For a gardener, the garden should be cost effective. Planting, growing vegetables and fruits is beneficial when we get high quality crops in a short time. High quality vegetables, fruits - this is their juiciness, freshness, pleasant taste. All this will be provided if properly organize watering the garden. With a lack of water in the soil to get high quality vegetable products is impossible. Vegetable crops have a root system of different capacities. The irrigation rate for each plant depends on it, the methods of irrigation, the number of irrigations per season, and when during which vegetation period of a vegetable plant irrigation will be most useful.
- The power of the root system of vegetable crops is the basis for calculating the irrigation rate
- .Regulation of relative air humidity( sprinkling)
- Water recharge irrigation of the garden
Among vegetable crops there are biologically drought-resistant species - watermelon, melon, beans, andspecies adapting to insufficiently moist soil — tomatoes, carrots, parsley, red beet. However, with a shortage of water, their yield is small, and the taste of products is unsatisfactory.
With a lack of water in the soil, low air humidity, the growth of seedlings and seedlings is delayed, and there are adverse changes in growth and development of vegetable crops for the gardener. So, cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants fall flowers, ovaries. Lettuce, cauliflower, radish, radishes throw arrows ahead of time, these crops, as well as celery, potatoes, and kohlrabi become a rough part of the food. Onions, garlic in the phase of the 3-4th sheets weaken growth - the onions are crushed.↑ to content ↑
The power of the root system of vegetable crops is the basis for calculating the irrigation norm. With an increase in the intensity of these factors, transpiration( evaporation of water) of plants increases, and the absorption of water from the soil increases accordingly.
In addition to responding to the intensity of weather conditions, the need of plants for moisture is determined by their biological characteristics( see Table 1).
Table 1. Development of roots in different types of vegetable crops
Conventionally, the following groups of crops are distinguished:
1st group. Includes heat-resistant, drought-resistant species: watermelon, melon, pumpkin, vegetable corn, beans.
2- group. Species with a well-developed root system, which allows them to use a large amount of soil to absorb water: cucumbers, tomatoes, eggplants, peppers, carrots, beets, parsley, potatoes, beans, peas. At the same time, the rapid growth of the root system in the relatively shallow soil layer, which is abundantly moistened with regular watering, contributes to the active growth and formation of the harvest in these species. This should be considered when opportunities are limited.
3rd group. Species not capable of extracting water from soil in large quantities due to insufficiently powerful root system development: cabbage, lettuce, radishes, radishes, onions, and garlic. In this case, the first four species consume a large amount of water for transpiration( water evaporation by plants).↑ to content ↑
Optimum moisture, irrigation rates, number and time of irrigation of vegetable crops
For vegetable crops, soil moisture with some exceptions is maintained at a level not lower than 70% of the maximum field capacity( PPV), the optimum level as a percentage of PPV for vegetablescrops as follows:
- early - 80%,
- medium - 70-80%,
- late - 60-80%,
- early - 80%,
- late - 80%,
Potter Asylum 80%, 80%
- during tuber formationth - 80%,
White cabbage - 80-90%,
Cucumbers - 85-90%,
Onions - 80%,
Watermelons, melons, pumpkins - 70%.
The specified soil moisture is maintained by periodic irrigation, the rate of which is determined depending on the specific conditions:
- Moisture charging irrigation is given at a rate of 100-300 liters per m2.
- Preseeding or preseeding - give at a rate of 50-80 liters per m2.
- Pre-plant - when planting seedlings is 0.5-1.0 liters of water per well. Depending on weather conditions, pre-planting is done with small rates - 10-20 liters per m2.
Vegetation irrigation of the vegetable garden is carried out the entire period of growing plants before harvest. In different soil-climatic zones, from 1-2 to 15-20 irrigations are carried out with the norm from 10 to 80 l / m2.In the daytime( the hottest) time of day or in the evening in the southern regions they do refreshing irrigations in small portions of 2–4 l / m2.
Approximate norms and the number of vegetative irrigations of vegetable crops for the southern zone of the European part of Russia are given in Table.2.
Table 2. Irrigation norms, the number and time of irrigation of vegetable plants and potatoes
In years with insufficient moisture, the number of irrigations increases by two to three, respectively. In addition, in the hottest time, it is recommended to conduct a refreshing watering at a rate of 5-7 liters per 1 square meter.m. We draw the attention of readers: the irrigation period must be determined before the plants show signs of insufficient water supply: leaf substitution, residual water deficiency, abscission of fruits, ovaries. In this case, crop loss can not be replenished.
In the table.2 irrigation time is focused on the periods of the greatest sensitivity of the plant to water scarcity. Additional watering or cancellation must be placed between these periods.
Watering the garden is carried out depending on the specific conditions. Water the plants should be in the evening( in hot weather) or in the morning( if the nights are cold).It is better to finish the evening watering by 19 o'clock in the evening, so that the moisture on the leaves will evaporate by night.содерж to content ↑
Methods for watering the kitchen gardento content ↑
Watering the furrows and checks
Watering vegetable plants in a small area of the vegetable garden is carried out mostly superficially, with running water. Water is distributed over the entire surface or part of the soil surface. Surface watering can be done by furrows or checks. In conditions of an amateur garden, where there is almost no possibility of good leveling of the area, irrigation along furrows or checks is very suitable from the point of view of proper irrigation, even distribution of irrigation water, especially on light soils.содерж to the contents ↑
Designing the crests
The combs are designed as follows: chop, manually hoe or plow the furrows, the distance between which depends on the vegetable crop that will be planted in this area. Most often it is 60-70 cm. At the same time small earthworks are formed between the furrows - they are called ridges. After that, also a plow or chopper cut transverse furrows with a distance of 5-6 m from each other. These transverse furrows will be used for irrigation, design of ridges. Every second or every second or third ridge is cut from the inside( at both ends) so that water can circulate during irrigation( Fig. 1. A).The ridges are leveled, the grooves are first compacted, then leveled. Thus, make out the site for better movement of water. Combs are suitable for growing many vegetable crops - tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, cabbage, carrots, parsley, and others - on heavy soils in particularly rainy spring.содерж to the content ↑
The design of checks
Checks are straight rectangular or square pads fenced with crests( earth rollers).The site is divided into beds 5-6 m wide limited by irrigation furrows. Rectangular checks are placed from one irrigation furrow to another width from 1.2 to 1.5 m. Square checks are made by dividing each bed into 2 parts with a comb, spreading transverse crests after 2 m. This results in almost square checks measuring 2.5 x2 m. Checks are used for growing many vegetable crops — pepper, onion-Kaba, leek, cucumber, etc., also on light sandy soils( Fig. 1. B).↑ to the content ↑
Watering the vegetable garden
The use of a watering can is usually recommended when growing seedlings in greenhouses or open beds. The rate of irrigation depends on the weather, the characteristics of the cultivated vegetable crops, soil properties, the condition of the seedlings, etc. Practically, to moisten the soil layer in a greenhouse 15 cm thick, on the soil, per 1 square meter.m need to pour 40-50 liters( 4-5 water) of water. On open ridges, water consumption increases as the soil layer dries to a greater depth, the roots of the plants are located deeper, which can be determined experimentally. With a strong drying of the soil, you must first pour it lightly from a watering can, after a while give the necessary remaining amount of water. To ensure the irrigation rate, it is sometimes necessary to water it repeatedly at intervals necessary for the soil to absorb moisture. With a one-time irrigation rate, moisture will not be absorbed by the soil, leading to stagnant water on its surface or loss of moisture as a result of surface runoff. You can not water the entire garden, and the root zone of plants.↑ to content ↑
Regulation of relative air humidity( sprinkling)
Vegetable plants have different requirements for relative humidity of air. Some of them, for example, cucumbers, cauliflower, lettuce, spinach, require high relative humidity of 80-95%, and others, such as tomatoes, watermelons, melons, lower 50-60%.However, some combinations of air humidity, temperature create conditions for the appearance of diseases, pests, which require the regulation of these factors. By increasing or decreasing the number of irrigations of the vegetable garden with running water, it is possible to regulate the relative humidity of the air. Refreshing irrigation of the garden with sprinkling also has a beneficial effect on plants due to the increased air humidity.
In private gardens it is impossible to sprinkle as it is done in the fields, but here with a hose with different tips or by means of an electric pump, irrigation pipes of appropriate length, with nozzles at the ends, it is possible to achieve the effect of sprinkling. By sprinkling irrigation, it is easier to ensure an optimum irrigation rate, since it helps to reduce fluctuations in the water content of the soil or plants. This is of great importance for such vegetable crops as peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, beans, potatoes, root vegetables, etc., which do not tolerate over-wetting of the soil. Especially good sprinkling effect for all varieties of cabbage( white, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, Savoy), spinach, lettuce, head of lettuce, etc. Vegetable plants should be sprinkled in windless weather, as the wind drops the water in large drops on the plants. If it is necessary to carry out sprinkling with the wind, then the stream of water should be oriented in the direction of the wind. The most suitable time for sprinkling is in the afternoon, in the evening, at night. This is especially important to observe when sprinkling pepper or cucumber, as it prevents the occurrence of burns or diseases. After the fruit has formed, tomatoes can be sprinkled only at night or early in the morning to prevent the fruit from cracking.↑ to content ↑
Water-charging irrigation of the garden
Water-charging is called watering of fruit trees, shrubs, which provides a thorough wetting of the soil to the depth of the main mass of the root system of plants. In a fruiting apple tree on poorly or medium-sized rootstocks, the depth of the root system is 80-100 cm, in cherries, plums 60-70 cm, in shrubs 40-60 cm, etc. As a rule, water recharge irrigation is carried out after a dry summer or insufficient rainfall in the fall. The degree of soil moistening is easy to check when digging deep in autumn. Water recharge watering is necessary even if you have watered your fruit trees throughout the summer or in the fall have been good rains. Such irrigation has a positive effect on the condition of plants and their frost resistance.
The root system of trees, which is deficient in moisture during the summer and autumn periods, does not provide the necessary conditions for preparing the plants for overwintering. There is a risk of winter drainage of individual branches, especially against the background of frost, strong winds, in the absence of snow. It also increases the likelihood of damage to trees by winter sunburn of the bark on shtambah, skeleton branches. When drying the soil in winters with little snow in fruiting dwarf trees with superficial placement of the root system, in young gardens there is also the danger of freezing of the roots.
. Duration of water recharge irrigation for the Kuban - the end of October - November, for central Russia - August-September, i.e.there and there - after a massive leaf fall. At the same time, the rate of irrigation for fruit-bearing apples is up to 60-90 liters per 1 m² of the projection of the crown, young apples, cherries and plums up to 35-50 liters, and berry bushes up to 40 liters.
By the way, I often encounter such reasoning that wet soil freezes through easier, and this is dangerous for the root system of trees. Nothing like this! It is just the opposite! Sufficiently moist soil retains heat better in winter. After a dry summer, even if you diligently watered your garden for the entire season, water recharge irrigation is obligatory when the trees lose foliage.
For local soil irrigation near trees, at a distance of 60-80 cm from shtamb, it is better to irrigate along furrows located around the circumference. The depth of such grooves for a fruiting apple tree is 10–20 cm, stone fruit rocks with a superficial root system( cherry) up to 10 cm, while during the excavation of the grooves, no damage to the roots should be allowed. When watering heavy soils, it will take more time to soak the root layer.
The moisture reserve after autumn watering irrigation is enough for plants during the spring, the flowering time of such plants is shifted by 3-5 days, thus reducing the risk of damage to flowers by spring frosts. In addition, plants that are sufficiently hydrated in the autumn are more easily tolerated by strong winter frosts and dry winds.