The drainage system is designed to protect underground structures from the effects of groundwater. We need it in areas with complex hydrogeological conditions, among which we include the majority of land holdings.
Timely drainage device around the house foundation will extend the service to get rid of the eternal repairs. It is cheaper to prevent the destruction of the foundations of the building, than endlessly restore agree?
How to organize the drainage around a private home, you will learn from the presented articles. Detailed description of the types and principles of operation of the drying system will determine the optimum device for this. Using the proposed information, you'll be able to build a functioning network to tap underground water.
The owners of land who want to build their own drainage gated find a detailed description of the technology and a step by step account of the work sequence. The text of the complementary photo-verification and video instruction.
The content of the article:
- The reasons for the organization of drainage system
- Typical drainage varieties
- Design of ground water drainage system
- Features of the closed variant
- Stages of drainage structures around the house
- Appointment of the blind area, and its device
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The reasons for the organization of drainage system
Special drainage pipe or channel system arrange in such a way so that more moisture can get inside and move to a safe distance from your home or other structures. The problem of moisture on the foundation is usually characteristic for clay soil: sandy loam, loam, clay.
In areas with a predominance of clay rocks in the context of the water is absorbed slowly or does not go away completely. Due to the stagnation of water destroyed the foundation of the house. Available basement waterproofing protection may not be enough, on it may be poorly taped seams, rough putty areas.
Drainage system around the perimeter of the house arrange for the protection of the foundations and basements from groundwater. Drainage usually supplemented livnevki for the collection and discharge of precipitation
As a result, there is a concrete monolith mold, fungus, corrosion on the reinforcement, which further often causes the destruction of the foundation.
On sandy, well-permeable soil moisture goes faster, so this kind of problem occur less frequently. Still, the home owner should not relax and rely on "maybe" in this case.
Excessive hydration of the structure can be caused not only by the characteristics of soil, but also other characteristics of the site. For example, high levels of ground water leak preventing moisture from overlying layers down.
The drainage system is being constructed around the house is laid at the base of the foundation depth to on the underground construction is fully retracted groundwater
If the bottom of the wall after the rain for a long time covered with damp patches, it indicates that you need to think about the necessity of drainage facilities. Wet walls in the basement, the presence of mold or fungus shows that take the drainage problem at the site should only yesterday.
The lack of a drainage system where it was necessary, not only will cause the destruction of the foundation, but the walls. Building construction will gradually weaken and become wet because of the natural capillary suction
Even a very good basement waterproofing eventually become worthless. This is another reason to take care of good drainage near the house. The smaller the impact of groundwater on the structural parts of the building, the less need extensive work to restore the waterproofing layer applied to the foundation.
If the collection and diversion of groundwater and flood waters were not included in the construction phase, after the construction of can take care of the drainage around the house and on his device with his own hands.
The main sign that signals the need for devices drainage system is long is not absorbed into the ground flood and meltwater, and the puddles after a rain. This means that the underlying soil layers of low permeability of soil
The need for the construction of drainage can be shown on the stage of development of the pit. This confirms the need to perform geotechnical investigations prior to construction - they reveal similar situation, whereby measures for drainage and water drainage portion to be laid on a step design
Measures to protect the foundation not only include drainage facilities, but also a waterproofing barrier device
Drainage is especially important if you plan arrangement basements and insulation of underground structures. Soaked insulation loses 70% of insulating properties
Not to be confused storm sewers and drainage systems. Although they are often laid in the same trench, but solve different problems
Runoff collected stormwater, groundwater and water collected drainage diverted to different pipes, but may be output to the common collector well which redirects the water to the objects discharge
Stowed in general can trench drains and channels of storm sewage gullies with point. Linear livnevki embodiment is constructed separately from drainage, may only coincide aryk type systems
For recycling the collected drainage and drainage water are used a variety of options. If you allow the land area and the lower layers of the filtration properties better than those of the overlying, for the disposal of water is better to build a well-absorbing
The stagnation of water in the flood period
The water in the pit house under construction
Protection device of the foundation ground water
Diversion of water to protect the insulation
Gaskets livnevki pipes and drainage in a single trench
Swivel well underground utilities
Street inlet point livnevki
Absorbing well for drainage system
Typical drainage varieties
There are several major drainage systems, with which you can collect and take unnecessary moisture from the house and from the site. With proper design and installation of each of them shows a sufficiently high efficiency, but the cost in time, effort, and funds depend on the complexity of the design.
There are three variants of the organization of the drainage system:
Open drainage systems represent ditch depth of about 50-70 cm and a width of the order of half a meter. Dug such ditches around the house is not a problem, but the landscape will suffer considerably. And all the time to jump through the depression surrounding the house, not too convenient.
Open drainage ditches satisfied by type - Channel system with permeable walls, through which ground water penetrates into the channel and is discharged to a place of discharge
Open drainage usually cover neat decorative grilles. They protect the design of large debris and blockages caused by them. And look, such grooves with bars more aesthetically pleasing.
Sediment Drainage System They represent approximately the same trench, not only their closed cover grilles and poured moisture permeable material, for example coarse gravel, broken bricks or gravel. Arrange drainage of this type is not too difficult, and the cost will be quite moderate.
Sediment drainage system is very simple in design, they consist of a ditch filled with a large filter material, such as gravel
Before starting work, you need to perform layout and cut the sod carefully at the site of excavation. Ditches to sleep is not the top, so there is not much space.
On top of backfill placed reserved for this purpose turf to minimize the damage to the landscape area. At the bottom of the trench to lay a layer of geotextile it is recommended to extend the life of the structure.
This version of the drainage system has some drawbacks: it is more difficult to clean than open system. Of course, getting into the garbage so the drainage is unlikely, but there remains the problem of siltation content channel.
If the efficiency of water diversion noticeably decreases, you may have to remove the sod again, replace the filler, and then return the system to its previous state.
subsurface drainage the most difficult to install, but it is reliable and has a long service life. The drainage ditch is laid a layer of gravel or the like, mounted on top of the pipe with a perforated surface.
Usually use plastic design, they are cheaper, smaller and weigh on their surface perforations easier than metal counterparts.
Often, the drainage system complements the storm, which is necessary for removing heavy rainfall. Usually it consists of a series of tubes and troughs, through which water is moved to the pit
Closed drainage system is best mounted along the curb lanes surrounding the house. Here, the entire system will be safely hidden and absolutely no effect on the external portion of the form. There is also such a thing as trim drainage.
His suit in the process of construction of houses in cases where the planned construction of the basement or ground floor. Drainage pipes are laid directly in the pit under the foundation near the walls, and then it all poured filter material and soil.
For the construction of the closed type drainage system will need a perforated plastic pipe, gravel and the geotextile layer. You can use plain sewer pipe, which are made holes
Another important element of the system - storm water drainage. It is open trays, which are designed for the collection and transportation of water collected from the roof and the blind area of the house in the rain. Storm water drainage and is opened and closed, it is commonly installed under gutters attached to the chutes and funnels.
Features of the organization of a garden site drainage detailed in this article.
Design of ground water drainage system
Of course, the drainage system consists not only of pipes and troughs. To monitor the state of the system need manholes, and should arrange drainage well, which will be given this excess moisture. For this reason, the ditches, in which laid pipe, attach a small bias towards it the well.
Before starting work on the device of the drainage system should draw up a project to calculate the amount of materials needed and avoid mistakes (+)
It makes sense to consider the procedure for the installation of closed drainage system because it is the most difficult to implement. Open the filling and the option can be arranged on the basis of the same principles.
Tubes closed system is laid along the perimeter at a distance of 0.7-1.0 m from it. By analogy to form grooves open the filling and the drainage pattern.
At each corner, which performs a rotation of the trench must be installed manholes. Advance must determine the location of the pit arrangement, which will be reset abstracted water.
If water harvesting is expected off-site, then arrange drainage well. From him pave another tube, which usually goes to a roadside ditch. You can make removal and local body of water, if there is one in the immediate vicinity of the house.
Tubes are placed into a manhole so that there was a gap between them. This will allow to easily inspect and maintain the system
The depth of the trench under subsurface drainage depends on the size of the foundation. Tubes should be put on the 50 cm deeper than baseplates. In this communication slope should be 0.7-1%.
It is not necessary to lay a pipe with a large slope, as this can cause blockages. Small slope is also not recommended, as it will negatively affect the process of diversion of moisture.
A trench in a closed drainage system to make two feet deeper than the foundation slab are arranged, wherein the observe deviation in the 1%
The width of the trench should be larger than the diameter of the drainage tube 20 cm: 10 cm clearance on each side. Location of drainage system should reflect the schematic on paper, denoting all its elements. This will allow to calculate the length of the communications, as well as the number of additional elements necessary for the proper installation of the system.
Features of the closed variant
Knowing exactly how to make the drainage around the house and part of the project should be prepared for further work. It should be reserved materials, as well as the right tools.
During the work can be necessary:
- twine for marking and labeling provisions of communications;
- building level and plumb to control the bias of pipes;
- bayonet and shovel;
- tool for soil compaction;
- bucket and / or a wheelbarrow to transport unnecessary land;
- Roulette for performing measurements;
- hacksaw and m. p.
It will need a certain amount of drainage pipes. This special design with perforations, they usually made of plastic. Instead, you can use plastic pipes for outdoor sewerage, After having made holes on the surface of a conventional drill.
In addition, it is necessary to prepare: geotextiles, sand, gravel or similar material, manholes in the number of turns, etc.
During installation of the drainage system around the house using geotextiles - non-woven filter material and rubble major factions
Geotextile necessary in order to protect the filler surrounding the drain pipe against penetration of fine particles of clay and silt. Save this material is not necessary. It should be sufficient to completely cover the walls and the bottom of the excavated trench backfilled and covered with a solid pipe overlap.
First, it is recommended to perform marking on the ground, and then to start excavation. Usually begin to dig from the highest point of the system, gradually deepening the trench.
When calculating slope drainage pipe you can focus on the specification of 1%. If the trench length is 20 m, the height difference between its initial and final point must be 20 cm. The necessary measurements are made using a conventional roulette.
After the trench is ready, it should be thoroughly compacted bottom. Then poured on the bottom of the sand layer to 10 cm, which is also carefully ram. After that, the entire trench is recommended to lay a geotextile layer so as to be covered and the bottom and the walls of buildings, and the edge of the material comes to the surface and loosely lying on the ground.
The device uses a closed drainage system Drainage pipe with perforations, geotextiles and Sediment materials: sand, gravel, crushed stone (+)
Now, at the bottom, a latent geotextile, it is necessary to pour a layer of gravel about 20 cm. Acceptable is any filter material: crushed stone, concrete block, brick fragments, etc. The main thing that his faction was larger than the size of the holes in the drainage pipes, or blockage can not be avoided.
After laying the gravel is necessary to level and be sure to check the slope of communication, it must meet before the calculations and measurements.
If everything is in order, on the gravel lay drainage pipes, connect them with inspection and drainage wells. Then the system is filled with another layer of gravel (gravel, expanded clay, etc.) The height of this layer should also be 20 cm. The edges of the geotextile, which remained free, is wrapped over the filling layer.
In places where the drainage pipe rotation set manholes, which are necessary to monitor the state of the system. On top of their capped
Overlapping layers of the nonwoven should be about 30 cm. Sometimes it is recommended to fix the position of the geotextile by means of twine or plastic clips.
Now it is possible to fill the remainder of the trench with sand (10 cm layer is needed) and a ground. The sand must again be compacted, particularly in the space on the sides of the drainage pipe. Above the cut previously laid turf or mounted track.
You can think of your own variant of decorating the place laying of drainage pipes. Should remain access manholes covers, as well as to the point of discharge of moisture abstracted.
Manholes are vertical plastic containers with lids. They are used for checking the condition of the system.
Drain well - it is wider container, it can be round or square in configuration. Most often, for its arrangement using an old plastic barrel.
Choosing unloading options for each individual drainage systems. Dependent on the geological and hydrogeologic conditions, plot area, and a number of related factors. easier and cheaper to withdraw water through the pipe for discharge into the gutter
If there is an opportunity to build on the site of a well-absorbing, ie, space allows and under the loam deposited sands, the unloading is performed by transferring the collected water through a sand filter precoat of sewage points
When the absorption device well in sandy loam soils, do not differ high filtration properties of the perforated wall are collected rings to increase outflow velocity
If you plan to withdrawal of water collected off-site, it redirects to construct the collector well
Unloading of water collected in the gutter
Construction of absorbing well
Filter well with perforated walls
Collector well for further transport
It is also possible to use a concrete ring or make suitable diameter wall of reinforced concrete. In the latter case, be sure to perform reinforcement design. Top drainage wells should be closed durable cover.
Stages of drainage structures around the house
Construction of a drainage system, designed for the drainage of the stage and lays during construction of the house, includes a number of standard successive stages:
Marked by using laser leveling points perform initial markup site. Manually denote angles and reference points for future constructions
We continue to breakdown the future construction site, using lasers. We note the trench contour for drainage and foundation apparatus
Develop excavator trench for underground communications devices: pipe laying drainage livnevki and conventional sewerage
Backfilled trench bottom quarry sand containing no lumps loam and sandy loam. Ramming the bottom with a slope of 2-3 cm per meter, directed towards the receiving reservoir drains
On hard-packed bottom of the trench should be laid geotextile. The edges of the cloth factory on the trench wall by about 15-20 cm
Collect storm sewage and drainage pipe mounted perforated corrugated pipe wrapped in geotextile. We put the system in one trench. If there is laid sewer network, it is also reasonable to put a pipe in a trench
Cornering the track and every 25 m set up inspection and pivot manholes. For livnevki and drainage may be the same, normal sewer manholes set separately
Trench with assembled systems connected to the inspection and turning wells, as well as to fill the pit at first gravel, then sand quarry
Step 1: Breakdown to the site of the foundation and drainage
Step 2: Perform accurate marking tool
Step 3: Develop a trench for underground communications
Step 4: Stacking trench and sand rammer
Step 5: Placement of geotextile to the bottom of the trench
Step 6: Build the drainage and Communications
Step 7: The connection systems to manholes
Step 8: Fill the trench with systems
Appointment of the blind area, and its device
Protect walls and foundations from unnecessary moisture will also help complementing drainage blind area around the house. So called layer of waterproof material, which is laid along the walls sloping outwardly. Precipitation falling on the blind area, immediately drain away from the house, so contact the walls and basement moisture is minimal.
Otmostku around houses operate using waterproof materials which are laid at an obtuse angle to the outer wall surface
To perform a blind area, can be used such materials:
- a rock;
- PVP membrane.
Installation of the blind area of clay and stone, as well as paving slabs can be quite time-consuming, but this looks just fine finish. Asphalting and concreting much cheaper, but it looks very modest, even utilitarian.
PVP membrane mounted in the soil column, the top can be arranged any time convenient cover: turf tile, turf, etc.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The order of execution of drainage at home with his hands clearly presented in this video:
Interesting tips for drainage works can be seen here:
An embodiment of the blind area around the house:
It is obvious that to protect the house from moisture you need to take a number of measures, and the drainage system should be effectively combined with the blind area, livnevki etc. In all future efforts will pay off, because the foundation of the house, its walls and the ground floor for a long time will not need repair.
Do you have personal experience of arrangement of drainage around the house? Want to share how-to or ask questions on the topic? Please leave your comments - a form of discussion is below.