Each summer resident dreams of decorating his plot with bright flowers, various shrubs, conifers, and majestic ferns. Implement it in many ways. Particularly interesting is the possibility of harvesting delicious berries on a beautiful, powerful, strong, green fence plot. Among them, one can now see Ribelarium( yoshtu) - in common people it is called a hybrid of currant and gooseberry, which we will talk about.
- Description hybrids of black currants and gooseberries
- Known varieties Jost
- Reproduction and care
- dividing the bush
Description hybrids of black currants and gooseberries
plant does notyou will meet among wild forest thickets, at coast of the rivers, lakes, other places of the wild nature. As, for example, Karelian golden currant, other shrubs. It was obtained as a result of the difficult work of breeders from different countries.
Attempts to get a hybrid that does not contain thorns, like gooseberries, to be resistant to the occurrence of common diseases of currant, have been made for a long time. The process mechanism is detailed in the works of Michurin. But only specialists from the Max Planck Institute in Germany, using methods of radiation, chemical effects of distant hybridization, through forty years of hard work, managed to cross gooseberry and currant and get the first yoshta varieties with sustained fruiting, pronounced signs of a new plant. The period of formation of the first fruits begins in the second year of development of .The maximum yield is typical for most varieties in the fourth year of growth. In Russia, a mixture of gooseberry and currant appeared in the early 1980s.
Shrub, covered with dark, green leaves, resembling the shape of a leaf gooseberry, reaches two meters in height. They have no strong smell of currants. The leaves fall from the bush in late autumn. Stems are long, without thorns. The average number of stems of an adult plant is 12 pieces .The roots reach a depth of 50 cm. The diameter of the crown reaches two meters. Blooms early bright yellow tassels. In addition, self-pollination is recommended close to plant currant bushes, gooseberries. Fruiting brushes are short, decorated with large berries of black color, shining in the sun, with a violet shade. The beginning of the receipt of the first berries occurs in July.
The duration of the active life of the yoshta bush is up to 30 years at a selected landing site. The number of new shoots growing from the roots is not large. Their number can be increased by agrotechnical methods of regular hilling. Ribelarium has immunity to numerous pests, diseases characteristic of the parent plant .Yoshta varieties are frost resistant.
Yoshta's famous varieties
Yohini is called one of the first varieties of the long-awaited hybrid. Tall bush more like a currant. The leaves do not have the smell of currants, do not fall for a long time. The variety has very sweet large fruits. The yield from one bush can be up to 10 kg .This is considered high among other varieties.
English plant variety. Semi sprawling bush. It grows up to two meters in height. Taste berries like gooseberries. The variety is characterized by a long alternate type of ripening of berries, reaching two months.
Upright Swiss yoshta variety. The berries are small, dense, black, resembling currants. Low-yield variety .Its advantage is the long presence of berries on the stems without shedding.
The variety obtained by domestic breeders is highly resistant to tick infestation and severe frosts. The yield of berries has average values. Recommended by experts for planting in the cold zones of Russia .
A tall, not very sprawling bush gives a good harvest of berries the size of cherries. Every year a new variety of plant appears on the seedlings market, making a more varied selection.
Plants are planted in early autumn, in spring. In any case, yoshta gets accustomed well, grows quickly. Planting material must have a developed root system. Do not use dried seedlings with shriveled bark, dry weak roots .It will grow slowly, will not give the harvest.
It is recommended to keep the roots for about 2 hours in a prepared solution of fertile soil before planting, soaking them well, straightening. Down in the hole, they are well straightened, watered. Compost, humus, and mineral fertilizers are introduced into the landing hole. The difference in the process of planting from currants is the higher need for potassium, which is introduced before planting. The following set of fertilizers for one plant, which are necessary in the initial growth period, is considered optimal: about 5 kg of organic matter, 40 g of potassium sulfate, 60 g of superphosphate. The soil in the planting pit, around the plant is well watered, mulched. The distance between the plants is planned to be about 1.5 m. Between the rows, it increases to 2 m.
Reproduction and care
The principle of growing shrubs differs little from the methods of currant and barberry care. You need to know that jost requires mandatory mulching of the trunk under the crown .This prevents the evaporation of moisture, which is very necessary for the development of the bush. The plant must be abundantly watered.
Shrub does not require a special pruning, which serves as an agrotechnical technique for the formation of a crown. It is enough to perform it in the role of sanitization, getting rid of dry, damaged stems.
The plant is responsive to fertilization, starting from spring days in the form of solutions from chicken manure, mullein.
One-year shoots, cut in winter, are suitable for cutting. Immediately after harvesting, they are immersed in water for three hours. Then they put them in a bag, a refrigerator until the arrival of spring, when they are put in a hothouse. In place of the plant is transferred in the fall. The versatility of the propagation method by cuttings is associated with the ability to engage in the process at any time of the year. For example, in spring, in August, you can cut the tops of the side branches about 20 cm long. Cut off the lower leaves, keeping the upper ones after shortening them to a third part of the length. Over each kidney make a weak incision. At the bottom of the cutting also make several cuts, stimulating the growth rate of the roots. Having processed the cutting growth stimulator, plant it obliquely in a greenhouse or under a plastic volume. Liberally pour. When performing work in early spring, a strong sapling will be ready in the fall.
Often used for propagation are lignified cuttings cut from ripened stems. At least 20 strong buds should be present on 20 cm pieces. Planted obliquely, leaving two buds above the ground. The bed with cuttings is often plentifully watered in order to form a powerful root system in just one season.
This type of breeding can be carried out by vertical, horizontal layers of stems. In the first case in spring, the entire old bush is cut off by , hemp remains up to 25 cm. With regular watering, care, like a real bush, young shoots appear on them, which are used for reproduction.
layers The second method is the simplest, most convenient. For the rapid formation of new plants in the spring of two-year, strong annual shoots growing in the lower part of the bush, pressed to the ground, covered with fertile soil. Slightly shortens the tip of the branch. From the buds located under the top layer of fertile soil, a large number of shoots grow. They spud them several times in a season, feed them up, water them, and remove weeds. Strong seedlings are ready for planting in a permanent place in the autumn, in the spring of next year.
By dividing the bush
The method is effective in terms of quickly obtaining planting material. It is recommended to apply, if necessary, transfer the plant to another place, the desire to increase the number of yoshta bushes. To do this, use the bushes, age, which is not less than six years. In the spring, in the autumn the bush is dug out completely, free from the earth, weak roots. The ax is divided into parts that have at least three strong roots, several stems with good buds. Damage sites fall asleep with coal. Planted immediately to a permanent place.
The following reasons are justified for transplanting a fruiting yoshta bush:
- The bush is old.
- Unsuccessful choice of site , for example, lack of solar heat, reducing the annual yield.
- The dimensions of the bush , interfering with other plantations, buildings.
- Strongly depleted soil in a place of continuous growth.
Order, the list of agrotechnical methods during transplantation corresponds to the needs of the growth of the shrub. Fertile soil, the size of the planting pit, the abundance of light, the possibility of regular watering, fertilizing should be maintained, as during the initial planting. Carefully prepare the transplanted hive to move to a new place .Old branches are removed, young ones are shortened. After a careful removal from the ground, it is desirable to divide the bush into parts, planting them in separate pits, not forgetting to feed them, water it abundantly.
Unfortunately, industrial cultivation of yoshta is still poorly developed .Try, see the beautiful berries can not so often. The cultivation technology in the near future will make it as accessible, indispensable as currants.