Ground water has a negative impact on underground structures. Most of it "gets" the foundations and basements. The first is gradually eroded and lose the necessary strength, the second - are flooded, not suitable for use.
To country estate has not suffered enough to build drainage. But first necessary to familiarize with the principles of his device. Is not it?
Handyman and zealous owners who want to make an effective drainage of the foundation of the house with his own hands, on our website will find a lot of really useful information. Construction of underground drainage system with our help will be simple, accessible to the implementation of the task.
The article describes in detail the variety of drainage systems designed to protect the foundation. Are the rules of their device, take into account the requirements of regulations. As an illustrative application to use photos and videos.
The content of the article:
- The need for a drainage system
Types drainage portion
- Features an open drainage network
- Livnevki as an effective complement
- closed system device rules
- Equipment for underground drainage
- A short photo-course drainage construction
- on system operation of the device
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The need for a drainage system
Odor and dampness in the basement, mold and fungus on the walls - with such problems may face owners of houses located in areas of high transmission groundwater. But this is not the most serious troubles that threaten the unprotected structure.
Water, occasionally penetrating into the lower floors of the building, gradually washes away the support structure, in addition, it exerts a hydrostatic pressure on the floor and walls of the house.
It is particularly important to protect the buildings built on clay soils because they hold moisture and in winter they occur swelling, which can lead to the complete destruction of the foundation, and eventually all structure.
The construction of exhaust system ground water from the foundation required in areas with a characteristic flooding in flood period and stagnation of water after rain
Drainage protects the foundation from the aggressive effects of groundwater on the gradual leaching of the binder from concrete and final structural failure
The drainage system will eliminate the penetration of melt, atmospheric and ground water in the underground part of the building, furnished in the basement and basement premises
The drainage circuit depends on the engineering-geological conditions at the site and on the task
Drain circuit protects the base of the house from damage during the freezing that occurs due to swelling surrounding ground layers
Drainage and storm sewer - two different systems that perform different jobs. The first reduces the level of ground water and expels it from the site, the second - collects and diverts rainwater. Route them separately, but they may have a common manhole and go one collector
Despite the fact that the drainage transports only ground water is a serious sewerage system in need of inspection and checkpoints
The collected drainage water is discharged outside the system or a portion where the reset drains or a common drain pond or disposed of through an absorbent arranged in the territory well
BACKGROUND drainage device
Protection against the weakening and destruction of the foundation
Preventing basement flooding
The shallow depth contour emplacement
Exclusion of damage during winter
Drainage and storm water drain
Control point of the drainage system
Well for the disposal of the collected groundwater
Properly executed land drainage helps to solve several important problems:
- protect basements homes from flooding, mold growth and deterioration of building materials;
- protect the foundation from moisture and prolong its service life;
- dry groundaround the house and eliminate the stagnation of water;
- prevent over-saturation of the soil moisture after heavy rains and water stagnation on the surface.
But not always and not in all areas need to arrange drainage system. Before you plan and make the drainage of the foundation, it is necessary to take into account a number of factors: location portion, composition and quality of the soil, the groundwater level passage, topography, climatic features region.
Drainage system prevents flooding and facilitates extraction of groundwater from the house basement (+)
Construction of drainage networks necessary in the following cases:
- The basement of the house is below the groundwater level in flood period and rises above them by less than 0.5 meters.
- The building was built on clay soil: sandy loam, loam, even when the ground water flow is much lower than at home.
- The site is located in or on lowland slope.
In plots located on sand, gravel and soil types detrital, elevated or low passage groundwater optionally establish full drainage system. We can restrict an organization stormwater to drain from the building of rainwater.
But this is possible only in those areas where known precisely the type of soil and the level of underground water. If you intend to build a house in a new area, is now carried out geotechnical investigations without fail.
If the structure of the basement is at or slightly above the passage of groundwater, it will inevitably seep liquid
They are necessary for a proper choice of the form of the foundation under the house foundation. At the same time the study of soils, future construction resolve the question of the need to perform drainage work.
Geotechnical work allow us to determine at what level are the ground water in the area, and to establish whether there is a need for arrangement of drainage system
Types drainage portion
There are several types of drainage, which can be done on site. Depending on the depth underground drainage water surface divided into superficial and deep.
Drainage system for draining suburban areas are divided into open and closed varieties. Easier and faster arranged open view drainage (+)
A feature of the surface of the system is that its elements are arranged at a small depth that ultimately limits its functionality.
The easiest and cheapest way to the device with the drainage system portion - open drainage device. It represents a branched system of grooves, the walls of which strengthen the crumpled clay
The standard depth of about half a meter of open drainage. Apply it in areas with characteristic stagnation floodwater. If necessary, the system device on bólshey depth to the bottom of an open channel laid concrete trays and width of the trench is substantially increased, which is highly undesirable for a small country allotments.
The figures show the main varieties of drainage systems, which can equip the area for discharging rain and underground water from the house (+)
Features an open drainage network
This is the simplest and least costly drainage system, which is executed in the form of a network of open trenches, intended for the collection and removal of excess water from the gardening area.
It is often used in the regeneration drainage garden plot. Open type drainage from the building at the same time removes rain and melt water, and also excess fluid formed during the washing or irrigation.
However, this type of drainage can not be called a complete system, it can not protect the building against penetration of groundwater into recessed in the ground part of the building. If the area ground water are high enough, so drainage can only be used as an additional system of fluid drainage.
Livnevki as an effective complement
In order to collect and output a portion of water, as a result of stagnant atmospheric precipitation, arrange stormwater system. Its construct, if there is a need for drainage discharge can not cope fully with the drainage area. Storm water line equipped with a water intake point or line.
Spot or otherwise local water collector is designed to drain fluid from certain areas. It is mounted in a place where water flows periodically: under the gutters before the entrance doors, a crane, etc.
Under it is excavated pit, which is set street inlets which in turn connects to sewer pipe portion of the system. Top design closed with a decorative grille.
When laying pipes from gullies is necessary to provide a bias not less than 5 mm per one meter of pipeline
Linear water intake is designed to drain liquid from the house and from the surface of the soil in the entire area. It connects to the network of channels situated in the installation according to the developed scheme.
Typically, a network mounted on the perimeter of the building, at a low point set peskopriemnik for collecting garbage. The system is connected to an underground storm sewer through which water is discharged into the drainage wells.
Trays designed for linear drainage devices have different widths, depths bandwidth. They are selected in accordance with the specific features of the drainage system
Everything for linear drainage around the foundation dug a trench, and then to the bottom of the concrete foundation is laid, where special plastic or concrete trays for receiving the water are installed.
The network can be left open, but the most popular is a closed drainage system, which is mounted on top of a decorative protective grille.
closed system device rules
If the foundation of the house is set on clay soil, to solve the problem of fluid removal is only possible arrangement full of deep drainage system.
Low filtration properties of sandy loam to loam impede the free percolation of water into the the underlying layers, which is why there is flooding even at the level of the soil - 0,2-0,4 m from the ground surface.
A similar situation in areas with a high ground water standing mirror. There is it prevents flood and precipitation to infiltrate into the underlying layers. In areas with a high groundwater level, typically located in the hollows, even buried in sandy soil foundation it needs protective device drainage system.
Very often in areas set combination system comprising a drainage and storm drains, the fluid coming from both networks is given in one collector well (+)
Closed, ie underground drainage to protect foundation can be made in two versions: near-wall or annular. And in fact, in both cases the sewer drain is a closed network laid underground perforated tubes through which liquid is withdrawn into the reservoir or well filtration.
The difference is in the pipeline's location in relation to the house:
- trim drainage performed in close proximity to the structure;
- ring method - a trench dug in the region of not less than 1.5 m and not more than 3 m from the house foundation.
In areas with high occurrence of groundwater and clay rocks equip trim foundation drainage. It is also recommended when the building has ground floor.
Ring often settle in soils with good permeability (sandy, pebble and rocky, gravel) and in those cases, when the house is not provided for the ground floor.
In view of the fact that the trim fits foundation drainage near the house, it is desirable to carry out during the construction phase
Work is recommended at an initial stage of construction, this embodiment is preferred and convenient. However, if during the construction of buildings drainage pipes were laid, circular drainage can be done at home, and when the house is already built.
As for the near-wall version, it is not desirable to carry out next to the structure ready, as intervention in the foundation construction could adversely affect its strength and durability.
And wall, and an annular drainage constitute a single closed network of pipes, laid on the perimeter of the building. In both cases it is necessary to observe the recommended depth settings gasket drains (+)
The efficiency of the drainage network depends on two key parameters: the depth of laying the pipeline and the slope angle. The depth of the drainage pads depends on deepening the foundation of the house.
Here, the main rule - the pipeline must pass two feet deeper sole foundation. For a good outflow of water, it is necessary to provide a certain pipeline pitch in the direction of the house.
In areas with natural bias conduit is laid under the channel of which is done water. For flat land slope will have to do on their own, giving the bottom of the trench a certain relief. The water will drain well, if the slope of conduit will be provided of 1-3 cm one meter.
If you create the desired slope is not possible, set a pump for pumping water.
gated drainage laid in the trench, the bottom of which should be the sole foundation below the 15-20 cm
Furthermore the drainage device to fully protect the foundation wall or the liner coated with lubricative waterproofing material
Drains drainage pipe with perforations for receiving the water, with geotextile wrapped, which will prevent the system from entering the sand and other soil particles
Drainage pipes are laid with a gradient towards the discharge - the collector well, disposing in the ground water or guide the collected water offsite
Trench for laying subsurface drainage
The device is waterproof protection
Use of a geotextile drainage device
The conclusion of the drain pipe in the collector well
Equipment for underground drainage
For laying a drainage system uses special pipes - drains made from PVC or polyethylene. They differ from other types of pipes by small holes arranged on the surface at the same distance from each other. The holes are for penetrating ground water into the pipeline.
Drains are manufactured with a diameter of 50 to 200 mm, which allows to select the desired size of the pipe under the taps and to discharge the required volume of fluid
Important elements of the drainage system are the wells. Typically, the system is installed several types of wells. In all parts of the rotary core, and in the joints mounted audit capacity.
Rotary shafts need for periodic inspection of the system and, if necessary, carrying out cleaning work. The wells are made of plastic containers with a diameter of 315 or 400 mm. They can be made independently from the plastic tube of the required diameter.
After rotary shafts easy to clean and flush the system when blockages. To do this, you just need to send a stream of water into a pipe under high pressure
In areas where due to the nature of the terrain or for technical reasons it is impossible to carry drainage water into natural waterways, wells set rainwater.
They are intended for collecting liquid, which subsequently can be used for irrigation or other portion of household needs. To supply water is not flowed back into the pipe, the check valve is installed.
All pipes through which flows the dirt water is discharged into a collector, which is often used for collecting liquid from the surface of the drainage network
In soils that are highly absorptive capacity, set the filtration wells. In these constructions, instead of bottom filling with a special drainage through which the liquid to a preliminary purification, leaves the ground.
The diameter of such wells ranges from a half to two meters. The structure may serve drainage systems, in which the volume of the incoming fluid does not exceed 1.5 m2 per day.
A short photo-course drainage construction
Consider the process of drainage device designed to drain ground water from the basement of a newly built home. Before laying the foundation layer contains the geological section and loam soil and topsoil above, the power of which does not exceed 20 cm.
Loam has low filtration properties, bad and very slow water tight. In the flood period Obvodny site, and during the freezing and thawing of the soil sags unevenly.
In order to get rid of ground water it has been decided to build a drainage system with its output to a collector well with absorbing bottom.
Around the house we dig a trench depth of about 20 cm longer than the depth of laying the foundation. To accelerate development, rent mini-tractor from the walls of the house back down about 1.2 m to equipment not damaged house
The side, which will be laid sewer pipe to drain the collected water into the reservoir, tried to make the slope. The lowest point of the trench around the house is to be an angle which is joined to the sewer drain pipe
During development, we try not to damage the existing communication. If the track is crossed by running water or sewage, all will deepen the trench on the exposed pipe diameter. The resulting drain is to be laid under the communications, the slope of the trench must be met
Before laying geotextile drainage pipe wrap, which filter the ground water and protects from sand Dren
The bottom of the trench filled with sand and leveled before laying it so that 1 meter slope was at least 3-5 cm. Put on top and sprinkle gravel Dren
Where reasonable drainage pipe lay next to the sewer at the same height, stack them into a trench and covered with sand and gravel
Paving the drain pipe around the house all over the trench, sprinkle it with gravel so that it was possible to dig out and change the position if necessary
We continue the development of the trench to the pit, which was dug earlier mini-tractor. Respect requires all over the road slope
Step 1: Development of trenches for drainage device
Step 2: The device bias towards unloading
Step 3: entrenchment of existing communications
Step 4: The winding of drainage pipe with geotextile
Step 5: Laying the drainage pipe in the trench
Step 6: Installation of drains near the sewage
Step 7: Partial filling of the trench with drains
Step 8: Development of the trench to the installation location of the well
We now proceed to a device with an absorbing well bottom through which the collected water drains will be disposed in the lower layers with good filtration characteristics:
Buy and pay for the delivery of concrete rings on site. The number of rings in advance forward, being guided by a depth layers which allow water to / through itself
Set in the previously developed concrete pit rings sequentially. Before each subsequent immersion into the excavation face ring handle previous grout
We clean the bottom of the well from crumbling during installation breed. Putting it ruined the soil in the bucket, which pulls upward Assistant
In the device prepared precoat filter well bottom laid geotextiles
On geotextile pour 30-35 cm of sand, and then go to sleep 35-40 cm gravel fines. These are the first two precoat filter layer
Go to sleep 40 - 45 cm of coarse gravel on top of two layers of the previously fallen asleep. On entering the pipe trench bias level according to introduce them into a well with built-absorbing filter bottom
We put on a concrete pit constructed concrete slab, which will be fixed at the final stage of the hatch with a hinged lid
If, during the production of works in the developed trench accumulated water is pumped her drain pump
Step 9: Transportation of concrete rings object
Step 10: Build the well of concrete rings
Step 11: Preparation of the bottom of the well to the filter device
Step 12: Placement of a geotextile on the bottom of the well
Step 13: Filling of sand and gravel on top of the geotextile
Step 14: Filling a large gravel and putting pipes
Step 15: Install the ceiling on the absorbing well
Step 16: Pumping of water from the trench before laying pipes
Now you can safely admit that the system is actually built, it remains only to carry out work to finish filling and arrangement of the site:
Fix the pipe, extended to the absorbing well, with sand in several places, check the slope and produce the finish backfilling
Fill the trench with their pipes laid in the sand system, not using the extracted in the development of loam
Install and fix the door of the absorbing well, fill the pit with sand around the plants, producing layered tamper
Align the surface of the earth in managed drainage area. Recovered from the trenching and excavation loam was exported, as it is not suitable either for construction or for the area planning nor Horticulture
Step 17: Filling the trench with soil pipe
Step 18: Finish filling the trench with sand
Step 19: Construction of the neck of the absorbing well
Step 20: Align fields and garbage loam
on system operation of the device
At arrangement of the wall of the drainage network before you make directly the foundation drainage, it is necessary to correct waterproofing. To do this, you need to pre-coat the walls of the house with two layers of asphalt mastic. Wherein the first masking layer is reinforced with a net.
This work helps to strengthen the foundation and prevent its destruction.
the same materials are used for near-wall arrangement, and a drainage trench. But in the first case it is necessary to conduct further waterproofing and insulation of the foundation (+)
Around the perimeter of the house dug a trench half a meter deeper than the base of the foundation. On the rotating section is necessary to provide space for the installation of drainage wells. When the device of the wall system or a trench dug around the house, or at a distance of no more than half a meter from the house.
If the selected option annular back down 1.5-3 m from the structure. The bottom of the ram thoroughly, then poured into the bottom layer of sand 5 cm and well-tamped. With sand on the bottom of the trench create the necessary bias. On a sandy base will fly first geotextile - its edge should protrude by about 50 cm on each side.
Geotextile will serve as a filter to prevent the system from silting. Next poured a height of 10 cm gravel, and already it drainage pipes are laidWhich also covered the top crushed stone backfill.
Wrapped from all sides of the drain pipe is a kind of center of the pie of waterproofing materials. With such filling it would be good to carry freezing temperatures and other adverse weather conditions
The resulting structure is covered by overlapping both edges of the geotextile so that the tube has been fully wrapped in the fabric. In places where the rotation of the pipeline established inspection chambers.
Taps for tapping pipes made at least 20 cm from the bottom. This padding is needed in order to trash caught in the drain with the water settles at the bottom of the well, and did not arrive in the collector. When will be the audit system, debris can be removed with water.
Once the pipes are connected to the rotary wells is performed finish backfilling the trench with soil excavated from it. On top of wall drainage, after compaction, make the blind area of the building.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
This video details how to properly perform a drainage area:
The video explains how to make the drainage of the finished house foundation:
That the house is not settled dampness and mold, and turned the lives of its inhabitants into a nightmare, you must make a timely drainage of the foundation. This work is recommended to perform at step construction design. To settle better to attract specialist and drainage can equip itself independently.
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