With the onset of cold weather, we begin to lack the rich colors of nature and the rustling of leaves in the wind. Some gardeners in this case grow decorative pepper at home. The green hat dotted with colorful fruits on the window sill contrasts with the winter landscape , great mood.
Table of Contents
- What is a decorative pepper?
- Can I have a decorative pepper?
- most popular varieties
- Black Pearl
- planting rules in the home
- Care and cultivation of plants
- Stimulating flowering and fruiting
- Diseases and pests, combating them
What ornamental peppers?
Kapsikum is the botanical name for pepper. It is also called Pepper or Capsicum. These are unpretentious, annuals and perennial shrubs and semi-shrubs of the Solanaceae family. He comes from the subtropics of Central America.
Capsicum cultivated worldwide as an ornamental or vegetable crop. Varieties are divided into sweet and bitter. The latter contain an increased amount of capsacin alkaloid. The Aztecs used this substance as a chemical weapon. It gives the pepper a burning taste. The highest amount of capsacin is found in fruits, especially in cayenne pepper.
Decorative called compact, branched varieties high in 20-40 cm, with dense foliage and abundance of fruits. Grow them in indoor conditions, in pots. In the summer it is not a sin to take it out to the balcony or to the garden, or to plant it in the open ground. Before the onset of cold weather, pepper can be transplanted back into the pot.
Can I have a decorative pepper?
The fruit of Kapsikum is a false false hollow seed box, often eaten as a spice. The word box in Latin means capsa, hence the Latin name of the plant - Capsicum. The shape of the fruit, its color, size and its position on the plant may differ depending on the variety. The fruits of some ornamental varieties may be inedible. Plant leaf, greens, and plant roots are toxic, like all stems.
The most popular varieties of
Many varieties have been developed, the most popular of which are:
Pepper classics. Serves as the main ingredient for the famous sauce. Fruits are about 5 long cm, they are collected in bundles and stick up. Their color varies from orange to red.
Wild variety with especially hot red fruits, round shaped , the size of a bean. Used by cowboys as a stimulant. From here and the slang name Cowboy berry.
Abundantly fruiting, spreading shrubs 30-40 in height cm with variegated leaves. When ripe, the fruits change color from green to purple and red.
Unusual variety. As it grows, the plant changes its color from green to almost black. Fruits are also black, spherical, small in size, redden as they mature.
Fine pepper, littered with elongated, moderately spicy fruits. They stick up, resembling the tentacles of a jellyfish.
The tiniest shrub variety. Great for indoor growing at home. Bush reaches a height of 15-20 , see Orange peppers.
Inedible Pepper, is grown to decorate interiors. Fruits are yellow.
Home Planting Regulations
There are general planting rules for peppers. It is propagated by seeds, which are taken from ripe fruit. They can be sown at any time of the year. Seeds are pre-soaked for several hours in water. For germination, you can use a damp cloth or gauze. With the advent of roots, seeds are placed in the ground to a depth of 0.5-1 cm. Also, seeds can be planted immediately after soaking.
The substrate must be loose, breathable and nutritious, must have a neutral reaction. A mix for Saintpaulia or on the basis of peat with sand will fit. Drainage required. For successful germination, the soil must be moist all the time, but not wet.
Air temperature around 20-25 ° C.On a cold window sill, put a wooden plank under the pot, thick logs will do. With the emergence of shoots, at the time with a short day of light, it is highly desirable to provide additional lighting with fluorescent or phytolamps. When the shoots reach the height of 5-6 , they can be planted in separate pots of the appropriate sizes.
If this is not done, the plants can grow weak and produce less fruit. The film can no longer be worn. As they grow, peppers roll into larger pots. In spring and summer, they can be planted in open ground, and after rooting, pinned. This is done for better branching bush.
Care and cultivation of the plant
In order for the plant to develop properly, be healthy, please the eye with its appearance and abundance of fruits, it will require a little care. It consists in creating and maintaining favorable conditions.
- Lighting .Kapsikum prefers bright, diffused light. It is necessary for setting fruit. Perfectly fit western or eastern windows. On the south side, on sunny days from 11 to 16 hours, or if the plant grows outside, you should provide shading. On the north side, as well as in winter, light exposure is required. Otherwise, the plant can stretch out and lose its decorative effect.
- . Temperature .Moderate, during the growing season 15-25 ° C.In winter, with a lack of lighting, preferably about 15 ° C to slow growth. It can withstand a decrease to 10 ° C.Afraid of drafts, in the heat drawn out.
- Watering .In the summer and during the flowering period, you need to water frequently, 3-4 times a week. If the plant is standing in the sun, then more often. The soil should not dry out. During fruit ripening, soil is slightly reduced. If cool( 10-15 ° C), watered once a week.
- Humidity .It is undemanding to humidity. Spray 1-2 times a week, which after flowering promotes the formation of fruits.
- Top dressing .From April to September, 1 time in 2 weeks with liquid, complex fertilizers. After the fruit ovary, the feeding is stopped.
Stimulation of flowering and fruiting
A healthy, strong plant that blooms in summer with whitish, inconspicuous flowers. Stimulate flowering can hormonal drugs, growth regulators. Fruits are tied without cross-pollination, but transferring pollen with a soft brush from one flower to another will increase the number of ovaries. After the ovary, shoots pinch on half the length. It enhances fruiting.
Diseases and pests, fight against them
Pepper is unpretentious, but with improper care, even with it, difficulties may arise. A weakened plant is affected by spider mites, aphids, a powdery mildew whitefly, downy mildew, and a black leg. Insecticide insecticides are used. Protect fungicides from diseases.
If you bring a plant from the street into the room, due to a sudden change in lighting, it may start dropping the leaves. What also happens from hot, dry air or excessive watering. The leaves may shrink, turn pale, the plant does not bloom from lack of nutrition.
In general, Kapsikum is an amazing plant, useful and beautiful in its own way. Requires Mexican minimal care, and to observe its metamorphosis is interesting and informative. Under favorable conditions, he will delight you with himself for up to 5 years.