In most parts of Russia, tomatoes are problematic to grow in open ground. A greenhouse is good for adult plants - it produces several times larger crops, as well as , stretching the collection time. In this review, we consider the designs of home-made greenhouses, the necessary equipment and materials, especially the construction of facilities for growing tomatoes with their own hands.
Table of contents
- Can I grow tomatoes in a greenhouse?
- Choosing the right place
- Types of self-made greenhouses
- Advantages and disadvantages of self-made design
- How to make a simple greenhouse with your own hands?
- Size calculation
- Required materials
- Installation steps
Can I grow tomatoes in a greenhouse?
Is it a fairly large culture with easily damaged branches in a close structure? The place is not close. Let's go in order.
To germinate seeds, organize a moist soil in a warm place, protected from direct sunlight. Feeding with microelements is desirable.
If the greenhouses are characterized by forced heating, the greenhouse is heated differently.
Biological heating is heating using an exothermic process of oxidative rot. This is done like this:
- digging a hole meter depth;
- fill it with half layers of - straw, then fresh manure, straw is laid on top again;
- on top of this biofuel piled the ground with a layer of 25-35 cm ;
- on the filling put construction, the roof ;
- regularly water the soil with ( heated water - before warming up).
Biological heating works for 60-70 days. Straw and manure can be replaced with another organic mixture.
The greenhouse effect is associated with biological heating, working in tandem with it: carbon dioxide emitted from organic matter is heated by the sun’s rays, warming the soil, intensifying rotting at the same time. The saturation of the internal air with carbon dioxide and other gases( ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, methane, etc.), as well as moderately high temperatures accelerate the growth of plants.
In recent years, greenhouse earth is often used instead of commercial organic matter. Nevertheless, it is better to put organic waste on the bottom, sprinkling it with a purchased mixture on top.
Use light reflectors, various systems of warm greenhouses with artificial heating. This allows you to get a crop in the cold.
Choosing the right place.
. Avoiding shadowing, position the structure from east to west. Wind protection, straw insulation, earthen rampart, old logs, shields from the north side.
The tomato likes root respiration, the moisture is not sour soil. The plant is suitable light sandy soil. Sand is poured into heavy soil or light additives are used - perlite, vermiculite.
The soil requires rest or crop rotation( it is impossible to plant "tomato on tomato").
The best soil in which last year was grown onions, carrots, plants of the pumpkin family( for example, zucchini, cucumbers).before planting the soil in the greenhouse
Nitrogen fertilizers can not be abused. Instead of the ovaries and fruits get lush tops. The usual greenhouse soil is rich in organic fertilizers and vapors providing an excess of nitrogen. It is balanced by the introduction of other components of plant nutrition.
When planting seedlings, you can throw small fish( source of phosphorus) to the bottom of the hole, sprinkle with ashes( source of potassium and trace elements).Or use superphosphate, potash fertilizers. Later, to accelerate flowering and ovary, also recommend potash fertilizer or ash.
Seedlings of tomatoes are grown separately in a warm room. Then planted in ahead of time prepared, heated greenhouse. The distance between the plants in a row of 30 cm. The tall seedlings are placed in the wells a little to the side, after cutting off the lower leaves, sprinkled with earth, watered abundantly. When the water is absorbed, it is equal to dry earth so that there is no crust and no cracking.
The first 10 days do not water the tomatoes, then they water abundantly. For even irrigation, two-liter plastic bottles without a bottom that are stuck in the soil with the neck down( between two tomatoes under the root) are convenient. Regularly adding water to them, create a good microclimate, improve the condition of the soil.
It is desirable to mulch the soil. Scatter straw, sawdust, old foliage, pine needles or other material with a thin layer on top. Or - expanded clay, perlite.
Types of self-made greenhouses
Suitable for tomatoes conditions: shelter width of at least 1 meter, height of at least 0.75 m. The best reference point is the width of 3 m and height of 1.9 m( at the top).
Constructions, as they become more complex:
- film on the ground ( not suitable for tomato);
- cassette greenhouse ( also not suitable);
- a warm pit - with sufficient depth, the option is acceptable, but inconvenient - for example, a shower through the PP will flood the pit;
- film tunnel model - plastic, metal or composite arcs of pipes, fittings, on which the film is stretched;
- house - glazed knocked opening window frames;
- Butterfly - outwardly like a house, but knocked out of wood and film;
- bulk greenhouse - the same house or butterfly, but the greenhouse pit is not just in the ground, but inside the foundation, sometimes there is also forced heating.
House of Frames
The most important advantages of the self-made design of the
are that you use to make the plants, the plants, the most, the panel, the 3DDD, .
- high labor costs and time;
- part of materials, most likely purchased ;
- chasing low prices, the home-builder usually dramatically reduces the quality of - buys cheap cover material, poorly seals joints, does not optimally construct and ventilate the structure incorrectly.
Compromise( it is often the best) option: you can make the yourself, but you can create a reliable design only on the basis of purchased materials.
How to make a simple greenhouse with your own hands?
Having decided on the architectural solutions, materials, prices, choose the option. To reinforce the theory, it is advisable to consult a neighbor, watch a video tutorial.
The size of the greenhouse for tomatoes is dictated by the
- is sufficiently in height,
- in the middle of ( as long as it allows),
- in the middle - for ease of fire, for as many as possible, you can get to the ground with - ( );
To make a simple film tunnel greenhouse, they take 6 meter pipes, bending and inserting each into the pins, which are not fully fastened to the ground pins. A better option: pipes, such as polypropylene, with a knee connect 3 m, or better, 3.5 m.( Southern slope) x 2.5 m.( Northern slope), building in several spans connected by tubular arches.
For the polycarbonate construction there are solid standard sheets 210 cm wide and 6 or 12 long meters. Polycarbonate easily bends semi-arch( that is, a full arch of two sheets).It cuts well, but deteriorates quickly if the edges are not sealed. Polycarbonate is best immediately tightly inserted into the frame and sealed.
Glass windows made of window frames are popular. But, the shutters of different colors, partially assembled without boxes, are hard to customize. The greenhouse opens from the bottom, and such folding shutters should go in a row or be interrupted by the minimum width of the inserts. And the fracture of the roof requires adjustment. As a result, often the desired combination is selected from half of the frames.
The film is taken with a margin over the area, estimating its additional expenditure on:
- dusting with non-folding parts;
- door taps - around the flap, frame parts, under the stud rail;
- reserve for replacing with the breakage of wind.
Used construction elements:
- Light penetrating coatings, among which polyethylene - PE, polyvinyl chloride - PVC, ethylene vinyl acetate - EVA, polyisopropylene - PP.PP agrofibre is an expensive but excellent material: it scatters light( enhancing the greenhouse effect), allows water to pass( there is no “sweat”), selectively passes gases( airing is not required), retains heat well, resistant to wind, sun and rain.
- Supporting elements are often pipes that are mounted on pins stuck to the ground and covered with a folding canopy. They are bent by an arc, and if you use two pipes connected by a knee, then an arch. More options - frames or frames( glazed or polycarbonate), opening for ventilation, as well as wood( it is treated with suitable water repellents).
In addition to construction materials, do not forget about biofuels and a pit for it.
. Installation steps.
Materials are prepared ahead of time, starting from the pit for biofuels and for external heating, if provided.
The pit's sides, avoiding sprinkling, enclose an improvised basement of planks, with improvised or purchased sheet material. You can, of course, make a capital foundation, but this is already a greenhouse.
- having prepared construction materials, begin to install transverse structures( inserting plastic or glass, if provided);
- then add longitudinal reinforcing elements ;
- on the open end have a canopy with zippers, door;
- stretching film or nonwoven fabric;
- last but not least - powder of the edges, warming of the north side.
For smoothing temperature differences and gas concentrations, it is practical to to dig a container at the far end of the structure. For example, a 200 liter metal barrel with water( it is convenient to spend a little on watering).Or, a passage in the middle is formed of lying plastic bottles of water.
As you can see, greenhouse farming is a reliable basis for high tomato yield. And it is available even to a novice gardener. Good harvest!