Water-charging irrigation of trees in the fall garden is necessary - this truth, I think, does not have to be particularly proved by experienced gardeners, especially in our Kuban. Over the summer, and it is almost always arid with us, there must have been a lack of moisture. And if autumn does not indulge in rains, then there can be no doubt about it at all. Even if from time to time you water the garden plants throughout the entire growing season, even if it rains in the fall, water recharge irrigation of trees will not be superfluous, on the contrary, it is necessary.
It will have a good effect on the condition of your trees or shrubs next year, increase their frost resistance, increase yields, reduce or completely eliminate freezing of the roots during severe frosts. In addition, if the root system of trees experienced a lack of moisture in the summer or autumn, then water recharge irrigation in the autumn will create the necessary conditions for laying fruit buds, for preparing trees and shrubs for overwintering.
What is water recharge irrigation? It is watering trees, bushes in order to replenish, charge the root-layer with moisture so that the plant leaves to overwhelm with water.
There will be no water recharge irrigation - there will be a risk of drying of individual branches. This is especially dangerous in case of frost, strong winds, when there is no snow.
Also, without a reserve of water, trees can get sunburn of the bark.
For colony or dwarf fruit trees, the root system is close to the ground, so they need plenty of watering in autumn, because in poorly humid soil, strange as it may sound to some, there is a risk of freezing of the roots.
When should water recharge irrigation be carried out in the fall? Watering trees, shrubs can be immediately after harvest. Young trees that still do not give fruit, also need moisture in summer and autumn.
Optimum timing for water recharge irrigation of trees, shrubs - autumn. For the middle band - this is the middle of October, for the Kuban - the end of October - the beginning of November.
The purpose of water-charging irrigation: improving frost resistance, winter hardiness, as wet soil freezes more slowly, and the depth of soil freezing decreases.
How much water do you need for irrigation? The amount of water under the tree or berry shrub depends on the size, age of the plant. For example, under a currant bush, honeysuckle, blackberry enough 3-5 buckets of water. For fruit tree 5-7 years of age - from 5 to 10 buckets. If you water with a hose, then with a slight pressure - this is 10-20 minutes of watering. But do not immediately try to pour this amount of water under the plant - distribute into 2-3 doses.
For large fruit trees, the norms are as follows: up to 60-90 liters per 1 m2 of crown projection.
The amount of water applied to fruit plants also depends on the soil moisture - if it is wet - a lump of soil compressed in the hand does not crumble - then reduce the amount of water, distribute it not 2-3 times, but for a larger number of irrigations.
Especially do not regret water, if the weather is dry in the fall - increase the water rate at least 2 times.
Somewhere I met a warning message, they say, it is better not to pour than to pour, they say, plant cells begin to break down when they are watered excessively. Consulted on this issue with agronomists. They just smiled. .. the plant cannot absorb more moisture than it can, it cannot be “re-drilled” - it regulates the amount of water absorbed by itself - leaves will not take up any suction in the roots, but naturally, there is no need to arrange a swamp under a tree.
If you have fruit trees planted on the lawn, or rather, lawn grass or some other grass is sown under the trees, then the soil under the trees is not digged. At a distance of 0.5-2 m from the trunk, the lawn punctures are made with a wooden stake or metal scrap around the perimeter of the tree crown. Water to the plant roots will flow through these holes. By the way, at the same time the dose of irrigation should be reduced - the turf well holds moisture. Water recharge irrigation should be divided into 2-3 doses.
If you do not have a lawn, then dig up the earth around the tree. The diameter of the digging depends on the size of the crown - usually pristvolny circle is equal to its diameter. Retreat from the trunk - 30-50 cm, dig up the earth with digging forks or shovels. Under the tree you will have 2 grooves with such digging. Here on these grooves produce watering. After watering, grumble the soil with peat or dry grass so that the sun does not compact the earth, so that the earth does not form a crust - the earth will stay wet longer, retain its structure better, it will be easier for the air to penetrate to the roots.
In gardens, water-recharge irrigation of trees, carried out in optimal time, by all the rules ensures good wetting of the stalk area of the soil to the depth of the main mass of the root system of perennial trees or shrubs. For example, after a dry summer or a rainy autumn, water retention irrigation helps to moisten the root system of a fruiting apple tree on low to medium sized rootstocks from 80 to 100 cm deep, in cherries, plums from 60 to 70 cm, for shrubs from 40 to 60 cm
So, the main goal of the wintering irrigation is to provide adaptation to garden plants, resistance to winter frosts, dry winds. In addition, autumn watering irrigation trees or shrubs enough until spring. Such plants will bloom for 3-5 days later. And that means they will "go away" from the spring frosts and their productivity will increase.
But it happens like this: it failed to make a water charge in the fall. .. Can it be done in spring? If yes, then when? Can and should be! But it should take into account a number of factors.
If your site is in a low place or the level of standing of groundwater is high, then irrigation should be abandoned.
The best time for water recharge irrigation in spring is before the flowering of fruit crops.
Spring cherries should not be wet. This culture is enough moisture that fell in the fall, winter or spring. Cherry begins to bear fruit early. If the soil is saturated with moisture, it is likely to get cracked fruit, not suitable for use.