Regardless of whether the ventilation in the apartment with his hands or made with the help of specialists, it should contribute to a healthy indoor climate.
You can choose to calculate the required volume of air, and perform most of the work, which will lead to significant cost savings. And how to do it - we will consider in detail in this article.
And also analyze nuances arrangement and organization drawing fresh air.
The content of the article:
Regulatory requirements for ventilation of apartments
- Terms calculating the minimum volume of air
- How to ensure air circulation?
Creating the conditions for drawing
- Checking the efficiency of the ventilation shaft
- Construction of exhaust vents
fresh air into the organization
- Reducing the tightness of the window units
- Mounting wall ventilation
Installation channel systems of air
- The basic rules of the duct design
- Features installation of plastic boxes
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Regulatory requirements for ventilation of apartments
Since the airflow directly affects the quality of life, to determine the optimal parameters of scientific studies have been conducted, the results of which are reflected in the regulations.
The main document regulating the rules for residential ventilation organization is SP 54.13330.2016 "Residential apartment buildings," actualized edition SNIP 31/01/2003.
Terms calculating the minimum volume of air
The minimum air volume for different types of premises can be calculated from the data in Table 9.1. SP 54.13330.2016.
When calculating can not simply summarize the figures. Living room under the air exchange to understand the flow of air from the outside and its outflow into the kitchen, bathroom, etc., and technical premises - a tributary of the living rooms and production outside the apartment.
So you need to separately calculate the required volumes of supply and exhaust, to take as a result of the maximum value of these two values.
There is one caveat. Designer apartment building is obliged to calculate the inflow value for the calculation of the heat balance and the value of the hood - to calculate the parameters of the ventilation units.
Residents of the apartments have the right at its discretion to implement ventilation less bandwidth, which in most cases happens.
EXAMPLE minimum air volume calculation for standard flats according to requirements SP 54.13330.2016. It needs to be undertaken to understand the necessary power ventilation equipment
Independently determine the amount of air with high accuracy is possible only by using forced ventilation.
A detailed calculation of ventilation with formulas and actual examples of calculation for a particular room we reviewed another article.
If natural air circulation is necessary to pay attention to the following indicators:
- excess moisture in the air (Can be measured using a hygrometer) - is expressed in the appearance of mildew on the walls and ceiling as well as the fogged window panes in winter;
- oxygen deficiency or excess of carbon dioxide (Can be measured by the gas analyzer) - expressed as shortness of breath of people who are in the flat.
If such effects can be observed throughout the apartment, it indicates a lack of a common supply and exhaust ventilation. If they occur in some areas, it testifies to the local problems of air associated with the formation of air stagnation zones.
Modern room analyzers indicate carbon dioxide content, temperature and relative humidity - the main indicators microclimate premises
How to ensure air circulation?
According to paragraphs 9.6 and 9.7 SP 54.13330.2016 outdoor air flow necessary to provide in the living room and the kitchen, and removing - from kitchens, bathrooms and lavatories.
At the same time is unacceptable ingress of air from technical rooms in other parts of the apartment. It must be inferred directly into the ventilation shaft.
Thus, it is enough to easily create air movement circuit depending on the lay-flat when it admission will be carried out outside the premises with windows and occur outflow vent exits mines.
EXAMPLE air movement circuit of the flat standard layout with two outlets in ventilation shafts located in the kitchen and lavatory
The movement of air between rooms should be flat and tightly closed doors.
To do this, follow these steps:
- installation of special ventilation holes that represent ordinary hole in the door, closed the special decorative elements;
- the use of the door frame without a threshold that allows you to leave a gap of 5-10 mm between the floor and the door closed;
- owners of domestic cats are often forced to install manholes in the interior doors, which also serve as ventilation holes.
The procedure for the organization of ventilation in doors made of solid wood, particle board or MDF is quite simple. To do this, using a drill or jigsaw to cut holes which will be planted on a special adhesive ring.
Alternatively, you can do one window and close it with decorative lattice, which must be attached to the door on the screws.
To cut a ventilation hole in the interior door and close it with decorative lattice only need jigsaw and glue gun
Slotting own ventilation holes in the plastic or the more the glass door is difficult. This requires skill and special tools, or a high risk of damage to the door, and you may receive a serious injury.
Creating the conditions for drawing
If you have poor air exchange is impossible to create a positive climate in the room. Therefore, in every house there are special ventilation shafts for the outflow of air from outside the apartments.
Most of the work related to ensuring the proper functioning of ventilation can be performed independently without the involvement of specialists.
Checking the efficiency of the ventilation shaft
Inflow of fresh air into an apartment can take place in different places, and removal - via one or two openings into the ventilation shaft. Therefore, the power flow through them the easiest way to judge the intensity of the ventilation.
To do this, you need to attach the ventilation grid sheet of plain paper, completely closing it.
In normal air flow will stick to the paper exhaust opening. Otherwise, we can say the lack of normal air in the apartment.
Check draft in the ventilation shaft by means of an open fire is not safe. The accumulated dust or gas leakage may cause a fire
should open near to the opening of a window or door and then attach the sheet to the grill to find out the main causes of poor traction.
In this case, there are two options:
- If the paper is "stuck" to the grid, it means an insufficient flow of air with closed windows;
- if the flow was so weak that it is unable to keep the paper, the problem in the ventilation shaft or in the branch that leads to it.
If there was a lack of ventilation due to problems with the ventilation shaft, it is necessary to refer to the management organization responsible for the apartment building.
Despite the fact that on the Internet there are many advice on mine procleaning on their own, this is not necessary for the following reasons:
- in contaminated mine lot of dust, mold and harmful microorganisms, so its cleaning work is carried out in special equipment;
- even if you can detect the blockage, it can not be purged using a domestic hair dryer or a vacuum cleaner, and when trying to break through the barrier can damage the shaft duct;
- in the mine can live rats, spiders, wasps and other living organisms, conflict with that for a man can bring him trouble;
- unauthorized change shaft configuration (e.g., extension or withdrawal stem) is an administrative violation.
Management organization is obliged to monitor the state of ventilation and immediately fix the problems. Mine is obschedomovoy property, so all the work should be carried out from the general funds.
Cleaning the ventilation shaft channels requires special training, equipment and facilities. From the side of the apartment to carry out this procedure can not be qualitatively
On our site there are other articles with detailed instructions on how to check ventilation in the apartment and reviews ways to resolve this problem:
- How to check ventilation in the apartment: air ducts validation rules
- Cleaning ventilation: cleaning air ducts in an apartment house
- Recovery Ventilation: causes reduced efficiency and recovery duct
Construction of exhaust vents
Leading to a ventilation shaft openings closed with special plastic grids that are decorative and functional purpose. Typically, the installation site and then inserting dowels secure the structure on the screws.
When facing wall tile can be glued light grille with silicone sealant, minimizing the risk of tile damage.
In case of failure of air outflow speed under natural circulation acquire and establish a lattice with integrated fan vane (axial) type. Mounting of the device on the wall must perform only via screws.
When buying a fan should pay attention to the power line noise and the exhaust air duct section.
If the vent hole is lined with tiles, it is best to feed the wire prokinut advance, even in the absence of fan installation plans. Otherwise, then have to implement the outer lining of the supply cable, which has a negative impact on the design of the room.
Since the need for continued operation of the fan is missing, install a separate circuit breaker for him. Bathroom fan popular scheme of connection to the network when it is turned on with the lamp.
There are also more sophisticated embodiments, switching occurs when a timer or indications of humidity sensors.
We recommend to familiarize with steps connect the fan to the switch.
Scheme to turn the fan simultaneously with the lighting devices is elementary. If you are comfortable electrician its implementation will not be difficult
At any opening into the ventilation shaft, you must install check valve. It protects the room from the change of the air flow direction and air from entering the mine, which often do not meet sanitary standards.
The reverse flow may occur for the following reasons:
- a gradual reduction of effective cross section of the mine channel clogging as a result;
- a sharp decrease in effective cross-section shaft channel as a result of contact with the obstacle;
- increase the air inflow from the neighboring apartments.
The check valve can be installed separately, but it is easier to get it complete with fan and grille.
fresh air into the organization
Housing the latest technology, as well as the active use of plastic windows, reliably protect modern housing frost and drafts. However, the problem arises of the lack of fresh air, intake of which is necessary to create a favorable microclimate.
Ventilation in an apartment can be done both individually and ordered a turnkey solution from the experts.
Reducing the tightness of the window units
In older houses air into the room it occurs mainly through the gap in window frames. Therefore, one of the most common ways to create sufficient ventilation recognized organization air pass through the elements of the plastic windows and balcony doors.
For windows the best solution is to install fresh air vent when mounting the window unit.
Supply valve is installed in the upper part of the window frame. The incoming cold air rushes down and mixed with warmer indoor
Installation of the supply valve negotiate the further stages of the order. If the window is already set, it is possible to introduce the air passage device yourself, but this procedure is quite time consuming and specific, which is why it is better to entrust it to professionals.
Also, there are several methods to reduce the tightness of the window based on the partial removal of the seal:
- Make a portion of the seal removable, so that a strong wind could put it back.
- The lower part of the outside of the window and the top of the inside of the seal to remove small fragments (5-7 cm length). This will allow air to penetrate between the frame and the window frame, heat up and out into the room.
However, this extreme measure: they are not often used in the winter period due to condensation, freezing it to form ice and release the locking position of the mechanism of action of the window.
Mounting wall ventilation
From the standpoint of the efficiency of ventilation and easy self-installation best solution is to install a wall of the supply valve. This device allows you to adjust the outdoor air inflow rate into the room.
The simplest wall vent valve allows adjustment of air flow and power housing protects from dust and noise
The installation procedure of the wall of the valve is as follows:
- In the wall is necessary to drill a hole with a slight slant to the outside. For brick walls fit an ordinary drill, but for prefabricated houses will have to apply the procedure of diamond drilling. Thus it is desirable to use a vacuum cleaner with a catchment ring.
- Insert duct and efficiently perform its insulation, or possibly freezing of the valve. The material can be used mineral wool and assembly foam.
- Attach the valve body, note the mounting place, drill the holes and insert the dowels. Wearing body, fasten it to the wall.
At the end should be to install an outdoor grill. Here it is necessary to observe safety measures.
We recommend also read our other articles that contain step by step process ventklapana mounting on the wall.
When choosing the installation location of the valve is necessary to consider the following points:
- easy and safe assembly for an outer lattice not located on the ground floor apartments;
- the correct placement of the internal valve tip design positions the premises;
- possibility of heating the incoming air from stationary heating appliances.
Therefore, the most popular destination of the valve installation is the space between the window and radiator.
For more intense air using fans fitted with valves. However, they require electricity supply and emit some noise, especially audible at night.
Installing two or three devices provide natural air flow is easier and cheaper mounting of the wall of the supply valve ventilated
Additionally equipped with a fan can be connected to the supply valve and humectant heater to maintain a favorable microclimate in a residential area.
However, they must correctly enter in the design of the room, as the whole structure will occupy much more space than the headroom of an ordinary device.
Installation channel systems of air
When installing the ventilation channel systems or kitchen hoods use special boxes or flexible corrugated tubes.
they also need to move the air from technical rooms to a remote input into the ventilation shaft. Perform work on the installation of the duct can be on their own.
The basic rules of the duct design
For flats no need to use metallic ventilation duct, intended for the passage of the air flow at high speeds and to operate at sub-zero temperatures. Plastic box easy to install and easy to fit into the design of any room.
You can find lots of offers plastic air ducts for ventilationDiffering in color-sectional area, shape, method of joining sections and the method of attachment to the walls and ceiling.
The large number of shaped elements to create a vent any geometry. The choice between a round or rectangular cross-sectional shape from a technical point of view, is not critical.
sectional area should be selected so that the flow rate does not exceed 2 m / s. Otherwise, it will cause noise in the channel, and the resistance increase will lead to rapid equipment wear.
The size of the plastic ventilation duct for the apartment should be selected so that the air flow rate at maximum load was 1 to 2 m / s
When designing the duct geometry is desirable to minimize the number of bends, constrictions and transitions which increase the aerodynamic resistance flow generated noise and fat deposits accumulate and dust.
Features installation of plastic boxes
Plastic parts of ventilation ducts have a small weight, so any special action when mounting require.
Depending on their location the installation is as follows:
- Inside the cabinet is fastened with clamps to the walls of the enclosure. The passage space through walls and partitions are introducing foam or foam inserts to prevent chattering during operation.
- Above the cabinets elements are fixed by any brackets and screws.
- For wall and ceiling construction is fixed by means of special clamps, which can be purchased by any standard size channel. The distance between the fastening elements should be not more than 1 meter.
Immediately after the air duct assembly, which will subsequently be hidden behind a tension or ceiling, you need to check his work at the highest possible capacity of air flow. Identified problems easier to resolve immediately, while access to the system is not complicated.
Secure the plastic elements of the ventilation duct using special clamps just enough. They are not expensive, so it is best not to use their own decisions
Missed the joints with silicone sealant elements, you can get an additional guarantee of density structure of the compounds.
For these purposes, it is not necessary to use glue or compositions such as "liquid nails", because in the future will be virtually impossible to disassemble the system for maintenance or change its configuration.
If the depressurization yet occurred, and to fix it is not possible to disassemble the duct, in this case it is necessary to wrap the joint problem of self-adhesive tape in the color of shaped elements.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
All stages of the installation simple wall supply valve:
Procedure for ventilation through the interior doors:
The combination of natural and forced ventilation through the tee and the check valve:
Check the quality of air in the apartment and most of the work associated with the provision of normal air circulation can be performed in-house. However, for the installation of sophisticated equipment or execution of works, it is better to invite experts associated with the risk.
Occupation arrangement of the ventilation systems and well-targeting in the topic? Can you spot inaccuracies or errors in the above material? Write to us, please, about it in the comments.
Or you are having difficulty in the regeneration vensistemy and you want to clarify certain points? Ask for advice from our engineers - we will try to help you.