What could be more attractive than flower gardens decorating your garden? Of course, flowering trees, shrubs. And when the orchard is already poured with juicy fruits, the garden hibiscus becomes the main favorite of the gardeners of the south. Care and reproduction, cultivation features - all this will be the main topic of our conversation.
- Hibiscus - species and varieties
- herbaceous hibiscus
- varieties of herbaceous hibiscus
- Shrub hibiscus
- Grades shrub hibiscus
- Outline hibiscus
- How to care for hibiscus
- Features care herbaceous hibiscus
- Care Syrian hibiscus
- As multiplies hibiscus
- Pruning hibiscus autumnor in spring, when
- is better Hibiscus - signs, superstitions, traditions
- Garden hibiscus - photo
What is hibiscus know nmany. But almost all flower growers know what a Chinese rose is. But these plants from the same family - malvovye. Few huge flower will leave indifferent. This is an incredible beauty of a garden plant, exotic.
Hibiscus - species and varieties
Starting to write this article, I did not think that the classification of garden hibiscus, dividing them into species, varieties will cause difficulties. But it turned out to be quite a challenge. I did not find a clear systematization of species and varieties. But I can still share some information with .
There are wild and cultivated species. There are annuals and perennials. Of them can be identified tree, shrub, grassy species.
Wikipedia, by the way, gives its classification of species:
- Hemp, or Kenaf( Hibiscus cannabinus ) - is used by the spinning industry of some tropical countries;
- Chinese, or Chinese Rose( Hibiscus rosa-sinensis ) - indoor culture;
- Rosella, or Sabdarif or Sudanese Rose( Hibiscus sabdariffa ) - from the Malvaceae family, common in tropical countries, originally bred in India;
- Syrian( Hibiscus syriacus ) is a common perennial species in Russia for outdoor cultivation. Frost-resistant, perennial, shrub;
- Triple or Northern( Hibiscus syriacus ) is an annual herb that grows on mountain slopes along rivers and lakes in Asia, India, the Mediterranean, others.perennial herb, favorite gardeners of southern Russia. In winter, the aboveground part dies off.
Let's try to figure out what types of hibiscus exist. Let us take as a basis the classification according to the methods of growth and forms of development: herbaceous, shrub, and tree-like.
- Herbaceous - tall shrub with strong erect branches, large leaves, large flowers. The diameter of the flower( depending on the variety) can reach 40 cm. The bush dies annually in the autumn, and in the spring it throws away young shoots again.
- Shrub - a slow-growing deciduous shrub with many branches. Blooms profusely throughout the season. Flowers are medium in size from 5 to 25 cm in diameter. By the way, all shrub species can be formed into a single trunk, getting beautiful flowering trees.
- Tree - single-leaf deciduous tree that can grow up to 5-6 meters tall. The whole season is covered with flowers up to 12 cm in diameter.
A common feature of all varieties: a flower lives only for a day, but at the same time one faded bud is immediately replaced by a new one that blossoms, so the flowering seems to be permanent.
Now there are new varieties - flowers can stay fresh for more than one day. But it all depends on the degree of coverage. The more sunny place you have chosen for your pet, the longer the life of one flower. But still, the flowering time is short - from one to 2-3 days.
Landscape designers are very fond of garden hibiscus of all kinds. Urban gardens, parks often adorn shrub species. And in the private courtyard, suburban areas are increasingly possible to meet grassy species.содерж to content ↑
These are hybrids that were bred by crossing three varieties of North American origin - olypus, pink, red. This is a perennial, which, after the withering of the ground part under the condition of sheltering the root system, can withstand temperatures down to -30ºС.
The rhizome of one specimen is quite powerful, looks like a tuber. The bush blossoms from the middle of summer to late autumn. At the same time can bloom from ten or more flowers.
Grassy varieties are in great demand because of the large( up to 30-40 cm in diameter) bright colorful flowers( white, red, pink, burgundy, etc.), sometimes terry. The height of this plant can reach three meters. This length of the branch has time to reach in one season.
Among grassy the most popular among gardeners: marsh. Why so called? Because for the first time, the whole thickets of this incredibly beautiful plant were found in the marshes along the Mississippi River, where they are perennial. In our country, they also belong to the perennial, but with the aerial part of the bush dying off in winter.
Grassy varieties look great on beds with a stunted neighbor. For example, in the center of a rose garden, your pet will be a magnificent king. Huge flowers the size of a plate will surprise not only you, but your guests, neighbors, just passers-by.содерж to content ↑
Grasses of grassy hibiscus
The variety Copper King is a compact bush. The rounded compact form is achieved by an annual formation of not more than 120 cm tall. Dark green, delicate, shaped like maple leaves can change color, which depends on the ambient temperature. Flowers are large, up to 30 cm in diameter, the colors of strawberry mousse are white and pink with bright pink stripes. The heart of the flower is crimson-red. Resistant to diseases.
Krenberry Crash variety - grows in a rounded, lush shrub with planting from the roots, 90-120 cm in height. It has a feathery green leaves with purple streaks. Flowers large up to 25 cm in diameter, juicy burgundy color with dark stripes on the petals.
Old Yella Grade is a strong shrub with strong shoots up to 100-120 cm high, with landscaping from the roots. The leaf is green, feathery, maple-like form, with a violet tinge in sunlight. The flowers are huge 30 cm in diameter, white or cream in color with a red core. Wavy petals.
Separately, the participants of various forums discuss garden yellow herbaceous hibiscus - this species has several varieties, but, according to some flower growers, all of them can be only annuals! Direct text is written: “Do not believe, if they try to sell you a perennial yellow, such a hybrid does not exist, although breeders are trying to achieve this. This species will have to be sown with seeds every year. ”
But, nevertheless, some amateur gardeners claim that they grow yellow perennials. Maybe you, readers, can bring clarity? If your garden is decorated with this flower, have experience in the care, cultivation, write a comment.
Among the shrubs, the most popular is Syrian, which has many varieties. Its flowers are smaller in size than those of a grassy species, reaching a diameter of 12 cm. The colors are varied: flowers of violet, white, red hues, varieties with two-tone color are found.
The splendor of some varieties of flowers is complemented by long pistils with fluffy stamens that attract bees and butterflies.
With proper care, the bush is usually richly covered with flowers, it looks very delicate, although it grows more slowly than the grassy one. On a bright, sheltered from the wind, scorching sun place can grow up to 20 years.
The height of a bush reaches two to three meters, less often four to six, and its width is 1.5 meters.
But when purchasing a young copy, do not suffer the question: why does the hibiscus not bloom? Syrian shrub blooms only after 3-4 years.содерж to content ↑
Shrub Hibiscus Varieties
Ardens Grade - is a perennial deciduous shrub growing up to 2-3 meters tall. Easy to form, like a stem tree. Dense flowering rather large( up to 14 cm) terry lavender flowers or pale pink.
The Blue Sateen variety is a perennial leafy shrub. Height can be up to 4-6 meters. Often form a shtamba to make a bush compact tree, or a single trunk, removing excess shoots in the first years of life. The flowers are large, 15 cm in diameter, blue, azure and cornflower-blue flowers. The depth of the color depends on the lighting, the bigger it is - the more saturated the color of the flowers.
Tree - a great solution for novice florists - because it is quite unpretentious. The main advantage is that it winters beautifully in the south, without requiring additional shelter, except perhaps for the first years. The tree is different from shrub species, only in appearance - one trunk, which can branch at a height of about half a meter. The photo below is a young four-year tree. This is his second bloom.
An adult plant can grow up to 5 meters tall, even taller.
The leaves of the tree are large, bright green, flowers of medium size, bright color, there are also terry, two- or three-colored.содерж to content ↑
How to care for hibiscus
Any variety of this plant loves the sun or bright light. Care is not difficult - timely watering, weeding, regular feeding with nitrogen or phosphate fertilizers with a monthly frequency, at least. In case of heat, it is necessary to avoid top dressing at the root, better nutrient spraying with fertilizers on the leaf.
Closer to the fall, it is necessary to add potash fertilizers, stopping feeding nitrogen or phosphate fertilizers, this will help prepare for wintering.
It is worth noting that all garden hibiscus love rotted needles. It can be added to the planting pit when transplanting or planting seedlings, it can also be mulch the rhizome zone.
Many gardeners love to pamper their plants with a summer shower on the foliage, Hibiscus will not give up this pleasure. The main thing to remember that to carry out "water procedures" can only be closer to sunset, when the sun no longer burns the leaves.
An alarming sign can be the simultaneous wilting of all flowers - the plant lacks moisture! Resuscitate will help urgent abundant watering.
To protect your pet from the main enemy - aphids are recommended to plant a few lavender bushes, the scent of which will scare away pests.
Herbaceous, as well as some shrub varieties require shelter for the winter, so many gardeners prefer tree-like members of the genus because of their ability to delight with their beauty for many years without any special care and preservation of pets in the winter.
It is worth paying attention to the features of care for different species.↑ to content ↑
Features of care for grass hibiscus
Watering, feeding, weeding, as in all species.
When autumn comes, the stem, leaves, withered flowers die. Nutrients from them are gradually absorbed by the root system. This makes it more developed, strong, makes it easier to transfer the frosty winters.
That is why you should not cut the stems of grassy species before they completely wither. In the south, where there is often no natural shelter in the form of snow, you should correctly create an artificial one.
The first thing we do: we cut off the shrunken aerial part, spill water well, break loose, roll up the rhizome zone. You can sprinkle with humus or mulch. Sawdust, fallen leaves, dry grass, coniferous litter will do. If it is needles, then in the spring it can be not removed, but left on top, slightly mixing with the ground loosening.
The resulting bump on top should be covered with a white soft covering material, having pressed it with stones or branches, having erected some kind of hut. When frosts are bypassed, carefully release the hemp plants from the warming pad, being careful not to damage the buds. After all, in May, young shoots appear, in which for pomp it is advised to pinch the tops.
Every three years it is necessary to divide the rhizome of the grassy hibiscus so that its flowering does not diminish, it does not shrink. After all, every season the number of shoots is tripled. The struggle for nutrients, moisture becomes more difficult. In the first year of life, the number of main shoots is one, in the second two or nine, usually five, and after three years, there are three times as many. It is time to divide the bush, which, by the way, is one of the ways of its reproduction.содерж to content ↑
Care for Syrian hibiscus
The adult shrub tolerates our Kuban winter well, and it is better to wrap the branches of a young pet( 1-2 years old) with white covering material, and rumble or rinse the rhizome area well. The root cover layer must be at least 15 cm tall. Do not forget to free the plant from it in spring!
The Syrian species wakes up quite late, do not be afraid - it should be, it's just some of its features.
Shrub fertilizer loves phosphate( for example, Bud), which activate flowering. Closer to the fall, you need to start introducing potash preparations in order to prepare the shrub for wintering. Tree care is different only in the fact that in winter you can not hide it. The exception is young saplings, which, nevertheless, the first 1-2 winters should be covered.содерж to content ↑
How hibiscus reproduces
It depends on the species. For example, tree varieties can only propagate by cuttings, grafts, seeds.
Shrub, in addition to grafting, grafting, sowing seeds, can be propagated by layering.
Herbaceous are easiest to reproduce by dividing a bush, but the methods listed above are grafted, sowing with seeds is also inherent in them.
Reproduction by seeds is not difficult: it is done like any sowing without any special tricks.
Works begin from January to March. First, it is recommended to soak the seeds for 10-12 hours in a solution of Appin. After that, wash them with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
For sowing, you will need a container, a mixture of sand and peat, as well as a shelter( glass, polyethylene or food film).Soaked seeds are sown in moist soil, covered. In order to keep the seedlings from waiting, you should maintain the temperature around + 25ºС.Also, do not forget to air the container with crops, remove condensate drops, and if necessary, moisten the surface of the soil. After the shoots have leaves, they can be planted in separate pots.
And in May, stronger seedlings are moved to a permanent place, and their weak brethren are moved to a temporary place for growing.
When breeding seeds garden hibiscus bloom for 3-4 season. Remember, he may not keep the decorative of his parent. Therefore, seed multiplication is not the best way to purchase a flower with exactly those properties that you liked so much.
Reproduction by cuttings is the most popular method among amateurs. It can be produced in two ways.
- Cuttings in the summer with 3-4 buds, dipped in water with the addition of Kornevin or another root growth stimulator. After the appearance of the roots, the cuttings are planted first in containers with peat ground for the winter, and in spring - in open ground.
- Cuttings in the summer with 3-4 buds are processed by the root system growth stimulant as in the first method. But after that they immediately land in greenhouse containers with wet peat for rooting. The cuttings that gave the roots are planted in pots for wintering, and in spring they are planted in open ground.
When grafting, there is a high probability that your pet will delight you with its bloom in the very first year.
Reproduction of garden hibiscus by dividing the bush is more suitable for grassy varieties. By the way, rhizome division is a necessary technique for the care of grassy species to maintain high-quality flowering. This is one of the fastest, most convenient ways to breed.
In early spring, carefully dig out a bush of 3-4 years old with a fork, divide the rhizome with a knife or shovel. As a rule: one trunk - one separate plant. When dividing older bushes, 2-3 trunks are allowed for one new specimen.
Sections are sprinkled with ash or crushed coal.
The obtained parts of the rhizome should be planted immediately. Well-spilled planting pits with nutrient soil should be prepared in advance.
Fill the rhizomes with earth, tamp the surface, pour it again. After two weeks, the first nitrogen supplements can be performed. With this care, divided bushes quickly give shoots, delight their owners with flowering in the first season after planting.
Reproduction by layering and the grafting method should be left to professionals, since these methods will require not only skills and knowledge, but also special tools, patience, composure, that for gardeners amateur things are not always compatible. Especially when fast, reliable results are required.↑ to content ↑
Hibiscus pruning in autumn or spring when
is better It is important to know how garden hibiscus affects pruning, when it is produced, whether it is needed at all.
They say that young bushes should not be pruned. But it is not. Need to trim! It is necessary to begin to do this as early as possible in order to give the plant a shape, pomp, to increase flowering. After all, flower buds are laid only on young shoots.
Regular spring pruning is a necessary annual care. It is also called hygienic or stimulating. This pruning is recommended, starting in February, until the bushes or trees do not wake up, until sap flow begins. Do not be afraid to cut off the excess, the shoots of last year should be mercilessly shortened by 1/3 of their length. Your pet will thank you with a rich bookmark of flower buds.
Anti-aging pruning of hibiscus in autumn is carried out in adult specimens. For example, your bush has reached a huge size or is too thick. Cut out the old dry branches, thin the plant, leaving only the main skeletal.
Landscape designers advise the central branch to leave longer than others. The shape of the crown will be more attractive.
A tree can be formed into a crown by trimming, for example, to make it spherical.
Regular anti-aging pruning( every 3 years) will strengthen the skeleton of a shrub or tree.
What is hibiscus, the species of which were described above, you learned, got acquainted with the rules of caring for it, the features of pruning. Now you can decide on what kind of species your garden lacks, feel free to get yourself a Chinese beauty.содерж to the content ↑
Hibiscus - signs, superstitions, traditions
There are interesting facts about which it is impossible not to say.
They say that this flower has magical powers.
Someone calls him a flower of love - allegedly he gives a huge amount of energy that can resurrect a past love or light a new one in the family where it grows.
There is a scientific explanation for this, strangely enough: the nectar of a flower is an aphrodisiac, so that it can well strengthen family relationships.
And doctors say that everyone should have a hibiscus at home or in a garden, the beneficial properties of which are precisely in its exquisite aroma containing phytoncides that suppress certain carcinogens.
Well, the second loud popular name is hibiscus garden - the flower of death. Why? There are several reasons.
There is a legend that if a hibiscus bloomed out of time, got out of rhythm, then expect trouble.
Also a withering, drying plant supposedly portends a serious illness to one of the family members where it grows.
All this, of course, superstition. To believe or not is everyone's business.
Whatever superstition tells us, it is impossible to refuse to grow a beautiful flower.
There are interesting traditions associated with hibiscus from around the world. It is very interesting. For example, this plant is the national flower of several countries - Haiti, South Korea, and Malaysia.
And the Filipinos use it to make a base for soap bubbles, chopping the foliage and flowers until they get a sticky liquid.
Hibiscus flower is traditionally worn on the head of a girl and a woman in Hawaii. Moreover, if the flower in the hair on the left, then the woman is not free. And if the flower on the right, then this person is open to relationships.
Plant your garden hibiscus! Care and reproduction does not require much effort. Types and varieties of a huge amount. The color range will satisfy even the most demanding landscape designer. This wonderful plant will decorate your garden for many years, will make it unique, amazing.содерж to content ↑
Garden hibiscus - photo
Author: Anna Pasechnik