It is difficult to imagine a private home or cottage with self-contained water supply and sanitation? You agree that well arranged home ownership many times more comfortable to live in, rather than building, devoid of all amenities. But you do not know what should be the proper drainage of a country house or villa?
We will help you to deal with this issue - in the article the popular schemes and options for everything the sewer system. The stages of planning - ideally sewers lay still at the design stage of the building, but sometimes there is a need to replace old communications.
By the material chosen scheme and photo of the arrangement sewage drainage system, as well as videorekomendatsii for proper installation of pipes, ventilation apparatus proper sewer and system.
The content of the article:
- How does the drainage of a private house?
- Selection of materials for decorating system
- Internal drainage of a private house
- Arrangement outer drainage system
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
How does the drainage of a private house?
"Outhouse" can meet only in the case when it comes to their summer cottage without running water, where the owners appear rarely and briefly.
Work on the improvement of a residential building in the first place involve installation of water supply and sewerage. Their design simultaneously. If the water is already connected, the sewers "adjust" under the existing network.
When choosing a residential sewerage schemes errors house should not be. Incorrectly assembled network will not work, or if its operation will have problems (+)
local sewerage project for a country house should be as simple as possible to minimize the number of mistakes that are possible during assembly.
you can develop a scheme of their own, based on the drawings on the Internet. A complex project it is better left to professionals.
Simple drainage of a private house consists of standard elements: pipes connected to plumbing items, riser, external piping and the storage or treatment plant, in which merge all the wastewater from the house.
When choosing the location of inspection chambers and sewage treatment plants, as well as the choice of the depth of the trenches should be carefully adhere to the SNIP, regulatory documents (+)
In the development of the sewerage system plan guided by several principles:
- The one-story house next to reasonably accommodate the room in which installed plumbing items (kitchen, bathroom, toilet).
- Blocks with plumbing better positioned close to the point of withdrawal of the pipes into the street.
- The two- or three-storey residential building with plumbing facilities planning one above the other, to connect all the equipment to a common riser.
- Scheme domestic sewage at home should be designed so that the number of connections to a minimum. This has a positive impact on the efficiency of the sewerage system and the likelihood of blockages and problems will decrease. The main rule: simple - reliable.
- Sometimes the layout of the house is such that it is necessary to develop a complex communication scheme. The alternative - the installation of a few simple systems with separate external pipelines and treatment facilities.
There is a house where you want to use in the drainage system sewage pumping station . In such cases it is better not to save on engineering and design and installation of complex sewage country house to professionals.
Standard assenizatorskaya hose - 25 m if the distance from the car to the treatment plant will be more wastewater will have to pump the vacuum pump, which will cost more.
several important factors to consider when developing sanitation projects:
- Circuit arrangement of the water supply system. It can operate from a private waterworks (wells or wells with pump) or a centralized network.
- The number and type of plumbing fixturesThat will be installed, as well as how much each of them an average consumption of water.
- The distance from the house to the septic tank, Volume and number of chambers, the overall length of the pipeline.
- The purification process drive, the presence / absence of access roads to assenizatorskaya machinery.
- Climate and hydrological features of the area: The level of soil freezing, GWL, the relief area.
In the design process takes into account all the nuances: sewage wiring (internal and external), the type and quantity of materials, turns, junctions and connections.
If the local sewerage scheme provides for the installation of additional equipment (pumps, compressors or aerators for septic tanks), the location of the device is also referred to drawings.
In the selection of suitable construction of a septic tank should be pre-calculate the frequency and cost of its purification. Volume assenizatorskaya machines - 4-13 cubic meters. The type of necessary equipment directly determines the price of recycling waste
During project development, there may be some difficulties associated with hydrogeological features and terrain.
In particular, the selection of variants of clearing point for the independent sewer network is selected based on hydrological and geological conditions:
In areas with a high groundwater mirror rocks and clay at a depth of canalization device sealed satisfied cesspools or mounted storage tanks, which need at least filling and pumped to remove waste water assenizatorskaya car
Much faster and easier to installing a plastic storage container - an improved version of the sump. In the case of high mirror ground water during flooding, plastic tanks anchor
If the depth of the bottom of the septic tank arrangement unsealed rocks with good filtration properties (sand, gravel, pebbles) constructing a two-chamber septic tank. At its first tight chamber bottom, at the bottom instead of the second precoat filter through which the supernatant in the septic tank water disposed in the ground
The three-chamber septic tank first two compartments do with a straight bottom, ground filter is satisfied only in the third well. The more cameras in the septic tank above the purification of waste water
An excellent alternative to the cesspool and septic tanks of concrete rings will be ready concrete structure, which is simply placed in a pit dug in advance. By analogy we can fill in a septic tank on site, erecting the formwork for pouring
For soils with good filtration qualities suitable polymer septic tank factory performance. Purify they only 60-75%, however for recycling them in the purified water is required in the post-treatment of the absorbent sump or filter box
Station of deep biological treatment can be placed in areas with any geological and hydrogeological conditions. Clears it to 93-97%, purified water in it can be discharged directly to the terrain, use in irrigation and clean-up
Sewer station - the safest in environmental terms of equipment, it can be placed next to the foundation. Less options: volatility, high price and maintenance of roads
Cesspool of concrete rings
Plastic container for collecting waste
Homemade two-chamber septic tank of the rings
The three-chamber septic system of w / w rings
Concrete construction prefabrication
Apparatus for anaerobic treatment
deep biological treatment plant
Location near the station foundation
Paving sloped conduit to sewage moved by gravity. It is difficult in a complex landscape. In such cases, a more carefully selected location for a septic tank, or put pumps for pumping unclean .
According to standards, the tube below the level of paving ground freezing. The depth of the hole may reach 1.5 m, and in some regions - 1.8 m
Depending on the type of soil design aftertreatment system for septic tanks. This field may be absorbent or filtering wells. The first should be used on sandy soils, and the second - on clay and loam.
To choose the type, material septic tank, especially its installation also affects the level of groundwater.
In areas with sandy slit for purification of the treated water in septic tanks constructing absorbent wells. In this construction there is no conventional bottom stead backfilled with sand and gravel, which perform additional cleaning prior to discharge of waste water into the underlying ground
At high occurrence of ground water with a characteristic increase in GWL flood period, constructing the filter box. Between its bottom and conditional groundwater mirror thickness must be ground at least 1 m. The same rule is observed at the device absorbing wells
Improved embodiment filtration system field is collected from the group Infiltrator. Both options have a minus - the allocation of a large area under the device
If you can not reset the purified water into the ground due to its low filtration qualities, its conclusions in the gutter or similar body of water, located outside the area
The absorbent sump for water discharge
filter box for additional effluent treatment
Assembly and installation tapes Infiltrator
Resetting of purified water into the gutter
Selection of materials for decorating system
Most homeowners choose pipes made of synthetic materials. They are suitable for both internal and for external wiring.
This robust products that are resistant to corrosion. If a strong mechanical impact they are able to deform, but rarely give a crack.
On the smooth inner walls of the sewer PVC pipe and HDPE accumulate less fat than on the metal surfaces. Because of this highway is less susceptible to clogging.
Articles made from polymers are resistant to acids and alkalis. Reactive drains do not harm the pipes, which has a positive impact on their life. Also, polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride tolerate high temperatures (up to 60-100 ° C).
Conduits polymers are environmentally friendly. Upon heating the materials do not emit toxic substances into the atmosphere, water or the soil
For the installation of the pipeline required connection parts, bends, fittings. It was convenient to examine and repair the sewer, you need to take care of audit presence niches, manhole and hatches them.
It is also necessary to find a suitable sealant for treatment of joints. It is best to give preference to special silicone composition with antiseptic additives.
When planning your bathroom fixtures need to take care of connections to the toilet was a bit lower than other devices, and close to the riser
For internal sewer system pipes of different diameters are chosen depending on the size santehpriborov nozzles.
riser tube typically has a diameter of 100 mm. When planning its location into account that the plumbing should be located at a distance of no more than 3 m.
The riser typically is mounted in a bathroom, because distance to the toilet bowl should be no more than 1 m. If it is impossible to arrange the elements of the system at such distances, install a larger pipe diameter.
Internal drainage of a private house
In developing the sewerage project must be calculated the right slope angle. It should be 2-15 cm by 1 m.
Land with turns conduit think through 90 ° so as to use the knee 2-3 which set under 30-45 °. This is necessary to avoid the accumulation of impurities in the knees and blockages.
Sewer pipes and risers often camouflage decorative boxes. To prevent occurrence of noise during operation of the system, its insulated with mineral wool or other suitable materials.
Drainage system of constructing a private home without fail, if the object is equipped by water system
In view of the small load systems, much lower than in high-rise buildings as diverting branches and risers systems are assembled from plastic pipes: Sewer PP and PVC plumbing
A strong advantage of polymer pipes is extremely simple and rapid assembly, which is achieved thanks to the material adaptability, as well as the presence of fittings for all types of connections, and the compounds
Polymer pipes are paving both open and hidden way. Easier and faster in the implementation of communications plasterboard lining after installation
Taps sewer system is more convenient and reasonable place in the ceiling. For this purpose, suitable and concrete substrates and wood flooring, among the elements which can be positioned conduit
All kinds of plumbing, familiar to city dwellers can be installed in a private house that is connected to a centralized network or equipped with stand-alone systems
Connection to the sewer system is made by the general for all residential and industrial rules, regulated SNIP 2.04.01-85 and updated version of the SP 30.13330.2012
For normal operation of the system being built, the purchase of materials in the required quantities and to reduce unnecessary costs before proceeding to make the project or at least to chart
Interconnected communications systems
The apparatus of sewer pipes polypropylene
Vodorozetok location on the wall
Cladding walls with pipes plasterboard
Pouring concrete screed on sewage
Using the plumbing in a private home
Flexi hose connection to the sewer issue
The construction system according to the project
sewer pipes connected to santehpriborov via siphons with water seal. They prevent the air flow from the sewers into the room.
These devices can be made of metal or plastic. When choosing a better focus on the material of sewage pipes. If they are polymeric, it is advisable to install plastic siphons.
Some santehpriborov originally equipped with siphon and into the toilet, he provided design. If the sink or bathtub sold without siphons, they are purchased separately
Waste may be corrugated, having bottled or tubular shape. Innovative development - dry fermentation lock.
corrugated siphons the cheapest. They are easy to install and maintain, resistant to aggressive chemicals. However, their undesirable connected to the shells, which often is poured hot liquid.
Bottle traps shaped like a flask. This can be both an advantage and a disadvantage, because at the bottom of the device accumulate objects. If you drop a ring or a valuable item, it is easy to remove in the sink. On the other hand, because such a shape can be formed in the trap clogs.
pipe siphons are U-shaped. At the lowest point of the siphon may also accumulate solids. They are removed by a special knee.
The water seal apparatus small amount of water, so it can evaporate and cease to protect the smell sanitation.
dry siphons. They dry out after the water is discharged into the sewer. Devices are equipped with an elastic membrane that prevents ingress of air from the pipes in the room. This siphon cost more than less technologically advanced counterparts, but to him there is no problem of evaporation of water from the water trap.
With all the advantages of corrugated siphons sensitive to high temperatures, rapidly deform and fail, so if possible better to use other models
The upper part of the riser output on the roof. It is not sealed, but good cover from rain and dirt. This is necessary, because at the moment of release of water in the system creates a negative pressure, and air can squeeze into the room.
An alternative might be the installation of aeration valve which passes air but protects the building against the sewer stench.
Arrangement outer drainage system
In the basement under the floor or internal sewerage riser joints with external pipeline. It is important to minimize the number of angles and bends.
outdoor sewerage project develop so that up to a septic tank as close as possible, and the pipe section was straight. With regard to the pipe material, the choice in favor of the polymers is rational.
Installation of external sewage country house - time-consuming process, as it linked to laying pipeline in the ground.
It is necessary to dig a trench to a depth below the level of soil freezing. Bottom wells tamped, poured sand bed, on top of which are placed under the pipes slope of 2-3%.
If possible the biting cold, the pipes, conducted under the ground and in unheated areas of the house, insulated heat-insulating material
Wastewater from sewage pipes enter the storage or storage-treatment facilities. It can be cesspools or septic tanks. Homeowners are increasingly stopped choice on autonomous biological treatment plant.
Each of these structures has its own advantages and should select, focusing on the needs of the family, the amount of sewage and a scheduled cleaning frequency.
Cesspool it is advisable to build a cottage or country house sewer, which set the minimum number of plumbing items.
The most easy to implement variant of the concrete rings, for which construction is carried out several standard steps:
For the construction of the sump acquire concrete rings with regard to the amount collected from these mines was 1/3 of longer discharge water for 2 - 10 days. The calculations take into account the average consumption per person of 250 l / day
For device sump find the most suitable place. It must be removed for at least 5 m from the base, at 25 meters from the auxiliary water intake at 2 m from the adjacent portion
To build the concrete shaft pit design. More convenient and faster than him dig excavator
Tamped and leveled at the bottom of the excavation start set ring sealed bottom cast
Before treatment each subsequent ring on the end of the previous solution impose on the inner side of chamfer laid cord impregnated with bitumen as a sealant
On top ring after applying an overlap of the solution is adjusted with an aperture to which is attached the neck
The junction of the neck and overlapping first wrap impregnated cord for sealing, then processed with a solution so that the roll formed around it in height and 5 cm
To pump discharged into a cesspool sewage arrange the hatch. Then fill the pit with a cesspool rolled away in the development of soil excavation
Step 1: Purchase the calculated number of concrete rings
Step 2: Selecting the device under pit
Step 3: Development of the excavation for the installation of the mine
Step 4: Set the starting element with a sealed bottom
Step 5: Assembling concrete sump barrel
Step 6: Laying overlap with an opening for the neck
Step 7: Setting neck ring cesspool
Apparatus hatch sump for pumping
A significant advantage of pit pit of concrete rings - the relative cheapness. However, the construction needs to be pumped out frequently, and this extra expense while in service.
During the construction of a cesspool or septic tank sealed cumulative sense mount a check valveTo prevent the flow of sewage from overflowing sewage construction in the house. The valve will also protect from rodents that can get through the pipes into the building.
Good solution - installing two- or three-chamber septic tank. In such a construction of sewage settles, purified and filtered. Water output relatively clean and safe for the environment. Septic tank can be build with their own hands or buy ready-made.
In most households install a septic tank. Usually it is plastic construction, which must also be protected from the ascent, freezing, frost heave
An ideal variant in terms of efficiency and environmental friendliness - biological treatment station. This sophisticated equipment in industrial production, which cleans waste water from harmful admixtures on 95-98%.
The station is only one drawback - the high cost, but if the site owner can afford such expenses, they will pay off handsomely.
Criteria for selection of the septic tank to the private homes of the local sewage system described in this article.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Correctly matched sewerage scheme farmhouse, precise measurements and calculations, quality materials and competent installation - the key to efficient operation of the future system. In some matters difficult to understand yourself.
We offer a selection of useful video for the Development of autonomous sewer system of a private house.
Short lecture, which explains the principle of operation of the system, especially the choice of scheme:
A clear demonstration by which it will be easier to understand the operation of the system:
When calculating the slope of the outer pipe sewage often make mistakes. Check out the video, which will help to orient the development of the project and installation of the pipeline:
Videos on the device ventilation sewer system:
The first and most important stage of construction - design. The more detailed and more accurately developed sewerage scheme at home, the easier it will be ready to use the system.
If difficulties arise, do not hesitate to ask questions, seek the help of professionals. It is better to spend time and effort to clarify the nuances than later run into problems. Effective autonomous sewer - it is not too difficult.
You have experience in setting up an autonomous country house sewer? Or have questions on the subject? Please, share your thoughts, leave comments and participate in discussions. Block feedback situated below.