on the water pipe and on the current a jet of water can cause an electric shock to people who take carefree shower in the nearby house.
All contacting elements of the grounding loop, led out to the outside of the private house and having among themselves a mechanical connection, must be connected through prepared contact pads. Since metals have different electrochemical activity, a galvanic pair is created between them in wet weather, leading to corrosion.
Corrosion in this case can spread even under the sheath of the ground wire conducted in the house from the bus contour.
To prevent this phenomenon, all mechanical connections are connected to contact pads, cleaned to shine and lubricated with electrical grease of a special consistency.
It is strictly forbidden to connect several electrical appliances in series with the grounding loop of the house. Each of them must be connected to a separate ground busbar.
From all of the above, it follows that the independent manufacture and installation of a ground loop in a private house is quite under the power to do to any person who wants to protect himself and his family from emergencies and human victims..