Competent organization ventilation not only provides a supply of fresh air and outflow of waste, but also minimizes the risk of mold in the apartment. But over time, even well-functioning system fails, signaling problems unpleasant manifestations.
Despite the cause of the failure, ventilation recovery should be carried out in due time - after a comprehensive review and assessment of air ducts. And how to check and what it should be to pay attention - all these issues will be discussed in our article.
detail also analyze the main factors influencing the decrease in the efficiency of ventilation. Material is supplemented by visual diagrams and thematic photos.
The content of the article:
- Signs of reducing the effectiveness of the ventilation
The causes of the deterioration of ventilation solutions
- Problem # 1 - Failure of the ventilation shaft
- Problem # 2 - High tightness premises
- Problem # 3 - influence of external factors
- Diagnosing performance and efficiency
Remedy ventilation defects
- Self-cleaning duct
- Restoring ventilation riser
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Signs of reducing the effectiveness of the ventilation
In apartment houses and private qualitative composition of air, usually supported by operating the supply and exhaust ventilation system with natural circulation.
fresh air provide windows, vents, doors or special valves. Removing the waste masses - through the exhaust channels set in the kitchen or in the bathroom.
Job ventilation system with natural impulse is based on the principle of traction, which arises as a result of wind pressure and the temperature difference between the outside and inside the house
With sufficient air circulation, few people think about the device breathability of the complex.
These questions become relevant with the emergence of the first signs of the deterioration of ventilation:
- Increased humidity and stuffiness;
- the appearance of condensation on the windows, "black spots" on the slopes, mold on the walls, especially in the corner and behind furniture;
- after airing the room very quickly becomes stuffy - windows always have to keep in the "micro-ventilation" mode;
- back draft Foreign smell coming from the neighbors - air flow rushes into the apartment, but not in ventkanal;
- on furniture quickly accumulate dust;
- kitchen odors spread throughout the apartment.
In addition, there are external manifestations indirect signs of lack of clean air. Households are beginning to complain of ill health, the appearance of unexplained sleepiness and fatigue. For a comfortable indoor air being must contain at least 21% oxygen.
In the absence of ventilation concentration of carbon dioxide, dust and harmful substances increases. lack of oxygen causes a headache and a feeling of closeness
These factors indicate the failure of the ventilation system, and are grounds for checking air ducts performance. It needs time to establish the cause of the failure and determine how to restore ventilation.
The causes of the deterioration of ventilation solutions
Problems natural ventilation operation occur for the following reasons: decrease air throughput capacity, blocking air flow or "alignment" of temperature inside and outside building.
Let us examine each cause and possible ways to fix it in more detail.
A clear sign of disorders of ventilation is to reduce ventilation, insufficient intake of fresh air from outside, as a consequence, headache, lethargy, poor mood
Determine violations in the ventilation operation is possible by penetrating from the ventilation shaft foreign odors
About blockages and poor ventilation tell the misted window, which quickly settles condensate even when activated pritochnike
In winter, when ventilation is poor, or even without it appearing on the windows frost and ice build-up
In bathrooms, lavatories and reciprocally kitchens without ventilation appears black mold
Without ventilation fungus spread with incredible speed, quickly leads to the unsuitability of building construction, decoration and furniture
If the application of the paper sheet to the exhaust grille it is not pressed against the air flow to it, then the channel is clogged. In this manner, you should periodically check the work of ventilation
Air velocity, measured anemometer, below normal, confirms the low efficiency of ventilation. The measurements should be carried out into the cool of the day with an open window
Symptom 1: The difficulties and reduced air exchange
Symptom 2: Penetration of foreign odors through ventreshetku
Symptom 3: misted windows pritochnikami
Symptom 4: Frazil in window openings in the winter
Symptom 5: The appearance of black mold in the corners
Symptom 6: Catastrophic defeat fungal structures
Tag 7: Lack of thrust in the duct
Tag 8: Very low air velocity
Problem # 1 - Failure of the ventilation shaft
Insufficient ventilation shaft thrust most likely due to blockage of the channel narrowing of the duct, or its complete overlap.
On the walls ventkanala eventually deposited layer impressive dust duct grows web. Sor, accumulated over many years, resulting in a narrowing of the mine - the amount of exhaust air is reduced. In addition, clogged ventilation may cause a fire.
The deposits on the surface of the air ducts degrade the air quality indoors as dust - a favorable environment for the development of pathogenic microorganisms
Sometimes the shaft blockage is the fault of unscrupulous landlords or employees. Not thinking about the consequences, some builders take off into the air duct of the debris. The restriction channel speed and basement irreversible shrinkage deformation of the walls and ceilings.
The solution is obvious. It is necessary to determine the extent of contamination and perform clean air ducts. Independently can be treated exhaust opening from the side of the apartment. Deep cleaning is performed by masters using special equipment.
Often the perpetrators sharp decline in the effectiveness of the ventilation become tenants. When carrying out repairs or remodeling an apartment, some "craftsmen" cover the ventilation passages: mounted built-in furniture or narrow the exhaust opening at its discretion. Rash actions lead to stop air circulation or reverse thrust.
Housing ventilation apparatus with a vertical common channel: each apartments air through a separate "sleeve" is supplied to the main shaft and is expelled
The greater the number of storeys of the house and the number of supply channels, the craving stronger. Accordingly, if you remove the chain from any element of the exhaust system, the thrust weakens. With simultaneous blocking of several "sleeves" is not sufficient power flow for lifting and ejecting exhaust air.
The result is the opposite effect - the air flow rushing down and fall into a predominantly flat on the upper floors. To prevent reverse thrust, exhaust ducts top floors are output directly to the attic. However, this does not solve the problem of lack of air flow in the ventilation shaft.
The situation is particularly acute issue in the houses, where the ventilation duct passes through the kitchen. In an effort to free the useful area, mountain master completely or partially cut off the duct. "Modernization" of space leads to unpleasant consequences for the neighbors.
Airbox sectional, one large (about 30 * 60 cm) and two small (about 15 cm) channel. Total mine runs along all floors of the house
Air with "flavors" enters the bathroom and kitchen channels. After about 3 meters, it falls into the pit. Thanks to this arrangement, the exhaust vapors do not leak from the upper floors to the bottom, and prevents the penetration of kitchen fumes to the bath, toilet and living room.
After cutting the box portion, the shaft tapers substantially, and by three-meter "sleeves" is a small fraction (about 30-40 cm). As a result of alteration of the air coming from the bottom rests against the barrier and an excessive pressure - part of the flow rushes upwards and the part - in the near ventilating window.
Most affected tenants apartment located on the floor below. During warmer months, the exhaust air flows down 2-3 floors down
issue a decision comes down to the following actions:
- Invite a specialist to expert analysis of the effectiveness of ventilation.
- Get an opinion on the diagnosis. The document should indicate the level of ventilation, the possible cause of its decline and recommendations for improvement.
- Oblige the owner of the apartment, blocked exhaust sunroof, restore the ventilation duct. The requirement issued by the supervisory authority or by a court decision.
After the restoration of the duct apartment owner gets his hands on the documents for their transfer to the housing inspection, BTI, the court, DES and other authorities.
Problem # 2 - High tightness premises
According to the SNP, full air flow when ventilating a natural type occurs through leaks exterior fences, preferably, window required.
After microcracks wooden window frames enters a sufficient quantity of fresh air. Inflow supports thrust in exhaust air ducts and enables smooth circulation of air flows
The "renovation" the era of the dogma requires revision. Replacing old glazing PVC window systems and the installation of modern doors block the flow of air. Design of the new generation are characterized by high integrity, thereby solving the problem of conservation of heat and noise insulation.
However, blockage of air-supply channels lead to malfunction of the ventilation. It feels stuffiness, increased humidity, the appearance of damp and mildew.
- Operation windows mikroprovetrivaniya mode;
- installation supply valve window or wall variety.
A first embodiment for implementing most of window units. Sash position adjustment mechanism is mounted in a profile in the assembly window. Fittings controlled by turning the knob 45 °.
Slightly open ventilation slot allows glazed at 2-4 mm, providing the lowest possible air flow. Mikroprovetrivaniya Cons: lack of protection from dust, street noise and cooling in winter
A more effective method of restoring circulation - installation of air inlet valves. Window and wall pritochniki normalized velocity of the air in the room, while maintaining microclimate parameters (temperature and humidity) in the norm.
Home Terms of supply valve - acting ventilation. Outdoor air is supplied through the nozzles into the room from the ceiling, and directs the action of convective currents
Each type of supply valve is different. Window models are simple to install, but their performance is not always enough to solve the problem.
And here wall air supply valves more effective, but do need for mounting through hole in the wall. Errors in installation can trigger the freezing air duct or wall.
Problem # 3 - influence of external factors
Ventilation works efficiently when outside air is cooler than the inside of the house. Warm indoor air in winter penetrates faster in exhaust ducts - made intensive circulation.
High outdoor temperatures in summer can cause the formation of air stagnation or reverse thrust. No natural prerequisite inflow air mass - the temperature difference at which cold flows displace warmer. That is why, when it's warm and humid most often seen mold on bathroom walls.
Solution: the fan assembly in the bathroom or in the kitchen for forced exhaust.
To control the fan device provided with automatic: timer, a motion sensor or humidity. Some models are switched on and off on Cotton
Diagnosing performance and efficiency
Check ventilation of the work the following tasks:
- The analysis of climate parameters and to comply with health standards.
- Detection of faults in the operation of the exhaust and supply air system component.
- Development troubleshooting plan.
testing organization includes visual, tactile diagnosis, as well as a marker and instrumental control of the air flow.
Inspection of premises and drawing:
- Check the windows, the walls in the corners and behind furniture. Wet surface - a clear signal of the lack of air circulation.
- Evaluation of the inflow of the system. Wet hand to bring to the window frame - the feeling of draft indicates the health of the supply channel. Similarly verified work exhaust openings.
- Control of the rate of removal of odors. Leaving the windows closed, walk away from the apartment for 30-40 minutes. If upon return, the kitchen felt food odors, or "flavors" garbage can, then the problem is with ventilation.
- Checking suction channel external grating. Banal clogging of the vents can severely reduce exhaust thrust.
For further research is necessary to remove the grille, cleaned and set back. After handling the pressure must increase in the ventilation shaft.
Sometimes a working ventilation system cause "flavors" are neighbors. In this case, save the situation will help the installation of such a simple, but effective devices, such as check valve for ventilation.
Removing the grilles will allow visually assess the state and the duct. Sometimes mine is so polluted that dust and debris accumulated over the years, pours directly into the apartment
Checking traction experimentally:
- Open the window in any room, to ensure a flow of air masses.
- For lattice ventkanala bring tissue paper.
- To evaluate the results. If the sheet is held and does not move, then pull enough and extractor fan is working properly. If the paper is deflected in the opposite direction - it is possible to speak about the reverse thrust.
Sheet is attracted to the grid, if you put it against a wall. When removing 10-15 cm from the thrust duct is about 5% of the actual value.
To check the traction is unacceptable to use an open flame - it is not safe. There is a risk of ignition of combustible substances accumulated in the ventilation shaft
Instrumental measurements allow to objectively evaluate the effectiveness of ventilation.
Conditions for obtaining validation data:
- temperature difference of indoor and outdoor air - no less than 13 ° C;
- the outdoor temperature - not higher than +5 ° C.
For diagnostic uses an anemometer - the device shows the velocity of air in the air ducts. Obtained by measurement are compared with readings regulatory speed air in the air duct.
- Slightly open window.
- Release the exhaust port from the grating.
- Enable anemometer and to bring the device to the channel.
The minimum speed of circulation of air flows in the common shaft - 5 m / s, channel taps - 3 m / s.
The values obtained are compared with the standard indicators are used to determine the volume of air
The calculation formula is:
Q = V * S * 360,
Where V - the measured air velocity (m / s), S - ventkanala section (m).
According to the accepted standards for kitchen hood must go through at least 60 cubic meters / hour, and in the bathroom - 25 cubic meters / hour.
Do you want to independently verify the ventilation, but never done it? We encourage you to read through the steps of checking the working channels.
Remedy ventilation defects
recovery ventilation system efficiency of the method depends on the reasons for reducing its effectiveness. Some ways to resolve problems independently realizable. However, a number of issues require the involvement of professionals and the use of special equipment.
Cleaning obschedomovoy ventilation lines, which are connected to the lateral branches - a problem public utilities. They are obliged to carry out preventive inspections and maintenance of the ventilation system twice a year.
Tenants to carry out any manipulation with the central engineering system is prohibited. The maximum that can make the owner of the apartment - clean ventkanal from their homes.
The first thing you need to remove the grille, clean it and rinse under running water. To wash the ventilation grille is permissible to use neutral detergents. Inside the channel to apply any chemicals can not.
Accumulated dirt and fatty crust formed on the periphery of the opening, to remove sharp knife or schesat stiff brush. Vacuum channel, wipe as much as possible and install the duct cover in place
To clean the air duct deeper suitable flexible cable made of steel with a ruff for maintenance of chimneys. Structure enter into the opening of the duct and ruff scrape dirt from the walls. waste residues were removed from the channel with a vacuum cleaner.
During operation, it is necessary to be careful. The ventilation shafts can be wasps' nests, inhabit other insects or animals
If the measures taken have not improved exhaust cravings - so clogged the main shaft. For cleaning it is necessary to invite a special service.
Restoring ventilation riser
Spontaneous alteration affecting a ventilation duct, sooner or later have to be corrected. Realizing airway device, its recovery will not cause any difficulties.
Ventilation "sleeves" have a circular or square cross section. Initially, their walls are made of concrete. When reconstructing satellite channels can be made of a corrugated pipe or concrete blocks delimit
The estimate of future work is necessary to establish the value of:
- Material for the protection of the ventilating duct (foam block, gypsum board, a gypsum blocks or OSB sheets with fire protection);
- corrugated pipes apparatus for air ducts extending from the kitchen and bathroom;
- cement-sand mortar or finished adhesive for laying the foam block;
- plastering and finishing boxes.
To restore the kitchen duct optimally suited gypsum boards or concrete blocks. Materials possess the necessary strength, impermeability and fire resistance. Furthermore, plates provide sufficient sound insulation.
Restoring ventilation riser is performed in several stages.
Step 1 - preparing the premises and the opening of access to the mine
Kitchen should be as free - to make furniture, dishes, light appliances. Built-in cabinets, tables, equipment and floor covered with polyethylene.
To open access to the mine on the wall and on the floor to be done according to the dimensions of the future layout boxes. Dismantle the tiles, concrete floor and open the airway.
Dismantling the floor is done carefully, so that construction waste is not scored vents. The outcome of the open pit and two satellite channel
Phase 2 - Restoration of the side walls and partitions
Laid side and the front side of the duct corresponding to the previously dismantled structure. Travel-channels are separated from each other and from the common shaft concrete blocks. This maintains the cross-sectional area "sleeves" necessary for the free passage of air.
Recycled box fully satisfies the requirements of operation of natural ventilation - air currents coincide with the directions provided in the project document at home
Step 3 - check ventilation and decoration
To assess the effectiveness of the ventilation is better to invite a specialist. In any case, they'll be required to conclude the act of acceptance of work performed.
Decorative design. If the air circulation is not questioned by the supervisory authorities and there are no complaints from the side neighbors, it can safely be taken for finishing boxes.
An alternative way - to use corrugated pipe. The new satellite channels are connected with the old bottom by means of a concrete casting and further fixed on the drywall separating the "arm" of the total mine
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The work of the ventilation system of an apartment building, causes reduced efficiency and solve the problem:
Restoring ventilation duct using foam blocks and metal pipes:
Prerequisites for the emergence of reverse thrust and how to resolve it:
Regular checking of the effectiveness of the ventilation system and preventive cleaning of air ducts to avoid unpleasant consequences: the appearance of dampness damage to the walls and the deterioration of It is. Uninterrupted operation of supply and exhaust channels - the key to a healthy microclimate.
You found a reduction of ventilation efficiency and want to identify the cause and resolve on their own? Maybe you have to be a definite problem or want to consult with our experts about ways to eliminate?
Or maybe you are dealing with arrangement of ventilation systems, cleaning of canals and ventilation recovery and want to supplement the above material useful tips and important nuances? Write your comments, ask questions, add a photo - your activity will help beginners to better understand the subject of the article and to solve their problems with ventilation.